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RESEARCH IN LANGUGE TEACHING

ETHNOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Group 6:
Bahya Alfitri
Panca Indah.W
Saris Firma
Yesa Listika
Lecturer : Episiasi, M.Pd

Defining Ethnographic Research

Ethnographic research is the work of


describing cultures, aimed at understanding
another way of life from the native point of
view, understanding how other people see
their experience, learning from people
rather than studying people (Spradley, J.P.,
1979:3)

Characteristics of Ethnographic
Research
Hammersley, M (1998:2) present 5 characteristic of
Ethnographic research as follows.
Peoples

behavior is studied in everyday context,

rather than under conditions created by the research,


such as in experiments.
Data

are gathered from a range of sources, but

observation ad/or relatively informal conversations


are usually the main ones.

The

approach to data collection is unstructured

in the sense that it does not involve following


through a detailed plan set up at the beginning.
The

focus is usually a small number case,

perhaps a setting or group of people of relatively


small scale.
The

analysis

of

the

data

involves

the

interpretation of the meanings and functions of


human actions

Methods Used in Ethnographic research

Typical Ethnographic research employs three


kinds of data collection: interviews, observation,
and documents.

Data Analysis in Ethnographic


research
Triangulation
Patterns
Key

Events

Visual

Representations

Statistics
Crystallization

Guidelines for Ethnographic


research
Following are some generic guidelines for conducting
Ethnographic research by Genzuk, M (1999:8)
Be

descriptive in taking field notes

Gather

a variety of information from different perspectives

Cross-validate

and triangulate by gathering different kind of

data.
Use

quotations; represent program participants in their own

terms.
Select
Be

key informants wisely and use them carefully.

aware of and sensitive to the different stages of fieldwork

Build
Stay

trust and rapport at the entry stage.

alert and disciplined during the more routine middlephase

of fieldwork
Focus

on pilling together a useful synthesis as fieldwork draws

to a close
Be

disciplined and conscientious in taking detailed field notes

at all stages of work


Be

as involved as possible in experiencing the observed setting

as fully as possible while maintaining an analytical perspective


grounded in the purpose of the fieldwork: to conduct research

Clearly

separate description from interpretation and

judgment
Provide

formative feedback as part of the verification

process of fieldwork
Time

that feedback carefully. Observe is impact

Include

in your field notes and observations reports of

your own experiences, thoughts, and feelings. These are


also field data.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethnographic Research

key strength of ethnographic research is that it

provides a much more comprehensive perspective


than other forms of educational research.
It

is

highly

dependent

on

the

particular

researchers observations. Furthermore, some


observer bias is almost impossible to eliminate.
Lastly, generalization is practically nonexistent.

Historical Research

In Historical research, there is no manipulation or


control of variables like there is in experimental
research, but more particularly, it is unique in that it
focuses primarily on the past.

Advantages and Disadvantages


of Historical Research
The

main advantage of historical research is that it

permits the investigation of topics that could be studied


in no other way. It is the only research method that can
study evidence from the past.

A disadvantage is that controlling for many of the


threats to internal validity is not possible in historical
research.