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MK.

PENGELOLAAN SDALH

PROBLEMATIK
LINGKUNGAN:
SEBAB-SEBAB
DAN
SUSTAINABILITAS

Diunduh dari: smno.psdl.ppsub.2012/13.

Lingkungan hidup

Lingkungan hidup, sering disebut sebagai lingkungan,


adalah istilah yang dapat mencakup segala makhluk hidup
dan tak hidup di alam yang ada di Bumi atau bagian dari
Bumi, yang berfungsi secara alami tanpa campur tangan
manusia yang berlebihan.
Lawan dari lingkungan hidup adalah lingkungan buatan,
yang mencakup wilayah dan komponen-komponennya yang
banyak dipengaruhi oleh manusia.
diunduh dari: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingkungan_hidup

Lingkungan binaan atau lingkungan terbangun adalah suatu


lingkungan yang ditandai dominasi struktur buatan manusia.
Sistem lingkungan binaan bergantung pada asupan energi,
sumberdaya, dan rekayasa manusia untuk dapat bertahan.
Dalam perencanaan kota, instilah ini memberikan kesimpulan
bahwa sebagian besa lingkungan yang dipakai manusia adalah
lingkungan buatan, dan lingkungan buatan ini harus diatur agar
dapat mempertahankan hidup manusia dengan baik.

Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingkungan_buatan..

Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan


Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) adalah
kajian mengenai dampak besar dan penting suatu usaha
dan/atau kegiatan yang direncanakan pada
lingkungan hidup yang diperlukan bagi proses pengambilan
keputusan tentang penyelenggaraan usaha dan/atau
kegiatan di Indonesia.
AMDAL ini dibuat saat perencanaan suatu proyek yang
diperkirakan akan memberikan pengaruh terhadap
lingkungan hidup di sekitarnya.
Lingkungan hidup yang dimaksudkan di sini adalah aspek
Abiotik, Biotik, dan Kultural.
Dasar hukum AMDAL adalah Peraturan Pemerintah No. 27
Tahun 1999 tentang "Analisis Mengenai Dampak
Lingkungan Hidup".

Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analisis_Mengenai_Dampak_Lingkungan..

KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN
Kerusakan lingkungan adalah deteriorasi lingkungan dengan
hilangnya sumber daya air, udara, dan tanah; kerusakan ekosistem
dan punahnya fauna liar. Kerusakan lingkungan adalah salah satu
dari sepuluh ancaman yang secara resmi diperingatkan oleh High
Level Threat Panel dari PBB.
The World Resources Institute (WRI), UNEP (United Nations
Environment Programme), UNDP (United Nations Development
Programme), dan Bank Dunia telah melaporkan tentang pentingnya
lingkungan dan kaitannya dengan kesehatan manusia, pada tanggal
1 Mei 1998.

Kerusakan lngkungan terdiri dari berbagai tipe. Ketika


alam rusak dihancurkan dan sumber daya menghilang,
maka lingkungan sedang mengalami kerusakan.
Environmental Change and Human Health, bagian
khusus dari laporan World Resources 1998-99
menjelaskan bahwa penyakit yang dapat dicegah dan
kematian dini masih terdapat pada jumlah yang sangat
tinggi. Jika perubahan besar dilakukan demi kesehatan
manusia, jutaan warga dunia akan hidup lebih lama.
Di negara termiskin, satu dari lima anak tidak bisa
bertahan hidup hingga usia lima tahun, terutama
disebabkan oleh penyakit yang hadir karena keadaan
lingkungan yang tidak baik. Sebelas juta anak-anak
meninggal setiap tahunnya, terutama disebabkan oleh
malaria, diare, dan penyakit pernapasan akut, penyakit
yang sesungguhnya sangat mungkin untuk dicegah.

Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerusakan_lingkungan..

Pengertian dan Definisi Dampak


Dampak secara sederhana bisa diartikan sebagai pengaruh atau
akibat. Dalam setiap keputusan yang diambil oleh seorang atasan
biasanya mempunyai dampak tersendiri, baik itu dampak positif
maupun dampak negatif. Dampak juga bisa merupakan proses
lanjutan dari sebuah pelaksanaan pengawasan internal. Seorang
pemimpin yang handal sudah selayaknya bisa memprediksi jenis
dampak yang akan terjadi atas sebuah keputusan yang akan
diambil.
KAMUS BESAR BAHASA INDONESIA
Dampak adalah pengaruh kuat yang mendatangkan akibat,
baik negatif maupun positif

Diunduh dari : http://www.jrablog.com/2011/02/16-stages-of-project-developmentwork.html ..

DAMPAK PENTING
Lampiran
Keputusan Kepala Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan
No. 56 Tahun 1994 Tanggal 18 Maret 1994
Dampak penting adalah perubahan lingkungan yang sangat
mendasar yang diakibatkan oleh suatu usaha atau kegiatan; Pasal 16
UU Nomor 4 Tahun 1982, menyatakan bahwa setiap rencana
kegiatan yang diperkirakan akan mempunyai dampak penting
terhadap lingkungan wajib dilengkapi dengan AMDAL.
Dampak penting suatu usaha atau kegiatan menurut Penjelasan Pasal 16
UU Nomor 4 Tahun 1982, dan Pasal 2 dan Pasal 3 PP Nomor 51 Tahun
1993 ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor berikut:
1. Jumlah manusia yang akan terkena dampak,
2. Luas wilayah persebaran dampak,
3. Lamanya dampak berlangsung,
4. Intensitas dampak,
5. Banyaknya komponen lingkungan lainnya yang akan terkena
dampak,
6. Sifat kumulatif dampak,
7. Berbalik atau tidak berbaliknya dampak.

Penilaian pentingnya dampak terhadap lingkungan


atas dasar kemungkinan timbulnya dampak positif
atau dampak negatif tak boleh dipandang sebagai
faktor yang masingmasing berdiri sendiri, melainkan
harus diperhitungkan bobotnya guna
dipertimbangkan hubungan timbal baliknya untuk
mengambil keputusan.

Diunduh dari : ..

MASALAH LINGKUNGAN
Beberapa masalah lingkungan yang terjadi akibat aktivitas manusia:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.

15.
16.

Perubahan iklim Pemanasan global Asap global Bahan bakar fosil Kenaikan
permukaan laut Gas rumah kaca Peningkatan keasaman laut
Konservasi Kepunahan spesies Penurunan jumlah polinator Pemutihan koral
Kejadian kepunahan holosen Spesies invasif Perburuan liar Spesies terancam
Bendungan Dampak lingkungan dari bendungan
Energi Konservasi energi Energi terbarukan Penggunaan energi yang efisien
Komersialisasi energi terbarukan
Rekayasa genetik Polusi genetik Kontroversi makanan hasil modifikasi genetik
Pertanian intensif Penggembalaan berlebihan Irigasi Monokultur Dampak
lingkungan dari produksi daging
Degradasi lahan Polusi tanah Desertifikasi
1. Tanah Konservasi tanah Erosi tanah Kontaminasi tanah Salinasi tanah
Penggunaan lahan Urbanisasi Fragmentasi habitat Penghancuran habitat
Nanoteknologi Nanotoksikologi Polusi nano
Masalah nuklir Keruntuhan nuklir Pelelehan nuklir Energi nuklir Sampah
radioaktif
Populasi berlebihan Kuburan
Pelubangan ozon CFC
Polusi Polusi cahaya Polusi suara Polusi visual
1. Polusi air Hujan asam Eutrofikasi Polusi laut Pembuangan sampah ke
laut Tumpahan minyak Polusi termal Krisis air Sampah laut Peningkatan
keasaman laut Polusi kapal Air limbah
2. Polusi udara Kabut asap Ozon troposferik Kualitas udara dalam ruangan
Bahan organik volatil Materi partikulat Sulfur dioksida
Penghilangan sumber daya alam Eksploitasi sumber daya alam
1. Konsumerisme Kapitalisme konsumen Konsumsi berlebihan
2. Penangkapan ikan Peledakkan Pukat dasar laut Penangkapan ikan
dengan sianida Jaring hantu Penangkapan ikan ilegal, tidak dilaporkan, dan
tidak diatur Penangkapan ikan berlebihan Sirip hiu Penangkapan ikan paus
3. Penebangan hutan Penebangan habis Deforestasi Penebangan hutan
ilegal
4. Pertambangan Drainase tambang asam Pertambangan terbuka
Racun klorofluorokarbon DDT Gangguan kelenjar endokrin Dioksin Logam
berat Herbisida Pestisida Limbah beracun Bifenil terklorinasi Akumulasi biologi
Biomagnifikasi
Limbah E-waste Sampah Pembuangan sampah sembarangan Sampah lautan
Tempat pembuangan akhir Leachate Daur ulang Insinerasi

17. Kebakaran hutan

Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_masalah_lingkungan..

PERTUMBUHAN EKSPONENSIAL

Slow start, rapid increase


Human population
2007 ~ 6.7 billion people
Projections
225,000 people per day
Add population of U.S. < 4 years
2050 ~ 9.2 billion people

The human population growth showed an exponential increase, with our global
population now at nearly 7 billion people. Check out the Worldometer for current
(real-time) population statisitcs.
Worldmapper has some interesting thematic maps showing the size of each country
relative to different statistics for example population, infant mortality, life span or
income. One good example of how a human population exceeded its carrying
capacity is Easter Island.
The Mystery of Easter Island describes how a once flourishing civilisation was
reduced to starvation, disease, war and cannabilism. This was also the title of an
excellent documentary. We also discussed the article More than 100 million women
are missing and Where did 100 million missing women go?

Diunduh dari : http://vcebiology.edublogs.org/2009/09/16/population-growth/..

PERTUMBUHAN EKSPONENSIAL

Resource consumption, degradation, depletion


Possible results
Huge amount of pollution and wastes
Disrupt economies
Loss of species, farm land, water supplies
Climate change
Political fallout.
Population Growth

The growth of population is measured as increase in its size over a period of time
and populations show characteristic patterns of growth with time. These patterns are
known as population growth forms.

Diunduh dari : http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/bioticcommunity/population-growth.php#..

KEHIDUPAN PADA JAMAN EKSPONENSIAL

Diunduh dari : ..

PENYELESAIAN MASALAH
Memahami lingkungan
Mempraktekkan kelestarian-keberlanjutan
Root Cause Analysis
The indoor environment in any building is a result of the interaction between the site,
climate, building systems (original design, later modifications in the structure and
mechanical systems), construction techniques, contaminant sources (building
materials and furnishings, moisture, processes and activities within the building, and
outdoor sources), and building occupants. When a problem arises which is
attributed to the building's indoor environment, the ensuing investigation will,
necessarily, need to consider all of the possible factors which contribute to that
environment.

Diunduh dari : http://www.ictm.com/Investigation/Root-Cause.aspx..

Apakah Masyarakat yang ramah lingkungan ?


KONSEP 1-1A
Hidup dan ekonomi kita bergantung pada energi dari matahari
(solar capital) dan sumberdaya alam serta jasa-jasanya
(natural capital) yang disediakan oleh bumi.
KONSEP 1-1B
Kehidupan lestari berarti kehidupan yang bertumpu pada income
alamiah bumi, tanpa mengurangi atau merusak modal alam
yang menghasilkan income tersebut.
The Sustainable Society Index, SSI (www.ssfindex.com), shows at a
glance the level of sustainability of the country. It shows in a simple way
the distance to full sustainability for each of the 24 indicators that build up
the SSI. The SSI is based on the well-known Brundtland definition and is
built up by 24 indicators. These can be aggregated into 8 categories, the 3
wellbeing dimensions and finally into one overall index.

Diunduh dari : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_Society_Index..

Mengkaji konseksi-koneksi yang terjadi di


Alam

Environment
Environmental science
Ecology
Environmentalism

WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES?


Environmental Studies is concerned with the interactions between human beings
and the environment. It is interdisciplinary in the sense that the field is related to
many branches of the natural and human sciences and environmental studies
graduates go on to address many interdisciplinary problems.
Topics in Environmental Studies include: sustainability and development;
environmental justice; biological conservation; environmental theology; natural and
environmental history; environmental ethics; environmental thought; environmental
sociology and psychology; human ecology; social movements and political ecology;
environmental education and communication; risk policy and perception;
environmental policy and law; native studies; animal rights and welfare; technology
and cultural studies; gender, labour, race and the environment; international
development; public participation; ecocriticism; deep ecology; and environmental
literature.

Diunduh dari :http://www.kingsu.ca/academic-programs/majors/environmentalstudies.html ..

ETIKA LINGKUNGAN
Krisis lingkungan hidup yang dihadapi manusia modern merupakan akibat
langsung dari pengelolaan lingkungan hidup yang nir-etik. Artinya, manusia
melakukan pengelolaan sumber-sumber alam hampir tanpa peduli pada
peran etika. Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa krisis ekologis yang
dihadapi umat manusia berakar dalam krisis etika atau krisis moral.
Umat manusia kurang peduli pada norma-norma kehidupan atau mengganti
norma-norma yang seharusnya dengan norma-norma ciptaan dan
kepentingannya sendiri. Manusia modern menghadapi alam hampir tanpa
menggunakan hati nurani.
Alam begitu saja dieksploitasi dan dicemari tanpa merasa bersalah.

Etika Lingkungan disebut juga Etika Ekologi.


Etika Ekologi selanjutnya dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu etika ekologi dalam
dan etika ekologi dangkal.
Selain itu etika lingkungan juga dibedakan lagi sebagai etika pelestarian
dan etika pemeliharaan.
Etika pelestarian adalah etika yang menekankan pada mengusahakan
pelestarian alam untuk kepentingan manusia, sedangkan etika
pemeliharaan dimaksudkan untuk mendukung usaha pemeliharaan
lingkungan untuk kepentingan semua mahluk.
Etika ekologi dalam adalah pendekatan terhadap lingkungan yang melihat
pentingnya memahami lingkungan sebagai keseluruhan kehidupan yang
saling menopang, sehingga semua unsur mempunyai arti dan makna yang
sama.
Etika ekologi dangkal adalah pendekatan terhadap lingkungan yang
menekankan bahwa lingkungan sebagai sarana untuk kepentingan
manusia, yang bersifat antroposentris. Etika ekologi dangkal ini biasanya
diterapkan pada filsafat rasionalisme dan humanisme serta ilmu
pengetahuan mekanistik yang kemudian diikuti dan dianut oleh banyak ahli
lingkungan.
Kebanyakan para ahli lingkungan ini memiliki pandangan bahwa alam
bertujuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup manusia.

Diunduh dari : http://www.sman2-tsm.sch.id/2010/03/etika-lingkungan-materi-dasar-

BIOLOGI
Secara definitif lingkungan berarti semua faktor-faktor luar, fisik dan
biologis yang secara langsung berpengaruh terhadap ketahanan
hidup, pertumbuhan, perkembangan dan reproduksi organisme.
Biologi merupakan suatu ilmu yang berusaha menjelaskan mengenai
organisme dengan membagi ke dalam hirarkhi mulai dari kesatuan
unsur yang berupa molekul di dalam sel hingga lingkungan
(invironment) yang berarti ke dunia luar sekeliling suatu organisme,
demikian Haeckel memberi acuan.
Oleh karena itu membicarakan lingkungan dapat menjelaskan dunia
luar sekeliling subyek organisme yang dimaksud; apakah
mikroorganisme, tumbuhan, hewan/binatang dan/atau manusia.
Biologi lingkungan atau Ekologi menekankan bagaimana faktor-faktor
luar mempengaruhi organisme dan bagaimana pula organisme itu
mengubah keadaan sekelilingnya
(McNaughton and Wolf, 1994).
Pada tataran pengelolaan lingkungan di sekeliling kita, konsep dari
agama, dalam hal ini Islam, berusaha mendekatkan diri terhadap konsepkonsep ilmu alam dan petunjuk agama adalah sama-sama memiliki sifat
universal.
Usaha ini ditujukan kepada pemberian nilai terhadap pengelolaan
lingkungan agar tidak terjebak kepada tujuan sesaat yang terkadang
bergeser dari kepentingan keseluruhan populasi ke arah individu atau
komunitas tertentu bahkan sebuah kelompok kecil dalam berbagai aspek
kehidupan manusia.
Pengelolaan lingkungan dimaksud untuk lestarinya daya dukung
lingkungan terhadap kita dan generasi mendatang, populer dengan istilah
pembangunan berkelanjutan (sustainable development).
Diunduh dari : http://damarkota.com/amdal/lingkungn.htm..

EKOLOGI
Ekologi merupakan salah satu ilmu dasar bagi ilmu lingkungan.
Kajian ekologi melingkupi semua makhluk hidup dan benda-benda
mati yang ada di dalamnya termasuk tanah, air, udara dll.
Komponen-komponen lingkungan yang ditempati berbagai jenis
makhluk hidup tersebut saling mempengaruhi dan dipengaruhi.
Ekologi mengkaji interaksi dan hubungan antara manusia dengan
lingkungan hidupnya.

Ekologi dan Ilmu Lingkungan


Ekologi yang pertama kali berasal dari seorang biologi Jerman Ernest
Haeckel, 1869. Berasal dari bahasa Yunani Oikos (rumah tangga) dan
logos (ilmu), secara harfiah ekologi berarti ilmu tentangg rumah tangga
makhluk hidup. Yang merupakan makhluk hidup adalah lingkungan hidupnya.
Miller dalam Darsono (1995): Ekologi adalah ilmu tentang hubungan timbal
balik antara organisme dan sesamanya serta dengan lingkungan tempat
tinggalnya.
Odum dalam Darsono (1995): Ekologi adalah kajian struktur dan fungsi alam,
tentang struktur dan interaksi antara sesame organism dengan lingkungannya
dan ekologi adalah kajian tentang rumah tangga bumi termasuk flora, fauna,
mikroorganisme dan manusia yang hidup bersama saling tergantung satu
sama lain
Soemarwoto dalam Darsono (1995) Ekologi adalah ilmu tentang hubungan
timbal balik antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya.
Resosoedarmo dkk, (1985): ekologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan
timbal balik antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya.

Ilmu lingkungan sebenarnya ialah ekologi yang menerapkan berbagai asas


dan konsepnya untuk mengkaji masalah-masalah yang lebih luas, yang
menyangkut hubungan manusia dengan lingkungannya.
Diunduh dari : http://www.gudangmateri.com/2010/06/ekologi-lingkunganhidup.html..

GEOLOGI
Geologi lingkungan merupakan pengetahuan alam yang mempelajari bumi
meliputi bagian komposisi, keterbentukan, dan sejarahnya.
Pemahaman mengenai geologi lingkungan sebagai salah satu aspek
pengelolaan memiliki peranaan yang penting dalam kegiatan pengelolaan
lingkungan.
Geologi lingkungan itu dapat dikategorikan lagi ke dalam 3 kategori, yaitu:
Fisika yaitu geografi fisik, proses hidrologi, tipe batuan dan tanah, klimatologi,
Biologi meliputi aktivitas hewan dan tanaman, perubahan dalam proses dan
kondisi biologi, informasi biologi tentang analisis ruang; serta Sumberdaya
manusia, seperti penggunaan tanah, ekonomi, dan estetika.

Tujuh konsep dasar ilmu geologi lingkungan, yaitu:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Bumi merupakan suatu sistem tertutup.


Bumi adalah satu-satunya tempat kehidupan manusia, namun sumber daya
alamnya terbatas.
Proses-proses alam yang terjadi sekarang mengubah bentang alam yang
telah tersusun selama periode geologi, baik secara alamiah maupun
buatan.
Selalu ada proses alam yang membahayakan dan mengancam kehidupan
manusia.
Pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan dan air harus diusahakan untuk
mendapatkan keseimbangan antara pertimbangan ekonomi dengan
penilaian estetika.
Efek dari pengelolaan lahan sifatnya kumulatif, oleh karena itu kita
mempunyai kewajiban untuk menerima dan menanggungnya.
Komponen dasar dari setiap lingkungan manusia adalah faktor geologi, dan
pemahaman terhadap lingkungannya membutuhkan wawasan dan
penafsiran yang luas terhadap ilmu bumi dan ilmu lain yang berkaitan.

Diunduh dari : http://hilaliyah.students-blog.undip.ac.id/2012/03/16/7-konsep-dasargeologi-lingkungan/..

DEMOGRAFI
Kependudukan atau demografi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari
dinamika kependudukan manusia.
Kajian demografi meliputi ukuran, struktur, dan distribusi penduduk,
serta bagaimana jumlah penduduk berubah setiap waktu akibat
kelahiran, kematian, migrasi, serta penuaan.
Analisis kependudukan dapat merujuk masyarakat secara
keseluruhan atau kelompok tertentu yang didasarkan kriteria seperti
pendidikan, kewarganegaraan, agama, atau etnisitas tertentu.

Penduduk atau warga suatu negara atau daerah bisa didefinisikan


menjadi dua:
Orang yang tinggal di daerah tersebut
Orang yang secara hukum berhak tinggal di daerah tersebut. Dengan kata
lain orang yang mempunyai surat resmi untuk tinggal di situ. Misalkan bukti
kewarganegaraan, tetapi memilih tinggal di daerah lain.
Dalam sosiologi, penduduk adalah kumpulan manusia yang menempati
wilayah geografi dan ruang tertentu.
(diunduh dari: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penduduk)

Pertumbuhan penduduk adalah perubahan populasi sewaktu-waktu, dan


dapat dihitung sebagai perubahan dalam jumlah individu dalam sebuah
populasi menggunakan "per waktu unit" untuk pengukuran. Sebutan
pertumbuhan penduduk merujuk pada semua spesies, tapi selalu mengarah
pada manusia, dan sering digunakan secara informal untuk sebutan
demografi nilai pertumbuhan penduduk, dan digunakan untuk merujuk
pada pertumbuhan penduduk dunia.
Model pertumbuhan penduduk meliputi Model Pertumbuhan Malthusian dan
model logistik.
(diunduh dari: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pertumbuhan_penduduk

Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demografi..

EKONOMI
Ekonomi lingkungan atau ilmu ekonomi lingkungan adalah ilmu yang
mempelajari perilaku atau kegiatan manusia dalam memanfaatkan Sumber
Daya Alam (SDA) dan lingkungannya yang terbatas sehingga fungsi atau
peranan SDA dan lingkungan tersebut dapat dipertahankan dan bahkan
penggunaannya dapat ditingkatkan dalam jangka panjang atau berkelanjutan.
Dari sudut pandang ekonomi, masalah lingkungan timbul, karena biaya
lingkungan tidak dimasukkan ke dalam biaya produksi, sehingga
menyebabkan kerugian bagi orang lain atau pasar.
Masalah lingkungan menyebabkan inefisiensi alokasi sumber daya alam dan
lingkungan dalam proses produksi.
Dalam konteks tersebut, SDA dan lingkungan menjadi (1)penyedia bahan
baku (2)penyedia fasilitas (3) wadah untuk limbah.

Pencemaran lingkungan yang menimbulkan biaya, berdampak pada:


1. Menurunnya kuantitas SDA dan lingkungan sebagai penyedia
bahan baku
2. Menurunnya kualitas SDA dan lingkungan sebagai fungsi dasar
ekologis
3. Menimbulkan ketidaknyamanan pada manusia
4. Memberikan dampak yang buruk kepada kesehatan dan
produktivitas

Beberapa metode yang lazim digunakan untuk menilai, apakah


perilaku atau kegiatan manusia tersebut layak atau tidak
adalah :
Metode Analisis Biaya Manfaat (Benefit Cost Analysis), di
mana manfaat adalah nilai barang/jasa bagi konsumen.
Sedangkan biaya adalah manfaat yang hilang/dilepas/tidak
diambil (opportunity cost).

Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekonomi_lingkungan ..

ILMU POLITIK
Ekologi Politik
Kajian ekologi politik merupakan perkembangan dari ekologi manusia dan
sosiologi lingkungan.
Ekologi manusia untuk pertama kalinya di perkenalkan oleh Haeckel pada
tahun 1866, adalah suatu ilmu yang memiliki konsep tentang hubungan
manusia (human system) dengan alam (non human system) di biosfer.

Beberapa definisi tentang ekologi politik yang asumsinya adalah sama yaitu:
environmental change and ecological conditions are (to some extent) the
product of political processes. Jika keadaan lingkungan adalah produk dari
prosesproses politik, maka tidak terlepas pula dalam hal ini adalah
keterlibatan prosesproses dialektik dalam politik ekonomi.
Ekologi politik memfokuskan pada ditingkat masyarakat lemah/miskin,
dihubungkan dengan lingkungan yang pada akhirnya melahirkan suatu
konflik.
Sedangkan isu masa depan dihubungkan untuk mengubah udara, mutu air,
proses yang berkenaan dengan kota yang dihubungkan dengan organ tubuh
manusia
DimensiDimensi Ekologi Politik atas Kehancuran Alam dan Lingkungan:
1.
2.
3.

Tipologi kerusakan sumber daya alam dan lingkungan


Dampaknya pada kehidupan sosioekonomi ekologi suatu sistem
kemasyarakatan
Pendekatan penanganan secara sosiopolitis yang harus ditempuh

Bryant, R.L. 1998. Power, Knowledge and Political Ecology In The Third World:
a review. Progress in Physical Geography 22(1): 79-94.
Diunduh dari : http://sansigner.wordpress.com/category/social-political-andeconomic/politik-lingkungan/..

HIDUP LEBIH RAMAH-LINGKUNGAN

Sustainabilitas thema sentral


Modal Alam
Sumberdaya Alam
Jasa-jasa Alam

Sustainable Lifestyle Pyramid


This diagram serves as an outline of how property owners can make the utmost use
of their piece of ground. It encompasses desired lifestyle, energy efficiency,
environmental awareness, ecological care, and long-term sustainability.
At the base of the Sustainable Lifestyle Pyramid are the two cornerstones of a
property intended to be a homestead: House and Landscape. People live in their
homes, obviously. Their property should complement that home, provide
sustainability options, and serve as a destination that matches their lifestyles.

Diunduh dari : http://www.eco-buildingandforestry.com/pyramid.htm ..

SUMBERDAYA ALAM

Materials
Renewable
Nonrenewable
EnergI
Solar capital
Photosynthesis

Elements of a Sustainable Lifestyle


By Brian Skeele, on July 6th, 2011
We cant solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when
we created them. Albert Einstein.
Heres my ideas of the major elements that make up a sustainable lifestyle. Most are
not of the thinking that created our existing suburban sprawl society. Changing from
car-dominated thinking to pedestrian-centered thinking is required.

Diunduh dari : http://www.beyondsuburbia.com/tag/sustainable-living/..

JASA-JASA ALAM

Fungsi-fungsi alam
Purifikasi Udara dan Air
Siklus Hara

Ecological Goods and Services (EG&S) and Natural Capital


What are Ecological Goods and Services and Natural Capital?
Ecological goods and services (EG&S) are the environmental benefits resulting from
physical, chemical and biological functions of healthy ecosystems and include
market goods produced from ecosystems (e.g. food, fibre, fuel, fresh water, genetic
resources, etc.), the benefits from ecosystem processes, (e.g. nutrient cycling,
climate regulation, water purification, waste treatment, pollination, etc.) and nonmaterial benefits (e.g. aesthetic values, recreation, etc.)
Dis-services, such as loss of wildlife habitat and biodiversity, can impair the
production of EG&S.
Natural capital includes the natural environment and ecosystem resources, such as
soils, forests and wetlands that provide environmental assets and services essential
to life. Natural capital is similar to the concept of economic capital in that it provides
a continued flow of EG&S. Natural capital is composed of natural resource capital
(e.g., minerals, energy, forests), land (e.g., where human activities occur) and
ecosystems or environmental capital (e.g., waste assimilation by wetlands).
Examples of Natural Capital and the EG&S Provided :

Natural Capital

Ecological Goods and Services Provided

Forests

Carbon sequestration, soil formation, waste treatment, biological control,


cultural, air quality, stormwater control, recreation, raw material (timber),
genetic resources

Grasslands,
rangelands

Carbon sequestration, water regulation, erosion control, soil formation,


waste treatment, pollination, biological control, food production

Diunduh dari : http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/ecological/index.html..

Economic Value of EG&S


Ecosystem Services and Dis-Services From Agriculture
Globally, natural capital and EG&S has been declining continually as
landscapes are converted from their natural states for human use.
Unsustainable depletion of natural capital results in the reduction of EG&S
that can be provided. These losses may cost society more than the original
value of the natural capital destroyed, as replacing the services can be much
more expensive than what is typically provided by nature.
Investing in the maintenance of natural lands on privately owned farmlands
and Crown Land is a way for society to encourage the continued provision of
EG&S. Well-managed agricultural lands provide benefits to society-at-large.
Agriculture is both a beneficiary and a provider of EG&S .
For example, farming's viability depends on ecosystem processes like soil
renewal, climate regulation, and precipitation. At the same time, wellmanaged agricultural lands can provide benefits to broader society that
include fish and wildlife habitat, scenic views, and purification of air and water
through natural processes.

Source: Zhang, W., Rickets, T., Kremen, C., Carney, K., Swinton, S. (2007). Ecosystem
services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics, 64: 253-260.

Diunduh dari : http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/soilwater/ecological/index.html..

SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN JASA-JASANYA

Diunduh dari : ..

JASA-JASA:
UDARA-ATMOSFIR
The twelve atmospheric services.
Rank
In value

Atmospheric services

Usage
trend

At risk

Entity

Service type

1. The air that we breath


++

O2, N2 etc
Provisioning
2. Protection from radiation,
plasma and meteors
+

Density, ozone layer Supporting


3. Natural global warming of 33C
+
CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O++ Supporting\
4. The cleansing capacity of the
atmosphere andd ispersion of
air pollution
+

OH, wind, temp


Regulating
5. The redistribution of water services
+

H2O
Supporting
6 Direct use of the atmosphere for
ecosystems and agriculture
+

CO2, N2, ltered solar


Provisioning
and supporting
7 Combustion of fuel

O
2
Provisioning8 Direct use of the atmosphere for sound,communications and transport
+

Density, pressure Supporting9 Direct use of the atmosphere for power


++
Wind, wave Provisioning10 The extraction of atmospheric gases
+
O
2
,N
2
, Ar etc Provisioning11 Atmospheric recreation and climate tourism
+

Sun, wind, clouds, snow Cultural12 Aesthetic, spiritual and sensual properties of the
atmosphere, smell and taste
+ Sky, clouds Cultural

Diunduh dari :

JASA-JASA:
TANAH
Jasa-jasa tanah untuk penggunaan lahan yang lestari

Soil provides a number of critical ecosystem


services.
It provides the physical support system for plants and
retains and delivers nutrients to them.
Soil can hold and release water flexibly, providing
flood control and water purification benefits.
Soil is the medium through which nutrients like
nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium are
continually exchanged, and is a critical participant in
biogeochemical cycles.
Soil, aided by the complex ecosystem of bacteria,
nematodes, insects, beetles, and other organisms
that inhabits its pores, is able to continuously
maintain its fertility.

Diunduh dari : http://www.reliableprosperity.net/soil_services.html..

JASA-JASA:
LAHAN
Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Lahan
Land is one of the most critical resources for the rural poor
dependent on farming for their livelihoods. Today, about 2 million
hectares of rainfed and irrigated agricultural lands are lost to
production every year due to severe land degradation, among other
factors.

Sustainable Land Management (SLM)


SLM is defined as a knowledge-based procedure that helps
integrate land, water, biodiversity, and environmental
management (including input and output externalities) to meet
rising food and fiber demands while sustaining ecosystem
services and livelihoods.
SLM is necessary to meet the requirements of a growing
population. Improper land management leads to land
degradation and a reduction in the productive and service
(biodiversity niches, hydrology, carbon sequestration)
functions of watersheds and landscapes.

Diunduh dari :
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTARD/0,,contentMDK:20452620~menu
PK:1308455~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336682,00.html..

JASA-JASA:
BIODIVERSITAS
Jasa-jasa yang dihasilkan Biodiversitas
Services provided by biodiversity can be broadly categorised into three areas:

Siklus Hara
The movement of elements such as nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorous
between different forms as they pass through the food chain. The elements
cycle between gas forms and compounds which are found in the soil and
living organisms. For example the nitrogen cycle; this is heavily reliant on
bacteria and involves the formation of nitrates (needed for making proteins
which are the functional molecules in all organisms) from atmospheric
nitrogen and then the break down of nitrogen compounds to nitrogen gas.
The nitrogen cycle is an important part of soil formation and soil fertility.

Produksi Primer
The capturing of energy from the sun by plants and using this to convert
carbon dioxide into organic compounds. This provides food for all other
species on the planet. This is part of the carbon cycle which is being
unbalanced by the release of carbon dioxide by the burning of fossil fuels.

Mempertahankan keseimbangan dinamis dari sistem alam


yang kompleks
Habitats and all their constituent parts play an important role in regulating
local and global climate patterns, soil formation, water purification and
nutrient cycling and many other regulatory functions which help maintain the
planet in a state which is self sustaining. Removing forests can have a
dramatic effect on rain fall patterns and temperatures over large areas. Plants
also play a key role in the water cycle which helps filter water and remove
impurities.

Diunduh dari : http://www.businessandbiodiversity.org/what_is_services.html ..

JASA-JASA:
RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources
such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are
renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy
consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from
traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from
hydroelectricity.
New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar,
geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are
growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity
generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming
from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.
REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report". p. 17, 18.

Diunduh dari : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy..

JASA-JASA:
NON- RENEWABLE ENERGY
Non-renewable sources of energy can be divided into two types:
fossil fuels and nuclear fuel.
1. Fossil fuels
Fossil fuels are found within the rocks of the Earth's surface. They
are called fossil fuels because they are thought to have been
formed many millions of years ago by geological processes acting
on dead animals and plants, just like fossils.
Coal, oil and natural gas are fossil fuels. Because they took millions
of years to form, once they are used up they cannot be replaced.
2. Nuclear fuel
Nuclear fuel makes use of the radioactivity of some elements. The
nucleus in the atom may spontaneously break down to release
energy and produce fast-moving particles, atoms of other elements.
The fast-moving particles that are ejected can also strike other
atoms, causing them to break down.
Placing the atoms close together in a fuel rod means that atoms are
more likely to be struck by these particles, and so produce more
nuclear reactions. As the reactions proceed heat is produced. The
task of a nuclear reactor is to control the reaction so that a steady
flow of heat is produced.

Diunduh dari : http://www.scienceonline.co.uk/energy/nonrenewable.html..

Ramah Lingkungan = Keberlanjutan

Trade-offs (compromises)
Sound science
Individuals matter
Ideas
Technology
Political pressure
Economic pressure

Sustainable firms disconnect revenue growth from depletion of natural


resources. They drastically reduce the amount of natural resources
required to make their products and they use resource- and energyefficient manufacturing processes.

Diunduh dari : http://sustainabilityadvantage.com/2011/08/09/3-sustainable-ways-torev-up-revenue/..

Hidup ramah-lingkungan dari Modal Alam

Environmentally sustainable society


Financial capital and financial income
Natural capital and natural income
Bad news: signs of natural capital depletion at exponential
rates

The Yokogawa Groups Environmental Management


The Yokogawa Group aims to reduce its global environmental burden across all its
operations by:
Proactively implementing environmental activities
Providing environmental solutions and environmentally friendly products to
customers

Diunduh dari : http://www.yokogawa.com/csr/env/management.htm..

Bagaimana masyarakat ramah-lingkungan


dapat berkembang secara ekonomi ?
KONSEP 1-2
Masyarakat dapat menjadi lestari dan ramah lingkungan melalui
pembangunan ekonomi yang ditujukan untuk memperbaiki
kualitas hidup setiap orang tanpa merusak sistem penunjang
kehidupan bumi.
Turning carbon dioxide into resources
Biomass engineering paves the way for a sustainable society
The 20th century was characterized by a consumption society, where the richness of
the social foundation was based on the consumption of oil and coal. In the 21st
century, we need to develop a sustainable society that is carbon neutral and
minimizes environmental burdens such as global warming resulting from carbon
dioxide emissions.

Diunduh dari : http://www.riken.jp/bmep/english/outline/co2.html ..

Ekonomi

Pertumbuhan ekonomi
Produk domestik bruto = Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Per capita GDP PPP
Pembangunan Ekonomi
Negara-negara maju
Negara sedang berkembang

. Sustainable Economic Growth


The Government Economic Strategy defines sustainable economic growth as
"building a dynamic and growing economy that will provide prosperity and
opportunities for all, while ensuring that future generations can enjoy a better quality
of life too".
The Strategy notes that there are growth opportunities from moving to a low carbon
economy. This would require us to achieve increases in GDP decoupled from
emissions, abandoning the carbon-based growth of the past. In addition, the
Government aspires that growth and productivity proceed at a faster rate than the
UK and other comparator countries.
Dimensions of a Low Carbon Strategy

Diunduh dari : http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/03/22110408/4..

Global Outlook

Diunduh dari : ..

Percentage of World's:

18%
Population

82%

Population 0.1%
growth

1.5%

Life
expectancy

77 years
66 years

Wealth and
income

85%
15%

Resource
use

88%
12%

Pollution
and waste

75%
25%

Diunduh dari : ..

Bagaimana footprint ekologi kita mempengaruhi bumi


?
KONSEP 1-3
As our ecological footprints grow, we are depleting
and degrading more of the earths natural capital.
SENA, Augusto Marcos Carvalho de.
A theoretical essay on sustainability and environmentally balanced
output growth: natural capital, constrained depletion of resources
and pollution generation.
BAR, Braz. Adm. Rev. [online]. 2009, vol.6, n.3, pp. 213-229.
The fact that today's activities are imposing a heavy burden on the earth's
capacity has led to an increasing interest in environmental issues. It is
emphasized that rapid production growth has exhausted natural resources
and polluted the environment.
The objective of this essay is to offer a clear definition of natural capital,
connect it to a qualitative concept of sustainability and, supported by two
analytical models and a set of studies on related environmental literature, to
show that sustainability can be attained via imposition of controls over
production processes that use depletable natural resources and generate
pollution.
The methodology used contemplates an integrative approach combining a
qualitative (seeking definitions)-analytical (appraising models) apparatus to
reach a new conceptual perspective to conceive sustainability. As the main
essay's contribution, it is showed that sustainability can be reached if
compensation is allowed for, i.e., stocks of renewable being augmented as
production depletes the stocks of nonrenewable natural resources. Moreover,
that result is possible even considering nondecreasing output production, an
important finding to contrast with the current environmentally based output
growth literature, which asserts that slowing down output production is the
only way to obtain sustainability.
Diunduh dari : http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S180776922009000300004&script=sci_abstract..

SUMBERDAYA ALAM

Perpetual DIPERBAHARUI SECARA KONTINYU


Energi Matahari
Renewable jam hingga dekade
Air dan Udara
Hutan, Padang-rumput

Family altruism with a renewable resource and population growth


Thierry Brechet and Stephane Lambrechty
October 30, 2006.
An overlapping-generation model with a non-constant population growth
is developed, in which households privately own a natural renewable
resource and have a family-altruism resource bequest motive.
The natural resource can be either extracted and sold to the producing
firms, or bequeathed to the offspring to increase his adult disposable
income.
Numerical applications show how family altruism interplays with
population growth to shape the dynamics of the whole economy. In
particular, the role of altruism in the case of two negative demographic
shocks is scrutinized. It is shown that the pressure on the natural resource
is not necessarily reduced when the population size is lower.
Transmission mechanisms between generations and general equilibrium
effects may yield unexpected outcomes. In particular, the family altruism
may play a positive, or a negative role for resource preservation.

Diunduh dari : http://www.uclouvain.be/cps/ucl/doc/fns/documents/Brechet-

SUMBERDAYA ALAM

Hasil Lestari
Penggunaan maksimum sambil mempertahankan suplai
Degradasi Lingkungan
Melampaui batas laju pembaharuan alamiah

Should sustained yield be part of sustainable forest


management?
2005. Luckert, M.K.; Williamson, T.B. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35(2):
356-364.
This paper considers the question of whether sustainable forest management (SFM)
should continue to incorporate sustained yield (SY) requirements, as it currently
does in many jurisdictions.
We evaluate the extent to which SY and SFM are consistent with notions of weak
and (or) strong sustainability.
Strong sustainability implies placing constraints on the reduction of stocks of natural
capital to prevent irreversibility and (or) protect flows of services that have public
good characteristics.
In contrast, weak sustainability may allow market forces to draw down stocks of
natural capital so long as levels of total capital (including human-made and natural
capital) are maintained.
We argue that with SY policies, we have probably chosen to attach strong
sustainability policies to the only forest resource that does not need such protection
(i.e., timber), while we have excluded other resources that could well need such
protection (e.g., biodiversity) for pursuing SFM.
Thus, the concept of allowable annual cuts could be dropped from SFM to be
replaced by safe minimum standards on components of forest capital that are
subject to irreversibility and (or) that have public good features. In other words, if we
truly wish to pursue SFM, it may be necessary to leave SY behind.

Diunduh dari : http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/publications?id=26944 ..

SUMBERDAYA ALAM

Nonrenewable Kuantitasnya tertentu


Energy (bahan bakar fosil)
Mineral logam
Mineral bukan-logam
Daur ulang - Recycling
Pemanfaatan ulang - Reuse

LANA, Rogrio de Paula


Rational use of non renewable natural resources: biological,
economical and environmental aspects.
R. Bras. Zootec. [online]. 2009, vol.38, n.spe, pp. 330-340.
Due to limitations of new land areas for agriculture, its development
has being based on increase in productive indexes in animal and
plant production. However, negative effects have being emerged, as
excessive utilization of non renewable natural resources and
environmental pollution.
The objective of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of use
of models of saturation kinetics in agriculture (plant and animal
production) to improve efficiency of use of non renewable natural
resources, avoid complete depletion of them and minimize the
problems related to environmental pollution.

Diunduh dari : http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1516-

PEMANASAN GLOBAL
The 2007 IPCC report examined data on numerous changes
to natural systems that have already been observed, as well
as the potential for future impacts.
A climate that's already changing
Current environmental impacts and prospects for the fut
ure
Changes in weather
Heat and heat waves
Rain, snow, and drought Stormy weather
Changes in ecosystems
Polar and mountainous regions Plant life
Wildlife

Diunduh dari : http://www2.ucar.edu/news/backgrounders/impacts-global-warming-

POLUSI UDARA
Environmental Effects of Air Pollution
1. Acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric
acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur
oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned.
2. Eutrophication is a condition in a water body where high concentrations
of nutrients (such as nitrogen) stimulate blooms of algae, which in turn
can cause fish kills and loss of plant and animal diversity. Air emissions
of nitrogen oxides from power plants, cars, trucks, and other sources
contribute to the amount of nitrogen entering aquatic ecosystems.
3. Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in the
air. Haze obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see.
Some haze-causing pollutants (mostly fine particles) are directly emitted
to the atmosphere by sources such as power plants, industrial facilities,
trucks and automobiles, and construction activities.
4. Effects on wildlife. Toxic pollutants in the air, or deposited on soils or
surface waters, can impact wildlife in a number of ways. Like humans,
animals can experience health problems if they are exposed to sufficient
concentrations of air toxics over time. Studies show that air toxics are
contributing to birth defects, reproductive failure, and disease in animals.
5. Ozone depletion. Ozone is a gas that occurs both at ground-level and in
the Earth's upper atmosphere, known as the stratosphere. At ground
level, ozone is a pollutant that can harm human health. In the
stratosphere, however, ozone forms a layer that protects life on earth
from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. But this "good" ozone is
gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozonedepleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons,
hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and halons.
6. Crop and forest damage. Air pollution can damage crops and trees in a
variety of ways.Ground-level ozone can lead to reductions in agricultural
crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of
tree seedlings, and increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests and
other environmental stresses (such as harsh weather).
7. Global climate change. The Earth's atmosphere contains a delicate
balance of naturally occurring gases that trap some of the sun's heat
near the Earth's surface. This "greenhouse effect" keeps the Earth's
temperature stable.
Diunduh dari : http://www.mass.gov/dep/air/aq/env_effects.htm ..

EROSI TANAH
Erosion affects the environment in a number of ways, such as the
falling of trees, the flooding of forests, destruction from wind erosion,
and a number of others.
Direct impacts of erosion on environment included on-site and off-site impacts.
The on-site impacts were that soil layer became thin, soil structure was
deteriorated and soil nutrients decreased. The off-site impacts were that water
bodies were polluted. The indirect impacts of soil erosion on environment were
the increase of fertilizer application and energy consumption, and change of
adaptability of land uses. Although erosion intensity was not serious in the
study area, its environmental impacts should not be ignored because of great
soil nutrient loss and coarseness of soil particles.
University of Florida , Soil and Water Science Department
Erosion Impacts on Soil and Environmental Quality: Vertisols in the Highlands Region of
Ethiopia
Louis Philor and Samira H. Daroub (April, 2011 ).

Diunduh dari : http://www.springerlink.com/content/5nv38w7027241315/..

PEMBUKAAN HUTAN
The Effect of Deforestation

Environment change
One major effect of deforestation is climate change. Changes to the
surroundings done by deforestation work in many ways. One, there is abrupt
change in temperatures in the nearby areas. Forests naturally cool down
because they help retain moisture in the air.
Second is the long process of global climate change. As mentioned above,
deforestation has been found to contribute to global warming or that process
when climates around the world become warmer as more harmful rays of the
sun comes in through the atmosphere.
The ozone layer is a mass of oxygen or O3 atoms that serves as shield in the
atmosphere against the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. Because ozone
is made up of oxygen atoms, oxygen react with carbon monoxide. Such
reaction would use up oxygen atoms.
It follows that when there are more carbon monoxide atoms going to the
atmosphere, the volume of oxygen would decline. Such is the case of ozone
depletion.
The third effect to the environment would be on the water table underneath
the ground. Water table is the common source of natural drinking water by
people living around forests.
Water table is replenishing. That means, the supply of water underground
could also dry up if not replenished regularly. When there is rain, forests hold
much of the rainfall to the soil through their roots.
Thus, water sinks in deeper to the ground, and eventually replenishing the
supply of water in the water table. Now, imagine what happens when there is
not enough forests anymore. Water from rain would simply flow through the
soil surface and not be retained by the soil.
Or other than that, the water from rain would not stay in the soil longer, for the
process of evaporation would immediately set in. Thus, the water table is not
replenished, leading to drying up of wells.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/510236

Diunduh dari : http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Effect-of-Deforestation&id=510236..

DEGRADASI HABITAT ALAMIAH


The Effects of Habitat Destruction of the Environment
The primary effect of habitat destruction is a reduction in biodiversity, i.e. the variety and
abundance of different species of animals and plants in a particular setting.
Pollination and Seed Dispersal
Both wild and agricultural plants depend on pollination for reproduction. Fruits and
vegetables, key components of the human diet, depend on bees and other insects to
transfer pollen from flower to flower. When habitat destruction reduces the varieties of
these pollinators, crop yields drop as well.
Climate Regulation
Biodiversity affects climate mainly through regulation of the amount of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere. Destruction of forest habitats reduces the capacity of forests to absorb
carbon dioxide. The growth rate and woodiness of a plant determines the rate of carbon
turnover within it. Landscape patterns are also important since carbon sequestration is
reduced at the edges of forest fragments. Marine ecosystems also play a significant role in
carbon sequestration.
Pest and Disease Control
Pests often target specific types of plants. When habitats are destroyed and plant diversity
is reduced, the environment contains more of a particular type of plant. This makes it
easier for pests to spread. Plant diversity provides habitats for a greater variety of insects
and other animals and for the natural enemies of pests. Fungal plant diseases are more
severe in monoculture areas where a single type of crop is being cultivated.
Indirect Effects
The production of food,clothing and shelter for humans depends in many indirect ways on
the biodiversity of ecosystems.
A high diversity of agricultural crops protects farmers against crop failures. Destruction of
habitats and reduction of species diversity can make ecosystems more vulnerable to
invasive species and indirectly affect human health and well-being. The effect of invasive
species is illustrated by what happened when bass were introduced into Gatun Lake,
Panama. The presence of bass resulted in the reduction of predators of mosquito larvae
and an increase in the incidence of malaria.
Read more: The Effects of Habitat Destruction of the Environment | eHow.com
http://www.ehow.com/info_8403681_effects-habitat-destruction-environment.html#ixzz22
F3odzNU

Diunduh dari : http://www.ehow.com/info_8403681_effects-habitat-destruction-environment.html..

KEPUNAHAN SPESIES
Effects on the environment when species extinct?
If a species goes extinct, anything it used to eat (be it plants or
animals) now has one less predator and their numbers will increase.
If they increase too much unchecked by their predators they may
use too many resources and cause their own starvation. Another
animal may start eating them, though -- since now they don't have to
compete with the old species anymore.
Also, any animal which was a predator to the now-extinct species
has lost a food source. They may have to find something else to eat
or starve themselves into extinction, too.
Read more:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Effects_on_the_environment_when_species_extinc
t#ixzz22F4lNAl2

Impact of Species Extinction on Biodiversity


An international group of researchers has recently provided the first
comprehensive and large-scale assessment of the services provided. They
suggest that species extinction has impaired at least three critical ecosystem
services: number of viable fisheries (-33%); provision of nursery habitats such
as oyster reefs, seagrass beds and wetlands (-69%); and filtering and
detoxification services provided by suspension feeders, submerged
vegetation and wetlands (-63%).
Additionally, the loss of filtering services has the potential to increase the
risks of harmful algal blooms (e.g. red tide), oxygen depletion and declining
water quality. Meanwhile, coastal flooding was also increased as a result of
species extinction. Although this event is linked to sea level rise, historical
losses of floodplain and erosion control provided by coastal wetlands, reefs
and submerged vegetation is also responsible.
Diunduh dari : http://www.marbef.org/wiki/Species_extinction..

DEPLESI AQUIFER
Aquifer Depletion is an Urban and Rural Problem
By Wade Shepard on November 27, 2011,
An aquifer is an underground layer of permeable or fractured rock or porous
materials such as sand, silt, or gravel that can contain ground water.
Generally, the water sits between the pores or fractures in the sediments and
can be pumped up to the surface through wells.
While aquifers do replenish, or recharge, over time by rain and land water,
the process is often very slow and whether aquifers can truly be
considered renewable resources is a matter for debate. When ground water
is extracted from an aquifer faster than it can be replenished a process called
over draft occurs, and the water table begins to lower. The result from
excessive over draft can lead to subsidence, the lowering of ground levels in
relation to a depleting aquifer.
A major problem with urban groundwater depletion is that, like in agriculture,
much of the water that is being pumped up from the ground never returns to
the aquifer. In urban areas, much of the extracted well water, after use, is
deposited into sewer systems that eventually lead to oceans or large seas
rather than back into the local aquifer.

Agricultural extraction of water from this aquifer began in the 1930s,


resulting in this region being one of the most agriculturally
productive on the planet. But the aquifer is now being depleted at an
alarming rate, with reports that in some areas it is dropping five or
six feet a year. This is causing some farmers to drill their wells
deeper and seek water use reduction practices, such as choosing to
grow crops with lower water needs.
Read more
http://www.vagabondjourney.com/travelogue/aquifer-depletion-is-an-urban-and-rural-probl
em/

Diunduh dari : http://www.vagabondjourney.com/travelogue/aquifer-depletion-is-an-urban-andrural-problem/..

PENCEMARAN AIR
How does water pollution affect our environment?
The contamination of water bodies has tremendous negative impact on environment, it has
ability to destroy many animal habitats, and cause irreparable damage to many ecosystems.
1. Water pollution is not only killing millions of people around the globe each year, it is also
killing millions of plants and animals that simply cannot cope with the increasing levels of
water pollution caused by different chemicals and other waste.
2. In some areas of the world water pollution issue is totally out of control, and in these areas
polluted water spreads different toxins and other chemicals into environment, making it
dirty, and above all unhealthy place to live in.
The aquatic life is mostly affected with water pollution, and water pollution can even lead
to an extinction of some animal species.
3. Chemical compounds and other water pollutants cause aquatic animals difficulties with
breathing while on the other hand these chemicals can also be quite toxic for land animals
once they drink this polluted water.
4. Polluted water is also one of the major contributing factors to acid rain creation, and
generally speaking this is certainly one of the biggest environmental problems.

Here are the things world needs to do in order to solve water pollution issue:
1. Strict laws and frequent monitoring of water bodies in order to avoid scenarios that include
huge quantities of different chemicals being discharged either directly or indirectly into our
rivers, lakes, and streams.
2. Better education of the people. People, especially the ones living in developing countries,
need to be more educated and learn that water is the most precious resource in our planet.
3. Enable more funds to adequately treat waste water and sewage waste.
4. Frequent chemical, biological and physical testing of different water bodies in order to
prevent water pollution from reaching higher levels.
5. Massive fines for industries and people that purposely dump waste and other chemicals into
different water bodies.
6. More wastewater treatment facilities so that there is more water discharged back into the
environment without posing threat to our health and our environment. World also needs to
force wastewater treatment facilities to pull more pollutants from their discharge.
7. Decrease the amount of pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture because advanced
agriculture based on heavy use of different chemicals is one of the main factors behind
growing water pollution issue.
8. Cleaning up polluted rivers and other polluted water bodies. Cleaning polluted water bodies
is very expensive procedure but this is really a small price to pay when considering harmful
effects of polluted water to our heath and our environment.
9. Better use of science. Science needs to focus more on finding the new "revolutionary"
solution to clean polluted water bodies such as for instance using carbon nanotubes to clean
polluted water.
10. Water pollution needs to be tackled at both regional as well as global level because all
environmental issues are becoming global and water pollution issue is certainly no exception.
Diunduh dari : http://pollutionarticles.blogspot.com/2010/12/how-does-water-pollution-affectour.html..

PENURUNAN PERIKANAN LAUT


OCEANS WITHOUT FISH
Peter Montague
National Writers Union, UAW Local 1981/AFL-CIO)
1.

2.

3.

The destruction of life in the oceans has progressed farther than anyone had
suspected, according to a new report in SCIENCE magazine.[1] The causes are
overfishing and pollution,[2] but the focus of the new report is overfishing alone.
SCIENCE is the voice of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
(AAAS).
The world's catch of ocean fish peaked in 1989 and has been declining since. In the
early 1990s, scientists reported that 13 of the world's 17 major fisheries were
depleted or in steep decline.[2] Typical is the Grand Banks fishery off the shallow
coast of Newfoundland in the north Atlantic. There, after 350 years of commercial
exploitation, the haddock, cod and flounder have all but disappeared and the fishery
was officially closed a few years ago.
The depletion of the world's most popular fish species has set off three trends, each
of which is adding to the oceans' troubles: (1) fisherman are adopting new
technologies that (2) allow them to fish in deeper waters, and (3) they are fishing
lower on the food chain.

CAUSES OF OVERFISHING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The problem of overfishing is being fueled by an increase in demand for fish that in turn is
fueled by increased affluence (more people can afford fish as they become richer) and
people eating fish for health reasons. Almost a billion people rely on fish for protein.
Fish that not so long ago hardly anybody wanted except Japan now are in high demand
and cooperatives and trading companies in a number of countries are competing to
acquire them, driving up their price.
The biggest consumers of herring, mackerel, anchovies and sardines are agriculture and
aquiculture for feed for farmed fish and protein sources for pigs and cattle
Companies out to please their shareholders fish only for immediate profit, exploiting every
loophole to continue.
Poor regulation and monitoring are serious problems. Fishing boats routinely report false
data on their catches.
Despite plummeting fish stocks overfishing is accelerating around the globe, encouraged
in part by $30 billion in annual subsidies for fishing boats, fuel and other assistance, with
the biggest subsidies found in Asia and Europe.

Diunduh dari: http://factsanddetails.com/world.php?


itemid=2196&catid=53&subcatid=340

Diunduh dari : . http://www.earthportals.com/oceansfish.html.

Reuse dan Recycling


Recycling, Reuse and Rehabilitation of Mine
Wastes
Bernd G. Lottermoser
ELEMENTS December 2011 v. 7 no. 6 p. 405-410

If we want to ensure a sustainable future for the human race,


we must learn to prevent, minimize, reuse and recycle waste.
Reuse of mine wastes allows their beneficial application,
whereas recycling extracts resource ingredients or converts
wastes into valuable products. Yet, today, many of the
proposed reuse and recycling concepts for mine wastes are
not economic.
Consequently, the great majority of mine wastes are still being
placed into waste storage facilities.
Significant research efforts are required to develop costeffective reuse and recycling options and to prevent the
migration of contaminants from rehabilitated waste
repositories in the long term.

Diunduh dari : http://elements.geoscienceworld.org/content/7/6/405 ..

MENGUKUR DAMPAK
X LINGKUNGAN

Ecological footprint
Biological capacity to replenish resources and adsorb
waste and pollution
Per capita ecological footprint
Renewable resource use per individual
Define Ecological Footprint
By Frederick s Blackmon, eHow Contributor

The ecological footprint helps scientists and businesses calculate the ecological impact of their
consumption needs. Countries like the US, Japan and the UK use more global resources than
their individual lands can provide. These nations are said to have an ecological deficit. On the
other hand, countries like Mongolia, Gabon and Australia are in ecological reserve.
Read more: Define Ecological Footprint | eHow.com
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5478626_define-ecological-footprint.html#ixzz22clYUw4D

Diunduh dari : http://www.ehow.com/facts_5478626_define-ecological-

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
Identification
The ecological footprint represents the amount of land and ocean
required per year by a population for its resources, that will allow those
resources to be renewed, and that can also absorb the waste
generated.
Calculation
The concept of the ecological footprint can be used for individuals,
communities, countries and other population groupings. The net
consumption of the population in question is calculated; import is
included and export is subtracted.
Limitations
The ecological footprint is perhaps the best current measure of
humanity's impact on the environment, but it has a number of
limitations. The ecological footprint only focuses on renewable
resources, and it only partially addresses the use of fossil fuels.
Biocapacity
Humanity's ecological footprint is exceeding its biocapacity by over a
third. The Redefining Progress website reports in its Footprint Analysis
that mankind is exceeding its ecological limit by thirty-nine percent.
Unit of Measure
The unit of measure commonly used to express an ecological footprint
is the global hectare. One global hectare is equal to approximately two
and a half acres.
History
The term "ecological footprint" was conceived in 1990 by William Rees
and Mathis Wackernagel at the University of British Columbia. Now, the
ecological footprint is used by businesses and scientists to measure
and monitor ecological reserves.

Read more: Define Ecological Footprint | eHow.com


http://www.ehow.com/facts_5478626_define-ecological-footprint.html
#ixzz22cmGAOFh

Diunduh dari :http://www.ehow.com/facts_5478626_define-ecologicalfootprint.html ..

Ecological Footprint

Diunduh dari : ..

Total Ecological Footprint (million


hectares) and share of Global
Ecological Capacity (%)

Per Capita Ecological


Footprint (hectares per
person)

Projected footprint
Earths
ecological
capacity

Ecological footprint

Diunduh dari : ..

PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN APA YANG DAPAT


KITA LAKUKAN ?
KONSEP 1-4
Preventing pollution is more effective and less costly
than cleaning up pollution.
Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning Essential for Management of
Green Biz
Pollution prevention is defined as use of processes, practices, materials, products,
substances or energy that avoids or minimizes the creation of pollutants and waste
and reduces the overall risk to the environment or human health. Pollution
prevention planning is a systematic, comprehensive method of identifying and
implementing pollution prevention options to minimize or avoid the creation of
pollutants or waste. The plan would also identify recycling, treatment and other
measures needed to meet environmental goals.
1.
2.

3.

4.

Pollution should be prevented or


reduced at the source whenever
feasible;
Pollution that cannot be
prevented should be recycled in
an environmentally safe manner
whenever feasible;
Pollution that cannot be
prevented or recycled should be
treated in an environmentally
safe manner whenever feasible;
and
Disposal or other release into
the environment should be
employed only as a last resort
and should be conducted in an
environmentally safe manner.

Diunduh dari : http://saferenvironment.wordpress.com/2009/10/14/pollution-prevention-p2planning-%E2%80%93-essential-for-management-of-green-biz/..

PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN

Apakah Pencemaran?
Point sources
Nonpoint sources
Dampak negatif akibat pencemaran lingkungan
Air Pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause
harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into
the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential
to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been
recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause
harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into
the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential
to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been
recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

Diunduh dari : http://www.worldculturepictorial.com/blog/content/air-pollution-lethal-

PENCEMARAN UDARA: POINT SOURCE


What is Air Pollution?
Definition It is a chemical, physical (e.g. particulate matter), or
biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the
atmosphere

What Cause Air Pollution?


1. excess emission of gases/vapors into atmosphere
2. saturation of chemical compounds/particulates
3. rate of dissipation is smaller than the rate of absorption
through various cycles (i.e. carbon and nitrogen cycle)
4. emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and nonbiodegradable compounds
What are other causes?
5. motor vehicle exhaust
6. heat and power generation facilities
7. industrial processes
8. auto manufacturing
9. fertilizers plants
10. building demolition
11. solid waste disposal
12. solvent evaporation
13. volcanic eruption
14. fuel production
15. roadway construction
16. electrical components manufacturing
17. extraction of metals
18. forest fires
19. agriculture
Diunduh dari : . http://edwin.sjfc.edu/kpoppenberg/e-port/pollutionunit/airl.htm.

Penyelesaian terhadap Pencemaran

Pollution prevention (input control)


Front-of-the-pipe
Pollution cleanup (output control)
End-of-the-pipe

Ohio Pollution
Prevention and
Waste
Minimization
Planning
Guidance Manual
"A pollution
prevention
program involves
developing and
implementing a
continuous strategy
to address all waste
generated by a
facility and
procedures for
prioritizing and
systematically
reducing these
wastes.

Diunduh dari : http://wwwapp.epa.ohio.gov/opp/guide/p2pch6.html ..

Disadvantages of Pollution cleanup (Output Control)

Temporary
Growth in consumption may offset technology
Moves pollutant from one place to another
Burial
Incineration
Dispersed pollutants costly to clean up

POLICIES TO CLEAN UP TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINATED SITES


OF GELA AND PRIOLO: A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Carla Guerriero, Fabrizio Bianchi, John Cairns and Liliana Cori
Environmental Health 2011, 10:68

It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281


cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could
be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two
areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we
calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial
pollution is 3,592 million in Priolo and 6,639 million in Gela.
Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution
exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised.
This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to 6,639 million in
Gela and 3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two
amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up
the two sites, 127.4 million in Gela and 774.5 million in Priolo, implying
that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still
prove cost beneficial.

Diunduh dari : http://www.ehjournal.net/content/10/1/68/abstract..

Mengapa kita menghadapi Problematik Lingkungan ?


KONSEP 1-5A
Major causes of environmental problems are population growth,
wasteful and unsustainable resource use, poverty, excluding
the environmental costs of resource use from the market
prices of goods and services, and trying to manage nature with
insufficient knowledge.
KONSEP 1-5B
People with different environmental worldviews often
disagree about the seriousness of environmental problems
and what we should do about them.

The standard mitigation hierarchy is


to avoid impacts on the environment,
reduce impacts that could not be
avoided and only offset residual
impacts.
Applying this mitigation hierarchy
requires precise knowledge on the
environment that might be impacted,
in order to design appropriate
measures to avoid and reduce
impacts as well as design and size
offsets.
To underline the importance of this
knowledge, why not add study to
this hierarchy?

Diunduh dari : http://blog.ecosystem-services.org/tag/mitigation-hierarchy/..

AKAR MASALAH
PROBLEMATIK LINGKUNGAN

Pertumbuhan Populasi (Penduduk)


Penggunaan sumberdaya yang boros dan tidak ramah
lingkungan
Poverty
Failure to include environmental costs of goods and services
in market prices
Too little knowledge of how nature works

Natural-Resource Exploitation with Costly Enforcement of Property


Rights
Louis Hotte (University of Ottawa, March 2002).
U of Namur, Research Series Working Paper No. 234.
This paper proposes a model of natural-resource exploitation when private
ownership requires costly enforcement activities. Enforcement costs are
endogenized as the outcome of a game between the owner of a resource and
encroachers. In equilibrium, the analysis suggests that in order to deter
encroachment, two instruments are available for the owner: she can either devote
more efforts in directly enforcing her property rights, or she can purposefully
"overexploit" the resource as a means of lowering the returns from encroachment
activities. The latter instrument implies that, even with the institution of private
property, the marginal social yield of a resource worker may be below the value of
his marginal product in alternative employment.
Conditions are found for which at low wage rates, further wage reductions actually
lower profits. These conditions turn out to be necessary and sufficient for the
existence of a range of low wages characterized by a free-access equilibrium.
This provides some clues as to why free access may be more prevalent in lessdeveloped countries for certain types of resources. It is also shown that an increase
in resource price cannot lead an owner to abandon his site to a free-access
exploitation.

Diunduh dari : http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=306259 ..

Five Basic Causes of Environmental Problems

Causes of environmental problems and the resulting negative trend are


predominantly human induced. Only when the causes and the impacts of the
resulting pressures on the system are known can adequate responses be
formulated. To qualify and quantify the pressures, state and responses, indicators
need to be found that adequately represent the extremely complex situation. The
OECD PSR framework is being adopted by many for such indicator development
(even though it cannot properly reflect the real world because linkages are not
linear).

Diunduh dari :http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e07.htm ..

PERTUMBUHAN PENDUDUK
How Global Population Growth is Creating Serious
Environmental Problems
Population growth causes problems from water scarcity to species extinction

Population Growth Causes Multiple Environmental Problems


According to Population Connection, population growth since 1950 is behind
the clearing of 80 percent of rainforests, the loss of tens of thousands of plant
and wildlife species, an increase in greenhouse gas emissions of some 400
percent and the development or commercialization of as much as half of the
Earths surface land.
The group fears that in the coming decades half of the worlds population will
be exposed to water-stress or water-scarce conditions, which are
expected to intensify difficulties in meetingconsumption levels, and wreak
devastating effects on our delicately balanced ecosystems.

High-Consumption Lifestyles Exacerbate Problems of


Population Growth
And while population numbers in most developed nations are
leveling off or diminishing today, high levels of consumption
make for a huge drain on resources. Americans, who represent
only 4 percent of world population, consume 25 percent of all
resources.
Industrialized countries also contribute far more to climate
change, ozone depletion and overfishing than developing
countries. And as more and more residents of developing
countries get access to Western media, or immigrate to the
United States, they want to emulate the consumption-heavy
lifestyles they see on their televisions and read about on the
Internet.

Diunduh dari :

PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM YANG


TIDAK LESTARI
Unsustainable Resource Use Threatens Humanity's
Future
By J.R. Pegg
WASHINGTON, DC, March 30, 2005 (ENS)
Human activities are rapidly changing the Earth's natural environment and
threaten the planet's capacity to support future generations, according to the
most comprehensive analysis ever conducted of the world's ecosystems.

It concludes ecological degradation is a major roadblock to efforts to


address poverty, hunger and public health and will not be reversed
unless there is decisive and comprehensive action by world leaders.
The study found ecological damage has accelerated tremendously in the
past century and much of the degradation has occurred in the past 50
years, as society has acquired the food, fresh water, energy and
materials needed to support the world's increasing population.

Two services, capture fisheries and fresh water, are now


well beyond levels that can sustain current, much less
future, demands and the report concludes these problems
will substantially diminish the benefits for future
generations.
Increased resource exploitation and changing land use
over the past century has resulted in a substantial and
largely irreversible loss in biodiversity

Diunduh dari : http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2005/2005-03-30-10.asp..

KEMISKINAN
Schematic representation of dimensions of poverty

The 2000/2001 World Development Report groups the different


dimensions of poverty as opportunity, empowerment, and security.
Much recent work in the Bank follows this approach, but also
includes capabilities (or human capital) as a separate category. 2
Figure 1 shows how different factors or determinants can influence
different dimensions of poverty, affecting peoples opportunity,
capability, security, and empowerment in many different ways. In this
paper we have chosen the relationships indicated by solid lines
(shown in figure 1) as examples of how these categories might relate
to each other.
Diunduh dari : .
http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/36496/PovertyEnvironment.pdf.

KEMISKINAN DAN LINGKUNGAN


Both environmental degradation and poverty alleviation are urgent global
issues that have a lot in common, but are often treated separately. Consider
the following:
1.
2.
3.

Human activities are resulting in mass species extinction rates higher


than ever before, currently approaching 1000 times the normal rate;
Human-induced climate change is threatening an even bleaker future;
At the same time, the inequality of human societies is extreme:
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The United Nations 1998 Human Development Report reveals


that, Globally, the 20% of the worlds people in the highestincome countries account for 86% of total private consumption
expendituresthe poorest 20% a minuscule 1.3%
To highlight this inequality further, consider that approximately 1
billion people suffer from hunger and some 2 to 3.5 billion people
have a deficiency of vitamins and minerals
Yet, some 1.2 billion suffer from obesity
One billion people live on less than a dollar a day, the official
measure of poverty
However, half the world nearly three billion people lives on
less than two dollars a day.
Yet, just a few hundred millionaires now own as much wealth as
the worlds poorest 2.5 billion people.

The Impact of Poverty on the Environment


Poverty and third world debt has been shown to result in resource stripping just
to survive or pay off debts.
For example, Nepal and Bangladesh have suffered from various environmental
problems such as increasingly devastating floods, often believed to be resulting
from large-scale deforestation.
Forests around the world face increased pressures from timber companies,
agricultural businesses, and local populations that use forest resources.
Some environmentalists, from rich nations especially, also raise concerns about
increasing populations placing excessive burdens on the worlds resources as
the current major source of environmental problems.
Diunduh dari : http://www.globalissues.org/article/425/poverty-and-the-

EKSTERNALITAS BIAYA LINGKUNGAN


WHAT ARE EXTERNALITIES?
Externalities are common in virtually every area of economic activity. They are
defined as third party (or spill-over) effects arising from the production
and/or consumption of goods and services for which no appropriate
compensation is paid.
Externalities can cause market failure if the price mechanism does not take
into account the full social costs and social benefits of production and
consumption.
The study of externalities by economists has become extensive in recent
years - not least because of concerns about the link between the economy
and the environment.

PRIVATE AND SOCIAL COSTS


Externalities create a divergence between the private and social costs
of production.
Social cost includes all the costs of production of the output of a particular
good or service. We include the third party (external) costs arising, for
example, from pollution of the atmosphere.
SOCIAL COST = PRIVATE COST + EXTERNALITY
For example: - a chemical factory emits wastage as a by-product into
nearby rivers and into the atmosphere. This creates negative externalities
which impose higher social costs on other firms and consumers. e.g.
clean up costs and health costs.

NEGATIVE CONSUMPTION EXTERNALITIES


Consumers can create externalities when they purchase and consume goods
and services.
Pollution from cars and motorbikes
Litter on streets and in public places
Noise pollution from using car stereos or ghetto-blasters
Negative externalities created by smoking and alcohol abuse
Externalities created through the mis-treatment of animals
Vandalism of public property
Negative externalities arising from crime
Diunduh dari :

MENGELOLA ALAM TIDAK SESUAI DAYA


DUKUNGNYA
Carrying Capacity of Environment and Ecosystems:
Carrying capacity of environment or an ecosystem is the threshold limit of
use of that system without damaging the system. Every ecosystem has its
resources that are used for economic development, for survival and for
habitat creation.
Environment and ecosystems have got the abilities to recover the loss of its
resources by regenerating them over the period of time that are temporary
and not exceeding the threshold damage limit.

Plants, shrubs and grass species falls under producers because they can
generate their own food by a process called photosynthesis. Consumers are
those which depends on producers for their food. Lion, deer, tiger, bear, zebra,
rat, fox and other animals falls into this category.
Now suppose if the number of producers decline over the period of time. It will
affect the consumers who depend directly on producers and those who depend
on other consumers for their food. What happens is the instability of the system
and probably the extinction of some of species.
Though the ecosystem can recover the damage, but that is slow and time bound.
But it can happen only if the rate of recovery is equal to the rate of damage. Once
the rate of damage exceeds the rate of recovery, the ecosystem loses its power
to recover. It is called carrying capacity.
Diunduh dari : http://www.environmentabout.com/761/what-is-carrying-capacity-ofenvironment-and-ecosystem..

DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT


KEMISKINAN

Diunduh dari : ..

KEMISKINAN DAN SANITASI


Poverty and Sanitation :
an Analysis of the Linkage Between Poverty and Access to Basic
Sanitation in Honduras.
The analysis of the linkage between poverty and access to basic
sanitation in Honduras leads to the following conclusions and
recommendations:
1.
2.
3.
4.

prioritize pro-poor policies designed to facilitate their access to improved


and sustainable sanitation services;
adopt appropriate and innovative technologies and methodologies for
infrastructure and service management, for the creation of sustainable
basic services and for technical support;
stimulate the participation of civil society organizations in decision
making and service management; and
involve the coordinated participation of nongovernmental organizations
and international cooperation agencies in developing sanitationprograms.

The final conclusions of this analysis present the need to:


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

prioritize pro-poor policies designed to facilitate their access to


improved and sustainable sanitation services;
adopt innovative, appropriate technologies and technical support;
Recognize the capacity of communities to organize and to
contribute to their own development, by nurturing the articipation
of civil society organizations and strengthening them to fulfill their
roles;
create a system to monitor programs performance; and
involve the coordinated participation of NGOs and international
agencies in developing sanitation programs.

Diunduh dari : http://water.worldbank.org/publications/poverty-and-sanitationanalysis-linkage-between-poverty-and-access-basic-sanitation-hon..

KEMISKINAN DAN BAHAN BAKAR


Poverty and firewood consumption : A case study of
rural households in northern China
Sylvie Dmurger and Martin Fournier

This paper discusses the determinants of firewood


consumption in a poor township in rural northern
China, with a special focus on the relationship
between households economic wealth and firewood
consumption. We find strong support for the povertyenvironment hypothesis since household economic
wealth is a significant and negative determinant of
firewood consumption.
Firewood can therefore be considered as an inferior
good for the whole population in the rural area under
study, although further evidence shows that at the top
of the wealth distribution, there might be a floor effect
in the decreasing firewood consumption. Besides
economic wealth, our analysis also shows that the
own-price effect is important in explaining firewood
consumption behavior, the price effect gaining
importance with rising incomes. Finally, increasing
education is also found to be a key factor in energy
consumption behavior, especially when dealing with
energy source switching behavior.

Diunduh dari : http://ideas.repec.org/p/gat/wpaper/1020.html#abstract..

KEMISKINAN DAN KAYU BAKAR


The environmental impact of poverty: evidence from
firewood collection in rural Nepal.
Baland JM, Bardhan P, Das S, Mookherjee D, Sarkar R
University of Namur.
Economic Development and Cultural Change [2010,
59(1):23-61]
We investigate determinants of household firewood
collection in rural Nepal, using 1995-96 and 2002-3 World
Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data.
We incorporate village fixed effects, endogenous censoring,
measurement error in living standards and heterogeneous
effects of different household assets. We find no evidence in
favor of the poverty-environment hypothesis. The evidence
for the environmental Kuznets curve depends on the precise
measure of living standards and time period studied.
Firewood collections fall with a transition to modern
occupations and rise with increasing population and
household division. The local interhousehold collection
externality is negligible, indicating that policy interventions
are justified only by ecological considerations or nonlocal
spillovers.

Diunduh dari : http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/20821892..

KEMISKINAN DAN AIR BERSIH


WATER POVERTY: TOWARDS A MEANINGFUL
INDICATOR
Eran Feitelson, Jonathan Chenoweth
Water Policy 4 (2002) 263281.
Much effort has gone into the development of indicators of water
problems. They largely focus on the question of whether there is
sufficient water for food self-sufficiency. Yet, todays agenda is
increasingly geared toward adequate water provision for domestic
use, as food is increasingly supplied through market mechanisms,
and toward environmental issues.
As the domestic supply of water can be usually assured, at a cost,
and as both environmental concerns and social requirements can
be translated to monetary terms, even if imperfectly, a water poverty
index is advanced to assess the structural water problems faced by
different countries.
Water poverty is defined as a situation where a nation or region
cannot afford the cost of sustainable clean water to all people at all
times.
The implications of this definition are discussed, and the variables
needed to operationalize the proposed index identified.

Diunduh dari : http://www.china-

KEMISKINAN DAN KESEHATAN


Development (2007) 50, 6369.
doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100359
Poverty and Health: Defeating poverty by
going to the roots
Anirudh Krishna.
Poverty is dynamic in nature: even as some
people move out of poverty, other people
simultaneously fall into poverty. The poverty
pool is being simultaneously both depleted
and refilled. Anirudh Krishna argues that
efforts for poverty reduction tend to focus
exclusively on raising people out of poverty,
and therefore will not be very successful
unless poverty creation is also addressed. Ill
health and high healthcare expenses are the
principal reasons associated with falling into
poverty; therefore, reducing poverty requires
investing in better healthcare.

Diunduh dari : http://www.palgrave-

KEMISKINAN DAN PERUMAHAN


Housing and Health
Intersection of Poverty and Environmental Exposures
Virginia A. Rauh, Philip J. Landrigan, Luz Claudio
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume 1136, Reducing the Impact of Poverty on Health and Human
Development: Scientific Approaches. pages 276288, June 2008

The importance of adequate housing for the maintenance of health


and well-being has long been a topic of scientific and public health
policy discussion, but the links remain elusive. Here we explore the
role of the residential environment in the etiology of illness
(specifically asthma) and the persistence of socioeconomic health
disparities. Housing conditions, shaped by social forces, affect
exposure to physical and chemical toxicants, thereby translating
social adversities into individual illness and population health
disparities. We discuss the mediating role of housing in determining
health outcomes at multiple levels (socialstructural, neighborhood,
and individual family). To date, little attention has been paid by most
environmental health scientists to the socialstructural conditions
underlying gross inequities in the distribution of toxic exposures,
with even less attention to the processes whereby these social
conditions may directly affect susceptibility to the toxic exposures
themselves. This chapter goes beyond traditional medical and
environmental science models to incorporate a range of social and
physical determinants of environmental pollutions, illustrating how
these conditions result in health and illness. We focus here on
childhood asthma as an example of a serious public health problem
that has been associated with low income, minority status, and
characteristics of the home environment. We end the chapter with a
discussion of the environmental justice movement and the role of
housing as a potential agent of change and focus of interventions
aimed to reduce the harmful effects of environmental pollutants.
Diunduh dari : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1196/annals.1425.032/abstract..

KEMISKINAN DAN PANGAN & GIZI


European Journal of Development Research (2011) 23, 129150.
doi:10.1057/ejdr.2010.36; published online 29 July 2010

POVERTY AND FOOD SECURITY IN GUJARAT, INDIA


Anita Dixit.
This article analyses poverty, in the light of the prevailing methodological and
definitional debates, in Gujarat, one of the fastest growing states in India. We
examine the divergence between the official and nutrition-based poverty lines
(PLs) and analyse its possible causes.
First, to study whether the PL bundle has changed over time, we test
whether poverty is sensitive to changes in the base year; second, we
examine the impact of food prices on the change in consumption at given
expenditure levels; and third, we study the possible relation between poverty
and foodgrain availability.
We conclude that poverty is underestimated because official figures do not
consider the change in consumption patterns, occurring partly as a result of
high relative food prices. Nutrition poverty levels in Gujarat are higher than
all-India levels, which creates a case for direct nutritional intervention for the
poor.

Diunduh dari : http://www.palgrave-

THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, POVERTY AND HEALTH IN


DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
CAROLYN STEPHENS
Health Policy Plan. (1995) 10 (2): 109-121. doi: 10.1093/heapol/10.2.109
The process of urbanization could be described as one of the major
global environmental changes directly affecting human health
today. Populations particularly affected are in developing countries
where rapid urban growth has been accompanied by massive
urban poverty. Urban environmental health impacts, particularly the
impact on adults of an environment of poverty, are still poorly
understood. Definitions of the urban environment tend to be
physical, excluding the complex ramifications of a social setting of
disadvantage. This paper provides a brief overview of existing
knowledge on the links between environment, poverty and health in
urban areas of developing countries, with an emphasis on the
policy implications implied by research on health differential
between groups within cities. The paper argues that urban poverty
and inequalities in conditions between groups within cities present
a central crisis confronting urban policy in terms of human health
and quality of life. The paper suggests that definitions of the urban
environment tend to consider only the physical, and not the social
complexity of the urban setting. The review concludes that the
scale and the complexity of the urban crisis in developing countries
demands a real commitment to re-thinking the management of
cities to address multiple deprivation. The paper suggests that this
challenges urban professionals who continue to act with a bias
towards unintegrated single sector solutions despite claims to the
contrary.

Diunduh dari : http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/2/109.abstract..

Environmental Effects of Affluence

Harmful effects
High consumption and waste of resources
Advertising more makes you happy
Beneficial effects
Concern for environmental quality
Provide money for environmental causes
Reduced population growth

Impact caps: why population, affluence and technology


strategies should be abandoned
Blake Alcott
Journal of Cleaner Production. Volume 18, Issue 6, April 2010, Pages 552560
This paper classifies strategies to reduce environmental impact according to the
terms of the I = PAT formula.
Policies limiting resource depletion and pollution (Impact) by heavily taxing
resources or rationing them on a country basis are thus called direct or left-side
strategies.
Other policies to achieve the environmental goal of lowering Impact strive to limit
Population and Affluence, or to use Technology to lower the ratio of resource inputs
to goods-and-services outputs. Next it is shown that lowering any of these rightside factors causes or at least enables the other two to rise or rebound.
This has two consequences: 1) Since I = PAT does not express these
interdependencies on the right side, it is more accurately written I = f(P,A,T); and 2)
Success in lowering any of the right-side factors does not necessarily lower Impact.
Rationing or Pigouvian taxation of resources or pollution, on the other hand,
necessarily lower impact and are therefore preferable to population, consumption
and technological environmental strategies.
Finally, lifestyle and technology changes towards more sufficiency and efficiency
would follow the caps as consumers and producers work to retain the greatest
amount of welfare within the limits given.

Diunduh dari :

Evaluating Full Cost of Resources Use

Examples
Clear-cutting + habitat loss
Commercial fishing + depletion of fish stocks
Tax breaks
Subsidies

THE FULL ECONOMIC COST OF GROUNDWATER


EXTRACTION
Jon Strand
World Bank December 2010
When a groundwater basin is exploited by a large number of farmers, acting
independently, each farmer has little incentive to practice conservation that would
primarily benefit other farmers. This can lead to excessive groundwater extraction.
When farmers pay less than the full cost of electricity used for groundwater
pumping, this problem can be worsened; while the problem can be somewhat
relieved by rationing the electricity supply.
The research in this paper constructs an analytical framework for describing the
characteristics of economically efficient groundwater management plans, identifying
how individual water use decisions by farmers collectively depart from efficient
resource use, and examining how policies related to both water and electricity can
improve on the efficiency of the status quo.
It is shown that an optimal scheme for pricing electricity used for pumping
groundwater includes two main elements: 1) the full (marginal) economic cost of
electricity must be covered; and 2) there must be an extra charge, reflected in the
electricity price, corresponding to the externality cost of groundwater pumping. The
analysis includes a methodology for calculating the latter externality cost, based on
just a few parameters, and a discussion of how electricity pricing could be modified
to improve efficiency in both power and water use.
Diunduh dari : http://elibrary.worldbank.org/content/workingpaper/10.1596/18139450-5494 ..

Environmental Viewpoints

Environmental worldview
Environmental ethics
Planetary management worldview
Stewardship worldview
Environmental wisdom worldview
Social capital

ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS AND VALUES


Environmental Worldviews include:
How you think the world works.
What you believe your environmental role in the world should be.
What you believe is right and wrong environmental behavior.
INSTRUMENTAL AND INTRINSIC VALUES
Instrumental (utilitarian)
A value something has because of its usefulness to us or to the biosphere
i.e. preserving natural capital and biodiversity
Intrinsic (inherent)
The value something has just because it exists regardless of whether it has
any instrumental value to us.
CLASSIFYING WORLDVIEWS
Worldviews are generally divided into two groups:
Holistic (Ecocentric) is earth centered and focuses on sustaining the earths
Natural systems (ecosystems)
Life-forms (biodiversity)
Life-support systems (biosphere)
For all species
Atomistic is individual centered
Anthropocentric (human-centered)
Biocentric (life-centered)

Diunduh dari : . orhs.eduhsd.k12.ca.us/.../44_APES%20Projec... .

Social capital
Social capital framework
Basing our framing and use of social capital within the social justice and social
inclusion perspective we emphasise that social capital is a resource, and based
upon an extensive literature review of existing research we have developed a multifaceted framework.
This framework contains those key features of social capital most supported by
research literature (e.g. participation in networks, trust, diversity) and contains
factors which were seen as related to social capital or which might influence the
enhancement and development of social capital (i.e. sense of belonging, outlook in
life)

FQS. Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 17 January 2006

The Context of Risk Decisions: Does Social Capital Make a


Difference?
Thilo Boeck, Jennie Fleming & Hazel Kemshall

Diunduh dari : http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/55/113..

Environmental wisdom worldview


Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability

LIVING MORE SUSTAINABLY


What Is the Difference between Environment, Ecology, and Environmental
Science? Defining
Some Basic Terms
1.

Environmental science is a study of how the earth works, how we interact with
the earth, and how to deal with environmental problems.

2.

Environment is everything that affects a living organism (any unique form of


life). Ecology is a biological science that studies the relationships between living
organisms and their environment.

3.

This textbook is an introduction to environmental science, an interdisciplinary


study that uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to
learn how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with
environmental problems.

4.

Environmental science involves integrating ideas from the natural world


(biosphere) and our cultural world (culturesphere).

5.

Environmentalism is a social movement dedicated to protecting the earths life


support systems for us and other species. Members of the environmental
community include ecologists, environmental scientists, conservation
biologists, conservationists, preservationists, restorationists, and
environmentalists.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


What Keeps Us Alive? The Sun and the Earths Natural Capital
All life and economies depend on energy from the sun (solar capital) and the
earths resources and ecological services (natural capital).
Our existence, lifestyles, and economies depend completely on the sun and
the earth, a blue and white island in the black void of space. To economists,
capital is wealth used to sustain a business and to generate more wealth. For
example, suppose you invest $100,000 of capital and get a 10% return on
your money. In a year you get $10,000 in income from interest and increase
your wealth to $110,000.
By analogy, we can think of energy from the sun as solar capital. Solar
energy includes direct sunlight and indirect forms of renewable solar energy
such as wind power, hydropower (energy from flowing water), and biomass
(direct solar energy converted to chemical energy and stored in biological
sources of energy such as wood).
Similarly, we can think of the planets air, water, soil, wildlife, forest,
rangeland, fishery, mineral, and energy resources and the processes of
natural purification, recycling, and pest control as natural resources or natural
capital. See the Guest Essay by Paul Hawken on the website for this chapter.
Natural capital consists of resources and ecological services that support and
sustain the earths life and economies.
This priceless natural capital that nature provides at no cost to us plus the
natural biological income it supplies can sustain the planet and our
economies indefinitely as long as we do not deplete them. Examples of
biological income are renewable supplies of wood, fish, grassland for grazing,
and underground water for drinking and irrigation.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society?
One That Preserves Natural Capital and Lives Off Its Income
An environmentally sustainable society meets the basic resource needs of its people
indefinitely without degrading or depleting the natural capital that supplies these
resources.
An environmentally sustainable society meets the current needs of its people for
food, clean water, clean air, shelter, and other basic resources without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Living
sustainably means living off natural income replenished by soils, plants, air, and
water and not depleting or degrading the earths natural capital that supplies this
biological income.
Imagine you win $1 million in a lottery. Invest this capital at 10% interest per year,
and you will have a sustainable annual income of $100,000 without depleting

your capital. If you spend $200,000 a year, your $1 million will be gone
early in the 7th year and even if you spend only $110,000 a year, you will
be bankrupt early in the 18th year.
The lesson here is an old one: Protect your capital and live off the income
it provides. Deplete, waste, or squander your capital, and you move from
a sustainable to an unsustainable lifestyle.
The same lesson applies to the earths natural capital. According to many
environmentalists and leading scientists, we are living unsustainably by
wasting, depleting, and degrading the earths natural capital at an
accelerating rate.
Some people disagree. They contend that environmentalists have
exaggerated the seriousness of population, resource, and environmental
problems. They also believe we can overcome these problems by human
ingenuity, economic growth, and technological advances.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


THE EARTHS NATURAL CAPITAL.
Energy from the sun (solar capital) and the earths natural capital provide resources
(orange) and ecological services (green) that support and sustain the earths life and
economies. Wedges from this diagram will be used near the titles of various
chapters to indicate the components of natural capital that are the primary focus of
such chapters.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


Natural capital: major types of material resources. This scheme is not fixed;
renewable resources can become nonrenewable if used for a prolonged period at a
faster rate than natural processes renew them.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


What Are Nonrenewable Resources?
Resources We Can Deplete
Nonrenewable resources can be economically depleted to the point where it costs
too much to obtain what is left.
Nonrenewable resources exist in a fixed quantity or stock in the earths crust. On a
time scale of millions to billions of years, geological processes can renew such
resources. But on the much shorter human time scale of hundreds to thousands of
years, these resources can be depleted much faster than they are formed.
These exhaustible resources include energy resources (such as coal, oil, and
natural gas that cannot be recycled),metallicmineral resources (such as iron,
copper, and aluminum that can be recycled), and nonmetallic mineral resources
(such as salt, clay, sand, and phosphates that usually are difficult or too costly to
recycle).
The production and depletion cycle of a nonrenewable energy or mineral resource.
We never completely exhaust such a resource, but it becomes economically
depletedwhen the costs of extracting and using what is left exceed its economic
value. At that point,we have six choices: try to findmore, recycle or reuse existing
supplies (except for nonrenewable energy resources, which cannot be recycled or
reused), waste less, use less, try to develop a substitute, or wait millions of years
formore to be produced.
Some nonrenewable mineral resources, such as copper and aluminum, can be
recycled or reused to extend supplies. Recycling involves collecting waste
materials, processing them into new materials, and selling these new products. For
example, discarded aluminum cans can be crushed and melted to make new
aluminum cans or other aluminum items that consumers can buy. Recycling means
nothing if we do not close the loop by buying products that are made from or contain
recycled materials. Reuse is using a resource again in the same form. For example,
glass bottles can be collected, washed, and refilled many times.
Recycling nonrenewable metallic resources takes much less energy, water, and
other resources and produces much less pollution and environmental degradation
than exploiting virgin metallic resources.
Reusing such resources takes even less energy and other resources and produces
less pollution and environmental degradation than recycling.
Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES
%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


POLLUTION.
Where Do Pollutants Come From, and What Are Their Harmful
Effects? Threats to Health and Survival
Pollutants are chemicals found at high enough levels in the environment to cause
harm to people or other organisms.
Pollution is the presence of substances at high enough levels in air, water, soil, or
food to threaten the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms.
Pollutants can enter the environment naturally (for example, from volcanic eruptions)
or through human or anthropogenic activities (for example, from burning coal). Most
pollution from human activities occurs in or near urban and industrial areas, where
pollution sources such as cars and factories are concentrated.
Industrialized agriculture is also a major source of pollution.Most pollutants are
unintended by products of useful activities such as burning coal to generate
electricity, driving cars, and growing crops.
Some pollutants contaminate the areas where they are produced and some are
carried by wind or flowing water to other areas. Pollution does not respect the neat
territorial political lines we draw on maps.
The pollutants we produce come from two types of sources. Point sources of
pollutants are single, identifiable sources. Examples are the smokestack of a coalburning power plant, the drainpipe of a factory, and the exhaust pipe of an
automobile. Nonpoint sources of pollutants are dispersed and often difficult to
identify. Examples are pesticides sprayed into the air or blown by the wind into the
atmosphere and runoff of fertilizers and pesticides from farmlands, golf courses, and
suburban lawns and gardens into streams and lakes. It is much easier and cheaper
to identify and control pollution from point sources than from widely dispersed
nonpoint sources.
1.
2.
3.

Pollutants can have three types of unwanted effects.


First, they can disrupt or degrade life-support systems for humans and other
species.
Second, they can damage wildlife, human health, and property.
Third, they can be nuisances such as noise and unpleasant smells, tastes, and
sights.
Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES
%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


What Are Key Environmental Problems and Their Basic Causes?
The Big Five
The major causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful
resource use, poverty, poor environmental accounting, and ecological ignorance.

Natural capital degradation: major environmental and resource problems.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES%20docs/Living


%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


What Is the Relationship between Poverty and Environmental
Problems?
Being Poor Is Bad for People and the Earth Poverty is a major threat to
human health and the environment.
Many of the worlds poor do not have access to the basic necessities for a
healthy, productive, and decent life. Their daily lives are focused on getting
enough food, water, and fuel (for cooking and heat) to survive. Desperate for
land to grow enough food, many of the worlds poor people deplete and
degrade forests, soil, grasslands, and wildlife for short-term survival. They do
not have the luxury of worrying about long-term environmental quality or
sustainability.
Another problemfor the poor is living in areas with high levels of air and water
pollution and with a great risk of natural disasters such as floods,
earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. And they usually must take
jobsif they can find themwith unhealthy and unsafeworking conditions at
very lowpay.
Poverty also affects population growth. Poor people often have many children
as a form of economic security. Their children help them grow food, gather
fuel (mostly wood and dung), haul drinking water, tend livestock, work, and
beg in the streets. The children also help their parents survive in their old age
before they die, typically in their 50s in the poorest countries.
The poor do not have retirement plans, social security, or governmentsponsored health plans.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


What Is the Relationship between Resource Consumption and
Environmental Problems? Affluenza
Many consumers in developed countries have become addicted to buying more
and more stuff in their search for fulfillment and happiness.
Affluenza (af-loo-EN-zuh) is a term used to describe the unsustainable
addiction to over consumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of
affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries. It is
based on the assumption that buying more and more things can, should, and
does buy happiness.
Most people infected with this contagious shop-till-you-drop virus have some
telltale symptoms. They feel overworked, have high levels of debt and bankruptcy, suffer from increasing stress and anxiety, have declining health, and feel
unfulfilled in their quest to accumulate more and more stuff. As humorist Will
Rogers said, Too many people spend money they havent earned to buy things
they dont want, to impress people they dont like. For some, shopping until
you drop means shopping until you go bankrupt.
Between 1998 and 2001, more Americans declared bankruptcy than graduated
from college.
Globalization and global advertising are now spreading the virus throughout
much of the world. Affluenza has an enormous environmental impact. It takes
about 27 tractor-trailer loads of resources per year to support one American.
This amounts to 7.9 billion truckloads of resources a year to support the
population. Stretched end-to-end, these trucks would more than reach the sun.
What can we do about affluenza? The first step for addicts is to admit they have
a problem. Then they begin steps to kick their addiction by going on a stuff diet.
For example, before buying anything a person with the affluenza addiction
should ask: Do I really need this or merely want it? Can I buy it secondhand
(reuse)? Can I borrow it from a friend or relative? Another withdrawal strategy:
Do not hang out with other addicts.
Shopaholics should avoidmalls asmuch as they can.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Environmental wisdom worldview


The environmental worldview, known as the environmental wisdom worldview, is
based on the following major beliefs,which are the opposite of those making up the
planetarymanagement worldview:
1.

Nature exists for all species, not just for us and we are not in charge of the
earth.
The earths resources are limited, should not be wasted, and are not all for us.
We should encourage earth-sustaining forms of economic growth and
discourage earth-degrading forms.
Our success depends on learning how the earth sustains itself and integrating
such lessons from nature (environmental wisdom) into the ways we think and
act.

2.
3.
4.

Some people in todays industrial


consumer societies have a

planetary management
worldview . Here are the basic
environmental beliefs of this
worldview:
1.
2.
3.
4.

As the planets most important


species, we are in charge of
nature.
We will not run out of resources
because of our ability to
develop and find new ones.
The potential for global
economic growth is essentially
unlimited.
Our success depends on how
well we manage the earths lifesupport systems, mostly for our
own benefit.

The environmental worldview, known as


the stewardship worldview , consists
of the following major beliefs:
1.

2.
3.

4.

We are the planets most important


species but we have an ethical
responsibility to care for the rest of
nature.
We will probably not run out of
resources but they should not be
wasted.
We should encourage environmentally
beneficial forms of economic growth
and discourage environmentally
harmful forms of economic growth.
Our success depends on how well we
can manage the earths life-support
systems for our benefit and for the
rest of nature.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


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Environmental wisdom worldview


What Are the Greatest Environmental Problems We Face Now and in the
Future?

The Big Picture


Poverty and malnutrition, smoking, infectious diseases, water shortages, biodiversity
loss, and climate changes are the most serious environmental problems we face.
The major environmental problems on a time scale in terms of the estimated number
of people prematurely killed annually today and over the next
hundred years.
From this diagram you can see that we should focus our money, minds, and hearts
on reducing the environmental risks from poverty, malnutrition, unsafe drinking
water, smoking, air pollution, infectious diseases (AIDS, TB, malaria, and hepatitis
B), water shortages, climate changes, and loss and degradation of biodiversity. The
poor in developing countries bear the brunt of most of these serious problems.

Priorities: ranking of major


environmental risks in terms of the
estimated number of people
prematurely killed annually now
(yellow) and over the next hundred
years (red). Some scientists consider
biodiversity loss and climate change
the two most serious ecological risks
to humans and other species.
Estimates of deaths from biodiversity
loss and climate change 50 or more
years into the future are difficult to
make and could be higher or lower
than those shown here.
(Data from UN Food and Agriculture
Organization, World Health
Organization, United Nations
Environment Program, U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention,
and the World Bank)

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Environmental wisdom worldview


What Is Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development?
Rewarding Environmentally Beneficial Activities Environmentally sustainable
economic development rewards environmentally beneficial and sustainable
activities and discourages environ-mentally harmful and unsustainable activities.
During this century, many analysts call for us to put much greater emphasis on
environmentally sustainable economic development. The lists some of the shifts
involved in implementing such an environmental, or sustainability, revolution during
this century based on this concept. Study this figure carefully.
This type of development uses economic rewards (government subsidies and tax
breaks) to encourage environmentally beneficial and more sustainable forms of
economic growth and economic penalties (government taxes and regulations) to
discourage environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth.

Solutions: some shifts involved in the environmental or sustainability


revolution.

Diunduh dari : http://www.instruction.greenriver.edu/mcvay/ES204%20DE/ES


%20docs/Living%20in%20an%20exponential%20world.pdf..

Apakah empat prinsip ilmiah dari


keberlanjutan?
Konsep 1-6
Alam telah mempertahankan dirinya sendiri selama berjuta
tahun dnegan menggunakan Energi Matahari,,
Biodiversitas, Regulasi Populasi, dan Siklus Hara
Pelajaran dari alam yang dapat kita gunakan dalam
kehidupan dan ekonomi kita.

Diunduh dari : http://www.catallaxis.com/2006/02/sustainable_gro.html..

Toward an Integral Reconciliation


The physical dimension of the economy, which can be measured in terms
of the scale of material, energy, chemical, and biological throughput, does
indeed comprise an economic sub-system of the world's physical
biosphere, which includes the sources and sinks for the economic
throughput. This is the partial truth in the ecological vision of the economy
and it affirms the existence of certain physical limits to the scale of
economic growth--but, strictly speaking, these limits only apply to physical
economic growth.

Diunduh dari : http://www.catallaxis.com/2006/02/sustainable_gro.html..

EMPAT PRINSIP ILMIAH DARI


KEBERLANJUTAN

Diunduh dari : ..

ENERGI MATAHARI
What is solar energy?
Solar Energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life
on earth. For many decades solar energy has been considered as a
huge source of energy and also an economical source of energy
because it is freely available. However, it is only now after years of
research that technology has made it possible to harness solar
energy.
Some of the modern Solar Energy systems consist of magnifying glasses
along with pipes filled with fluid. These systems consist of frontal glass that
focuses the suns light onto the pipes. The fluid present in the pipes heats
up instantly. In addition they pipes are painted black on the outside so as to
absorb maximum amount of heat. The pipes have reflective silver surface
on the back that reflects the sunlight back, thus heating the pipes further.
This reflective silver surface also helps in protecting everything that is on
the back of the solar panel.

Diunduh dari : http://www.solarenergy.gen.in/..

BIODIVERSITAS
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given
species, ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a
measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a
function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are
typically rich whereas polar regions support fewer species.

The diversity of species and genes in ecological communities


affects the functioning of these communities. These ecological
effects of biodiversity in turn affect both climate change through
enhanced greenhouse gases, aerosols and loss of land cover, and
biological diversity, causing a rapid loss of ecosystems and
extinctions of species and local populations. The current rate of
extinction is sometimes considered a mass extinction, with current
species extinction rates on the order of 100 to 1000 times as high
as in the past.
The two main areas where the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem
function have been studied are the relationship between diversity
and productivity, and the relationship between diversity and
community stability. More biologically diverse communities appear
to be more productive (in terms of biomass production) than are
less diverse communities, and they appear to be more stable in the
face of perturbations.

Diunduh dari : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_effects_of_biodiversity ..

SIKLUS HARA
In biology, the nutrient cycle is a concept that describes how
nutrients move from the physical environment into living organisms,
and subsequently are recycled back to the physical environment.
This movement of nutrients, essential for life, from the environment
into plants and animals and back again, is a vital function of the
ecology of any region.
In any particular environment, the nutrient cycle must be balanced
and stable if the organisms that live in that environment are to
flourish and be maintained in a constant population.

The carbon nutrient cycle is perhaps the most basic


and essential cycle for life on Earth, as life on our
planet is carbon-based.
Carbon is present in large quantities in the air in the
form of carbon dioxide. When plants
photosynthesize, they take carbon dioxide from the
air, and use it to create molecules of sugar, starch,
protein, and other foods. This is the first part of the
carbon cycle.
The carbon that is present in plants is now available
to herbivores, or plant-eating animals.

Diunduh dari : http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-nutrient-cycle.htm..

PENGENDALIAN POPULASI
Periodic increases in human population and carrying capacity.
The progressive increases in agricultural production generally required more
effort to structure ecosystems so that a larger share of their biological
production was channelled to human consumption. This is the principle of no
free lunch. Every choice has advantages and disadvantages. Every gain has
its costs. One of the costs of more food is more work.

Human effort required for


technologies that provide
higher food production

Diunduh dari : http://www.gerrymarten.com/human-ecology/chapter03.html..

BELAJAR HIDUP RAMAH-LINGKUNGAN

Diunduh dari : ..

PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN
Pencemaran lingkungan adalah suatu keadaan lingkungan
tanah,air, dan udara dimana yang semulanya bersih menjadi kotor
yang merupakan dampak yang sangat serius bagi keadaan bumi
dan juga bagi kesehatan makhluk hidup yang hidup disekitarnya.

Pencemaran air
Suatu perubahan keadaan air yang disebabkan oleh sampahsampah, maupun limbah pabrik yang dapat merusak ekosistem laut
dan dapat berbahaya bagi manusia apabila kita menggunakan air
tersebut untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari.

Diunduh dari : http://donaayuqueen21.blogspot.com/2012/01/pencemaranlingkungan.html..

PERLINDUNGAN SPESIES
Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an
endangered species or opportunity for the developing
world?
Anant Bhan, Peter A Singer and Abdallah S Daar
BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010, 10:8

Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development


has been slowed down because of opposition by some
philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question
the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about
transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a
contemporary western world view as a reference point. Humananimal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause
significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world
as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary
that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural
perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the
developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have
been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries
in the developing world.
To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like
malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we
recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine
development in developing countries (especially China and India
which have growing technical expertise in the area). The negative
perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal
chimeras can be used as an opportunity for nurturing important
vaccine development research in the developing world.

Diunduh dari : http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-698X/10/8/abstract/..

PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH
Penanganan Limbah Cair.
Air limbah yang belum mengalami pengolahan dapat dipastikan mengandung
banyak komponen komponen yang tidak diinginkan, Bila dibuang ke
lingkungan perairan. Beberapa diantaranya akan memunculkan masalah
kekurangan oksigen. Sementara yang lainnya mungkin merangsang
pertumbuhan mikrorganisme tertentu seperti alga.
Komponen komponen tersebut terdiri atas bahan organik maupun
anorganik baik bahan terlarut maupun tidak terlarut. Dengan demikian
karakteristik air limbah merupakan hal penting sebelum memulai proses
seleksi dan perancangan. Air limbah diklasifikasikan menjadi dua, yaitu
limbah industri dan air limbah perkotaan. Kedua jenis air limbah ini secara
bersama sama sering di buang di saluran saluran yang sama maupun ke
badan badan air seperti sungai sungai.

Diunduh dari : http://nebulasblogger.blogspot.com/2011/05/penanganan-limbah-cairdan-gas.html ..

PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH
Penanganan Limbah Gas.
Limbah gas yang berupa uap air atau gas karbondioksida dapat dibuang ke
udara langsung melalui asap yang tinggi. Limbah gas yang membahayakan
seperti SO ( Belerang Dioksida ) dapat ditangani dengan cara tertentu.
Sejumlah proses dilakukan dengan pemisahan partikel pyrite yang
merupakan sumber belerang dioksida dan batu bara. Pembakaran batu
bara dalam tempat yang dialasi butiran butiran halus dari batu kapur atau
dolomite akan mampu menyerap gas belerang oksida. Gas polutan
dipanaskan terlebih dahulu dan dimasukkan ke dalam tungku perapian,
dimana batu kapur akan bereaksi dengan belerang dioksida (SO2) dan
oksigen (O2)untuk menghasilkan kalsium sulfat (CaSO4 atau gips). Proses
ini dapat memisahkan sekitar 20-30% sulfur oksida. Senyawa sulfat, abu
terbang, dan kapur yang tidak bereaksi mengalir melalui pre-heater sebelum
memasuki wet scrubber, agar senyawa tersebut dapat mengalami kontak
dengan air . Efisiensi pemisahan yang dapat tercapai adalah sebesar 80%
untuk SO2 dan 98% untuk zat partikulat.

Diunduh dari : http://nebulasblogger.blogspot.com/2011/05/penanganan-limbah-cairdan-gas.html ..

DEGRADASI LINGKUNGAN
Environmental degradation can lead to a scarcity of resources, such as water and
farmable.
Extreme weather events, such as severe flooding, increase the spread of
waterborne diseases, such as malaria and diarrhoea.
The effects of the major environmental problems on both health and productivity are:
1. Water pollution and water scarcity: As per the estimation of UN, more than
two million deaths and billions of illnesses a year are attributable to water
pollution. Water scarcity compounds these health problems. Productivity is
affected by the costs of providing safe water, by constraints on economic activity
caused by water shortages, and by the adverse effects of water pollution and
shortages on other environmental resources such as, declining fisheries and
acquifer depletion leading to irreversible compaction.
2. Air pollution: As per the estimation of UN, urban air pollution is responsible for
300,000700,000 deaths annually and creates chronic health problems for
many more people. Restrictions on vehicles and industrial activity during critical
periods affect productivity, as does the effect of acid rain on forests and water
bodies.
3. Solid and hazardous wastes: Diseases are spread by uncollected garbage
and blocked drains; the health risks from hazardous wastes are typically more
localized, but often acute. Wastes affect productivity through the pollution of
groundwater resources.
4. Soil degradation: Depleted soils increase the risks of malnutrition for farmers.
Productivity losses on tropical soils are estimated to be in the range of 0.5-1.5
per cent of GNP, while secondary productivity losses are due to siltation of
reservoirs, transportation channels and other hydrologic investments.
5. Deforestation: Death and disease can result from the localized flooding caused
by deforestation. Loss of sustainable logging potential and of erosion
prevention, watershed stability and carbon sequestration provided by forests are
among the productivity impacts of deforestation.
6. Loss of biodiversity: The extinction of plant and animal species will potentially
affect the development of new drugs; it will reduce ecosystem adaptability and
lead to the loss of genetic resources.
7. Atmospheric changes: Ozone depletion is responsible for perhaps 300,000
additional cases of skin cancer a year and 1.7 million cases of cataracts. Global
warming may lead to increase in the risk of climatic natural disasters.
Productivity impacts may include sea-rise damage to coastal investments,
regional changes in agricultural productivity and disruption of the marine food
chain.
Diunduh dari : http://saferenvironment.wordpress.com/2008/08/18/effects-ofenvironmental-degradation/ ..

EKSPLOITASI

SUMBERDAYA ALAM

FOREST EXPLOITATION
Definition:
Forests have been exploited over the centuries as a source of wood and for
obtaining land for agricultural use. The mismanagement of forest lands and
forest resources has led to a situation where the forest is now in rapid retreat.
The main aspects of the situation are: serious shortages in the supply of
industrial wood; the catastrophic erosion and floods accompanying the
stripping of forests from mountainous land; the acute shortages of fuel wood
in much of the developing world; the spread of desert conditions at an
alarming rate in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world; and the many
environmental effects of the destruction of tropical rainforests. (Source: WPR)

Illegal Logging, A Rising Concern In East Province


By Robert Tumasang
Illegal forest exploitation has become an issue of great concern to
environment and forestry officials in the East Province.

Indiscriminate logging destroys the eco-system


Statistics from the East Provincial Delegation of Forestry and Wildlife indicate
that 1665 cubic meters of white wood were seized from loggers in the Dengdeng
and Goyoum forest reserves between November 2007 and April 2008.

Diunduh dari : http://www.postnewsline.com/2008/06/illegal-logging.html

PERTUMBUHAN PENDUDUK
How Global Population Growth is Creating Serious
Environmental Problems
Population growth causes problems from water scarcity to
species extinction
From Earth Talk.

Population Growth Causes Multiple Environmental Problems


According to Population Connection, population growth since 1950 is
behind the clearing of 80 percent of rainforests, the loss of tens of
thousands of plant and wildlife species, an increase in greenhouse gas
emissions of some 400 percent and the development or
commercialization of as much as half of the Earths surface land.
The group fears that in the coming decades half of the worlds population
will be exposed to water-stress or water-scarce conditions, which are
expected to intensify difficulties in meetingconsumption levels, and
wreak devastating effects on our delicately balanced ecosystems.
Water & Population Growth
Global Water Supply Drying Up as Population Grows
One Third of World's Population Lacks Fresh Water
Water Now More Valuable Than Oil
Effects of Population Growth
Half of Remaining Rainforest Could Soon Disappear
Malnutrition, Pollution and Population Growth Spur Increase of Deadly
Diseases
What is Drought?

Diunduh dari :

DEGRADASI MODAL ALAM


. FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL CAPITAl
It is the characteristics of the ecosystems, or naturalcapital, which
give rise to the flows emanating from this capital, which De Groot
(1992) calls environmental functions, defined as the capacity of
natural processes and components to provide goods and services
that satisfy human needs (directly and/or indirectly).
The goods (e.g. resources) are usually provided by the ecosystem
components (plants, animals, minerals, etc.); the services (e.g.
waste recycling) by the ecosystem processes (biogeochemical
cycling).
Environmental functions have been identified and classified in a
number of different ways. De Groot et al. (2002_ divides them into
four categories:
1. Regulation functions: regulation of essential ecological
processes and life support systems (bio-geochemical cycling,
climate regulation, water purification, etc.);
2. Production functions: harvesting from natural ecosystems of,
for example, food, raw materials and genetic resources;
3. Habitat functions: provision by natural ecosystems of refuge
and reproduction-habitat to wild plants and animals and thereby
contribution to the (in situ) conservation of biological and genetic
diversity and evolutionary processes.
4. Information functions: provision of many possibilities for
recreation and aesthetic enjoyment, cultural and historical
information, artistic and spiritual inspiration, education and
scientific research.
Sumber: Ecological Economics. Volume 44, Issues 23, March 2003, Pages
165185

Diunduh dari :
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800902002720..

MODAL ALAM
VALUES AND ATTRIBUTES OF NATURALCAPITAL
De Groot (1992) has identified nine different types of values of
environmental functions, grouped under the three dimensions of
sustainable development:
1. Ecological (conservation and existence values).
2. Social (human health, personal, community and option values).
3. Economic (consumptive, productive and employment values).
These values are a direct source of human welfare. Conservation
value principally resides in the regulation life-support functions.
Existence value reflects the welfare people derive from simply
knowing that some environmental function, or part of nature, exists.
Many environmental functions contribute directly or indirectly to
human health. Many environmental functions, especially the habitat
and information functions, contribute to community well-being.
Option value derives from the concerns that people have to maintain
environmental functions for possible use by future generations.
The economic values of consumptive and productive use mainly
derive from the source and sink environmental functions.
Employment values derive also from the service environmental
functions (e.g. the dependence of much tourism on unspoilt natural
areas).
Sumber: Ecological Economics. Volume 44, Issues 23, March 2003, Pages
165185

Diunduh dari :
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800902002720..

MODAL ALAM
Environmental functions and attributes: human influences and welfare.
There are social, economic,
ethical and environmental
influences on the
naturalcapital stock, the
elements of which are matter,
energy and ecosystems,
which include humancultivated ecosystems (e.g.
plantation forests, crops).
These elements are caught
up in natural processes which
sustain the ecosystems and
all life within them, which are
collectively called the
functions of naturalcapital
and which may also be
described as regulation,
habitat or life-support
functions.
They both sustain ecosystems
and give them resilience.

The identification of environmental functions and the naturalcapital that


is required for them is largely an objective exercise informed by
environmental science, although there remain large areas of
uncertainty or even ignorance1 concerning the causes, effects and
dynamics of the functions of naturalcapital that sustain ecosystems.
Diunduh dari :
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800902002720..

Dua sudut Pandang Ekonomi

ANALISIS EKO-EFISIENSI
What is eco-efficiency?
The purpose of Eco-Efficiency Analysis is to harmonize economy and
ecology. BASF SE in Ludwigshafen, Germany, is the first chemical company
to develop this method for use in its business activities. BASF started to
develop this inhouse tool in 1996. To date, more than 400 different products
and manufacturing processes have been analyzed using the new method.
Eco-Efficiency Analysis is applied in order to use as few materials and energy
as possible in producing our products and to keep emissions as low as
possible. At the same time, our products can help our customers conserve
resources and save energy. Eco-efficiency analyses are offered to BASF
business units and to external customers as well.

Ecological Footprint

Diunduh dari : http://ecogenerator.blogspot.com/2011/04/aligning-environmental-

ANALISIS EKO-EFISIENSI
Economic analysis
Economic and ecological data are plotted on an x/y graph. The costs are
shown on the horizontal axis and the environmental impact is shown on the
vertical axis. The graph reveals the eco-efficiency of a product or process
compared to other products or processes. And it allows us to look into the
future, since Eco-Efficiency Analysis is utilized in making strategic decisions
and it also helps detect and exploit potential ecological and economic
improvements.

Diunduh dari : http://ecogenerator.blogspot.com/2011/04/aligning-environmentaland-business.html..