2 views

Uploaded by HamzaJehad

capacitance

capacitance

© All Rights Reserved

- Project report sample (2).docx
- Siemens Catalog for the CB
- onkyo skw 540
- 10 Appendix A
- Dcdc Converters
- 2MBI100n (1)
- Derivation_pull_in_voltage.pdf
- Circuit Analysis
- formula 1
- levitron
- Serie
- How to Protect Capacitor Banks_ _ EEP
- 02-gravitation.pdf
- Using Eagle_ Schematic - Learn.sparkfun.com
- Vfc110 High Frequency Voltage to Frequency Converte
- SCADA
- sol3
- 2006 Paper Phy
- 84
- kisotisiki_E

You are on page 1of 27

this module, you should be

able to:

and voltage, and calculate the

capacitance for a parallel plate

capacitor given separation and area of

the plates.

Define dielectric constant and apply to

calculations of voltage, electric field

intensity, and capacitance.

Find the potential energy stored in

capacitors.

Maximum Charge on a

Conductor

pump electrons e- from a ground (earth) to a conductor

Battery

Earth

e-

Conductor

- - - - - e

----- -

There

There isis aa limit

limit to

to the

the amount

amount of

of charge

charge that

that aa

conductor

conductor can

can hold

hold without

without leaking

leaking to

to the

the air.

air.

There

There isis aa certain

certain capacity

capacity for

for holding

holding charge.

charge.

Capacitance

The

Thecapacitance

capacitanceCCof

ofaaconductor

conductorisis

defined

definedas

asthe

theratio

ratioof

ofthe

thecharge

chargeQQon

on

the

theconductor

conductorto

tothe

thepotential

potentialVV

produced.

produced.

Conductor

Battery

Earth

e- - - Q, V - e-

---

QQ

: :Coulombs

per

volt

Capacitanc CC ; ; Units

Units

Coulombs

per

volt

VV

e:

Capacitance in Farads

One farad (F) is the capacitance C of a conductor that

holds one coulomb of charge for each volt of potential.

QQ

coulomb

(C)

coulomb

(C)

CC ;; farad

(F)

farad (F)

VV

volt

volt (V)

(V)

con- ductor, the potential is 8 V. What is the

capacitance?

Q 40 C

C

V

8V

CC =

= 55 F

F

Capacitance of Spherical

Conductor

At surface of sphere:

Capacitance, C

kQ

kQ

kQ

EE 2 ;; VV kQ

rr 2

rr

r

+Q

1

k

Recall:

4 0

kQ

Q

And: V

r

4 0 r

Q

Q

C

V Q 4 0 r

E and V at surface.

Q

Capacitance: C

V

C

C 44

00rr

capacitance of a metal sphere of

radius 8 cm?

Capacitance, C

r

+Q

r = 0.08 m

Capacitance: C = 4r

-12

CC==8.90

x

10

8.90 x 10-12 FF

Note:

Note:The

The capacitance

capacitance depends

depends only

only on

on physical

physical paraparameters

meters (the

(the radius

radius r)r) and

and isis not

not determined

determined by

by either

either

charge

charge or

or potential.

potential.This

This isis true

true for

for all

all capacitors.

capacitors.

is needed to give a potential of 400 V?

Capacitance, C

r

+Q

r = 0.08 m

-12

CC ==8.90

x

10

8.90 x 10-12 FF

Q

C ; Q CV

V

Q (8.90 pF)(400 V)

Q

Q == 3.56

3.56 nC

nC

Note:

Note:The

The farad

farad (F)

(F) and

and the

the coulomb

coulomb (C)

(C) are

are

extremely

extremely large

large units

units for

for static

static electricity.

electricity.The

The SI

SI

prefixes

prefixes micro

micro ,

, nano

nano n,

n, and

and pico

pico pp are

are often

often used.

used.

Dielectric Strength

The dielectric strength of a material is

that electric intensity Em for which the

material becomes a conductor. (Charge

leakage.)

Em varies considerably with

r

physical and environmental

Q

conditions such as pressure,

Dielectric

humidity, and surfaces.

6

For

For air:

air: EEmm == 33 xx 10

106 N/C

N/C for

for spherical

spherical surfaces

surfaces

66

and

as

low

as

0.8

x

10

and as low as 0.8 x 10 N/C

N/C for

for sharp

sharp points.

points.

charge that can be placed on a

spherical surface one meter in

2

diameter?

m)

Maximum Q (R = 0.50

kQ

E r

r

Q

Air

Em = 3 x 106 N/C

Em

(3 x 106 N C)(0.50 m) 2

Q

9 Nm 2

9 x 10

C2

Qmm =

= 83.3

83.3 C

C

This

This illustrates

illustrates the

the large

large size

size of

of the

the coulomb

coulomb as

as aa

unit

unit of

of charge

charge in

in electrostatic

electrostatic applications.

applications.

The charge density on a surface is

significantly affected by the curvature. The

density of charge is greatest where the

curvature is greatest.

+ + + + ++

+ + +++

+

kQ

++

kQ

+

mm

+

+

+

+

+

EEmm 2

+

+

++ + + + +

+

2

rr

Leakage

Leakage (called

(called corona

corona discharge)

discharge) often

often occurs

occurs

at

at sharp

sharp points

points where

where curvature

curvature rr isis greatest.

greatest.

+Q

Area A

-Q

parallel

plates:

Q

V

C

and E

V

d

also:

Q is charge on either

EE

plate. A is area of

00 00AA

plate.

V

Q

E

d 0 A

And

Q

AA

Q

CC 00

VV

dd

plate capacitor have an area of

0.4 m2 and are 3 mm apart in air.

What is the capacitance?

Q

AA

Q

A

CC 00

VV

dd

0.4 m2

C

(8.85 x 10

-12 C2

Nm 2

)(0.4 m 2 )

(0.003 m)

CC==1.18

1.18 nF

nF

3 mm

Applications of Capacitors

A microphone converts sound waves into an

electrical signal (varying voltage) by changing d.

Changing d

Microphone

AA

CC 00

dd

QQ

VV

CC

Changing

++

Area

++

-- ++

- + A

---

Variable

Capacitor

area A alters capacitance until desired signal is obtained.

Dielectric Materials

Most capacitors have a dielectric material between

their plates to provide greater dielectric strength

and less probability for electrical discharge.

Eo

+

+

+ Air +

+

+

Co

reduced E

+-+-+ +

+-+-+ +-+-++

+

Dielectric

E < Eo

+

+- + +- + +

+- + +

C > Co

to be placed on the platesgreater capacitance C > Co.

Advantages of Dielectrics

Smaller

Smaller plate

plate separation

separation without

without contact.

contact.

Increases

Increases capacitance

capacitance of

of aa capacitor.

capacitor.

Higher

Higher voltages

voltages can

can be

be used

used without

without

breakdown.

breakdown.

Often

Often itit allows

allows for

for greater

greater mechanical

mechanical

strength.

strength.

Insertion of Dielectric

Air

Dielectric

Field decreases.

E < Eo

+Q

Co Vo Eo

-Q

+ +

+

+ +

+

Insertion of

a dielectric +Q

Same Q

Q = Qo

C V E

-Q

Voltage decreases.

V < Vo

Capacitance increases.

C > Co

+ +

Permittivity increases.

> o

Dielectric Constant, K

The dielectric constant K for a material is

the ratio of the capacitance C with this

material as compared with the

capacitanceCCo in a vacuum.

Dielectric

Dielectric

KK C

CC00

constant:

constant: KK =

=

11 for

for Air

Air

K can also be given in terms of voltage V,

electric field intensity E, or permittivity :

VV00 EE00

KK

VV EE 00

The Permittivity of a

Medium

capacitor with a dielectric can be found

from:

AA

AA

CC KC

or

KC00 or

or CC KK00

or CC

dd

dd

medium which relates to the density of

field lines.

2

KK00;;

00 8.85

8.85 xx 10

10

-12

-12 CC2

22

Nm

Nm

and the charge Q if connected to 200-V

battery. Assume the dielectric constant

is K = 5.0.

5(8.85 x 10-12C/Nm2)

-12 C2

Nm 2

A

0.5 m2

)(0.5 m )

A (44.25 x 10

C

d

0.002 m

CC =

= 11.1

11.1

nF

nF

Q if connected to V = 200

V?

Q = CV = (11.1 nF)(200

V)

2 mm

Q

Q=

= 2.22

2.22

C

C

between the plates. Recall Q = 2.22 C; V

= 200 V.

Q

Gauss ' law : E

A

A

0.5 m2

2.22 x 10-6 C

E

-12 C 2

(44.25 x 10 Nm2 )(0.5 m 2 )

EE =

= 100

100 N/C

N/C

found if E = V/d is used to find the

field.

200

V

2 mm

of 6F with air as the dielectric. A battery

charges the capacitor to 400 V and is then

disconnected. What is the new voltage if a

sheet of mica (K = 5) is inserted? What is

Air dielectric

C V0

V0?

new

capacitance

C

K

; V

C0 V

K

V

=

400

V

o

400 V

VV =

V

;

= 80.0

80.0

5

VV

Mica

C = Kco = 5(6 F)

dielectric

CC =

= 30

30

FF

Mica, K = 5

reconnected after insertion of the mica,

what additional charge will be added to

the plates due to the increased

AirCC?o = 6 F

Q0 = C0V0 = (6 F)(400

V) Q = 2400 C

Vo = 400 V

0

Q = CV = (30 F)(400

V)

Q = 12,000 C

Q = 12,000 C 2400

C

Q = 9600 C

Mica C = 30

F

Mica, K = 5

Q

Q=

= 9.60

9.60

mC

mC

Energy of Charged

Capacitor

The potential energy U of a

charged capacitor is equal to

the work (qV) required to charge

the capacitor.

If we consider the average

potential difference from 0 to Vf

to be V/2:

Work

Work =

= Q(V/2)

Q(V/2) =

=

QV

QV

22

Q

22

Q

1

1

1

1

U

QV

;

U

CV

;

U

U 22 QV ; U 22 CV ; U

22CC

capacitance to be 11.1 nF, the voltage

200 V, and the charge 2.22 C. Find the

potential energy U

.

2

2

Capacitor

U

U 1122CV

CV

of

2

U 1 2 (11.1 nF)(200 V)

Example

5C. = 11.1

nF

U

U=

= 222

222

J

J

Verify your answer from

the other formulas for

P.E.

22

QQ

UU QV

QV;; UU

22CC

11

22

200

V

U=?

Q = 2.22

C

Capacitor

volume (J/m3). For a capacitor of area A

and separation d, the energy density u

is found as follows:

U

U

Energy

u

A

d

Density u for

Vol. Ad

an E-field:

0 A

Recall C

and V Ed :

2

1

U Density

Energy

d

2 0 AdE

u

u:

2

1

A

Ad

Ad

2

2

0

u E

1

1

U 2 CV 2

( Ed )

Summary of Formulas

QQ

coulomb

(C)

coulomb

(C)

CC ;; farad

(F)

farad (F)

VV

volt

volt (V)

(V)

Q

AA

Q

CC KK00

C

44

C

00rr

VV

dd

CC VV00 EE00

22

1

1

KK

u

E

u

E

0

2

0

2

CC00 VV EE 00

22

Q

Q

11 QV ;

11 CV 22;

U

U 22 QV ; U 22 CV ; U

22CC

- Project report sample (2).docxUploaded byAwais004
- Siemens Catalog for the CBUploaded byAljan Abeto
- onkyo skw 540Uploaded byJorge Luis Calizaya Apaza
- 10 Appendix AUploaded byopenid_9mkewy6L
- Dcdc ConvertersUploaded bymurthy237
- 2MBI100n (1)Uploaded byAGNALDOJULIO
- Derivation_pull_in_voltage.pdfUploaded byFemi Prince
- Circuit AnalysisUploaded byLaw Zhan Hong
- formula 1Uploaded bymetin
- levitronUploaded byPreeti Kumari Sharma
- SerieUploaded bydarkyea
- How to Protect Capacitor Banks_ _ EEPUploaded by12343567890
- 02-gravitation.pdfUploaded bySandeep Tiwari
- Using Eagle_ Schematic - Learn.sparkfun.comUploaded bykrazzy4tech
- Vfc110 High Frequency Voltage to Frequency ConverteUploaded byJuan Gil Roca
- SCADAUploaded bySavreet Ottal
- sol3Uploaded byKyoung Su Lee
- 2006 Paper PhyUploaded byAashray Kotha
- 84Uploaded byชาย กลาง
- kisotisiki_EUploaded bykn2i2062
- CapacitorsUploaded bysuersh1_srivai
- Abs TrakUploaded byOktafian Prabandaru
- HH10DUploaded byQuiroz Edgar
- fabrication of electrostatic RF swithes.pdfUploaded byArvind Mishra
- Circuits Practice 1Uploaded byxiangli
- SpringSchool_Sci1+2Uploaded byMindsetLearn
- slup230Uploaded byJelena Todorovic
- vpp31Uploaded byŞuchïñ Bhikshu
- lm2596Uploaded byrov1976
- 10Uploaded byPriyanka Gupta

- KOHLER 18RESL 18 KW GENERATORUploaded byonsitepowergenerators.com
- 003-042e-12.15-8.0Uploaded byBernardo Lemos
- Samsung LNT4071F LNT4671F LNT5271F Parts and Service ManualUploaded bySir_Launcelot_007
- hts3569_98_pss_aen PHILIPS Home TheatreUploaded bysujithps
- 00428560-IDU 605 Hardware Description(V100R002_01)Uploaded byJean Batist
- FirUploaded byAhmed Hussain
- MIMOUploaded byfarrukhmohammed
- How Does Soft Start WorkUploaded byHemraj Singh Rautela
- datasheet atmega32.pdfUploaded byNgôTháiTuấnCường
- Tracking & position of mobileUploaded bySubir Maity
- PLL Frequency Synthesizer TutorialUploaded byQuốc Sự Nguyễn
- Elmo Siemens Catalog 2004.pdfUploaded byAhmed Sallah
- 37138_CUploaded byIrfan Ashraf
- CountrymanUploaded byjorgeguita
- Produktuebersicht 2008 01 EnUploaded byHeru Susanto
- Karthik Kalyani Resume v1Uploaded byKarthik V Kalyani
- OTEF Voltage Transformers 100 KV to 800 KV - Brochure GBUploaded byjoseandres999
- Modeling Electric Arc Furnace to Estimate Flicker Levels in Power Systems Using ATPUploaded byEstrada Gabriel
- Online Read Me Who BabaUploaded byJason Makiaris
- GE EUP Brochure FinalUploaded byPaul Davidson
- WL Quick Start GuideUploaded bytjchetty
- PLC zen 10-C1AR-V2Uploaded byteguhtriyanto
- TV Service manualUploaded byJosè Ramòn Silva Avilès
- sony hcd-gtx88Uploaded byCristobal Hernandez Toledo
- SM-G900H_Direy-6Uploaded byLuisAngelBenitez
- 10218 LG RAT375 RAS375F-W Mini Sistema Hi-Fi Con CD-USB Manual de ServicioUploaded byAnonymous E1aVCvdAC
- Electrical Power System SignangeUploaded byhendrex
- Commander Install Rev10!06!2Uploaded byF
- Unity_Manual.pdfUploaded byDavid Thomas
- Mccb PanelUploaded byanshori.mawardi766