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Registration
Call Establishment
Handover or Handoff
Security

(i)Registration
Step
Step
Step
Step

1 to Step 4 ----5 to Step 8 ----9 to Step 11 --12 ---------------

Registration between MS & BSS


NSS authenticates the MS
TMSI assigned in VLR and HLR
Transmission starts

Registration Procedure Table:

(ii)Call Establishment
Five Step Procedure:
(i) Dialing a number PSTN
(ii) PSTN Routing Algorithm Best Connection to the
destination
(iii) Acknowledgement
(iv) Waiting Tone
(v) Establish the traffic line

Two Separate Procedures:


(i) Mobile to Fixed
(ii) Fixed Telephone to Mobile

(ii)Call Establishment..
Mobile originated Call

(ii)Call Establishment..
Mobile Terminated Call:

(iii) Handover or Handoff


Handoff also Called as - Handover
Process of Switchover to the weak signal BS to Strong Signal
BS

Two types of Handover:


(i) Internal
External

(ii)

(iv) Security

To Prevent fraud through authentication


To Avoid revealing the user number and Encrypt
conversations
It is Achieved by Secret algorithms in GSM

GPRS and Higher Data Rates

What is GPRS
Advantages of GPRS
Three Types of Terminals in GPRS
Limitations of GPRS
GPRS Network Services
GPRS Architecture
Mobility Support in GPRS
Protocol Layers in GPRS

What is GPRS

GPRS is an enhancement of GSM


A new bearer service for GSM that greatly improves and
simplifies wireless access to packet data networks,e.g to
the internet.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented
mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular
communication system's global system for mobile
communications (GSM).
Services are provided based on Capacity on demand
principle

Advantages of GPRS

Easy to Scale
Support for Voice/data and data only
High Throughput
User Friendly

Three Types of Terminals in GPRS

Class A Terminals Operates both GPRS and GSM Services


Simultaneously
Class B Terminals Monitor All Services, but operate either
GPRS or GSM
Class C Terminals Operates only GPRS Service

Limitations of GPRS

Limited Cell Capacity for All Users


Speed is Lower
No Storage and Forward Service( When MS is not Available)

GPRS Network Services

PTM- M
Multi cast Service to all Subscribers in a given

area
PTM G
may be
PTP

Multicast Service to predetermined group that


dispersed over a geographic area

PTP is Packet data transfer


Two types of PTP
(i) PTP CLNS
(Connectionless)
(ii) PTP CONS (Connection
Oriented)

GSM System Architecture

BTS
GMSC

BSC
MSC

BTS
BSC
BTS

EIR

AUC

HLR

VLR

GPRS Architecture

GPRS Architecture
GSN (GPRS Support Nodes) Responsible for Delivery and
Routing of data packets between MS & External Packet n/w
Two Types of GSN
(i) Serving GPRS Support node (SGSN)
(ii) Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
GR Stores Routing Information and maps the IMSI to a PDN
Address
Three Interfaces
(i) Um interface
Connects the MS & BSS
(ii) Gb interface
Connects the BSS & SGSN
(iii) Gn interface Connects the SGSN & GGSN
SGSN act as a Router
GGSN act as a Logical interface to the internet

Mobility Support in GPRS

Attachment Procedure
Location and Handoff Management
Power Control and Security

Protocol Layers in
GPRS
SNDCP
To adapt the different characteristics of
underlying networks
GTP To transfer the data between GSN
LLC
To Achieve high reliability of packet transfer b/w
SGSN and MS
BSSGP
To Convey routing & QoS related Information
b/w the BSS & SGSN
RLC To Provide a reliable Link

GPRS Logical Channels


Group

Channel

Packet data
Traffic channel

PDTCH

Packet broadcast
control channel

PBCCH

Packet common
Control Channel
(PCCCH)

Packet Dedicated
Control Channels

Function
Data Traffic

Direction
MS

BSS

Broadcast Control

MS

BSS

PRACH

Random Access

MS

BSS

PAGCH

Access Grant

MS

BSS

PPCH

Paging

MS

BSS

PNCH

Notification

MS

BSS

PACCH

Associated Control

MS

BSS

PTCCH

Timing Advance Control

MS

BSS

Uplink Data Transfer


MS
PRACH or RACH
PAGCH or AGCH
PACCH
PACCH

PDTCH
PACCH
PDTCH
PACCH

BSS
Packet channel Request
Packet Immediate assignment
Packet resource Request
Packet resource assignment
Random Access

Frame Transmission
Negative Acknowledgement
Retransmission of blocks in error
Acknowledgement

Transmission

Downlink Data Transfer


MS

BSS

Packet paging request


PPCH or PCH
PRACH or RACH
PAGCH or AGCH
PACCH
PACCH or PAGCH

PDTCH
PACCH
PDTCH
PACCH

Packet channel Request


Packet Immediate assignment
Packet paging response
Packet resource assignment
Paging

Frame Transmission
Negative Acknowledgement
Retransmission of blocks in error
Acknowledgement

Transmission

Short Message Services in


GPRS
What is SMS
Service Description
Overview of SMS Operation

What is SMS
It Was Developed as Part of GSM Phase 2 Specifications
Operated over all GSM networks

Service Description

It Provide two Services


(i) Delivery Services (If the Destination MS is active)
(ii) Forward Services (If the MS is active)

Types of Services Specified


(i) Cell broad cast service(one way
service)
(ii) PTP Service(two way service)

Overview of SMS Operation