You are on page 1of 17

THYROID GLAND

Size & Shape


One of the
largestendocrine glands.
Its weight is about 25
grams.
Its butter-fly shapped
organ.

Structure
Its formed of the following parts:
2 Lateral lobes each lobe is pearshaped. Each lobe is pyramidal in
shape, with its apex directed upward
and its base directed downward.
A narrow median isthmus connecting
the 2 lateral lobes.
A small pyramidal lobe, (28%-55% of
population), It is of conical shape and
extends from the upper part of the
isthmus, up across the thyroid cartilage
to thehyoid bone.

Location of the gland


Its Situated on the anterior side
of the neck, lying against and
around thelarynxandtrachea,
reaching posteriorly
theoesophagusandcarotid sheath. It
starts cranially at the oblique line on
thethyroid cartilage(just below the
laryngeal prominence, or 'Adam's
Apple'), and extends inferiorly to
approximately the fifth or
sixthtracheal ring.

Capsules of the thyroid gland


It has 2 Capsules:
True Fibrous capsule
enclosing the gland.
False fascial capsule
derived from the
pretrachial fascia.(Thickend
laterally forming the lat.
Ligament of berry which fixes
the gland to the cricoid
cartilage)

Relations of the gland


1.Relations of the isthmus.
2.Relations of the lateral lobes.

1. Relations of the isthmus.


The isthmus has 2 surfaces (Ant. & Post.) & 2 borders (Upper & lower)

Anterior Posterior
1. Skin &
superficial
fascia.
2. Ant. Jugular
veins.
3. Deep fascia.
4. Sternohyoid &
sternothyroid
muscles.

1. Trachea (2nd, 3rd &


4th rings)

Upper

Lower

1. Related to the
sup. Anastomotic
a. (between rt &
lft sup. Thyroid
aa)

1. Give rise to the Rt


& Lt Inf. Thyroid
veins.

2. The pyramidal
lobe may project
upwards from the
isthmus.

2. The thyroid ima a.


enters the lower
border.
3. An Inf.
Anasomotic a.
runs along the
lower border of
the isthmus.

Anterior
1. Skin &
superficial
fascia.
2. Ant. Jugular
veins.
3. Deep fascia.
4. Sternohyoid &
sternothyroid
muscles.

Upper
1. Related to the
sup. Anastomotic
a. (between rt &
lft sup. Thyroid
aa)
2. The pyramidal
lobe may project
upwards from the
isthmus.

Lower
1. Give rise to the Rt
& Lt Inf. Thyroid
veins.
2. The thyroid ima a.
enters the lower
border.
3. An Inf.
Anasomotic a.
runs along the
lower border of
the isthmus.

2. Relations of the lateral lobes.


each lobe has 3 surfaces:

Posterior

Medial

1. 2 Parathyroid glands 1. Its upper part related to:


A- Layrnx (thyroid &
( sup. & inf. )
cricoid cartilages &
embedded
in the
cricothyroid m.)
post. Surface.
B- Pharynx
2. 2 arteries:
A- Common Carotid
a. ( inside the carotid
sheath)
B- Inf. Thyroid a.
before it enters the
gland.

(Inf. Constrictor m.)


C- External laryngeal n.
2. Its lower part is related
to:
A- trachea
B- oesophagus
C- Recurrent laryngeal
n. in between

Anterolateral
1. Skin, superficial fascia &
deep fascia.
2. Its upper part is crossed
by sup. Belly of
omohyoid.
3. Its middle part is covered
by sternohyoid &
sternothyroid m.
4. Its lower part is
overlapped by the ant.
Border of sternomastoid.

Posterior
1. 2 Parathyroid glands
( sup. & inf. )
embedded
in the
post. Surface.
2. 2 arteries:
A- Common Carotid
a. ( inside the carotid
sheath)
B- Inf. Thyroid a.
before it enters the
gland.

Medial
1. Its upper part related to:
A- Layrnx (thyroid &
cricoid cartilages &
cricothyroid m.)
B- Pharynx
(Inf. Constrictor m.)
C- External laryngeal n.
2. Its lower part is related
to:
A- trachea
B- oesophagus
C- Recurrent laryngeal
n. in between

Anterolateral
1. Skin, superficial fascia &
deep fascia.
2. Its upper part is crossed
by sup. Belly of
omohyoid.
3. Its middle part is covered
by sternohyoid &
sternothyroid m.
4. Its lower part is
overlapped by the ant.
Border of sternomastoid.

Arterial supply to the gland


The thyroid is supplied with arterial
blood from the:
1. superior thyroid artery, a branch
of theexternal carotid artery.
2. inferior thyroid artery, a branch of
thethyrocervical trunk.
3. sometimes by thethyroid ima
artery, branching directly from
thesubclavian artery.

Venous Drainage
venous blood is drained via:

1. superior thyroid veins, emerges


from the apex of each lateral lobe,
draining in theinternal jugular vein.
2. Middle thyroid veins, emerges from
the lower part of each lat. Lobe.
3. inferior thyroid veins, emerges from
the isthmus & lower part of the lat.
Lobe. draining via the plexus
thyreoidea imparin the
leftbrachiocephalic vein.

Lymphatic drainage
The lymphatic of the gland drain
into:
1. Prelaryngeal L.Ns, infront of
cricothyroid memb.
2. Pretracheal L.Ns, infront of trachea.
3. Paratracheal L.Ns, alongside the
trachea.
4. Upper & lower deep cervical L.Ns,
along the I.J.V .
5. Brachiocephalic L.Ns.

Thank You
Done by:
Dr. Hamzeh Al-Battikhi