Principle of Training | Strength Training | Aerobic Exercise

SPS 311 ± Physical Conditioning Mohd Fadzil b. Hj.

Kamarudin UiTM

WHY.. ?

For safety & effectiveness
PROGRESSIO N OVERLOAD SPECIFICITY FREQUENCY VOLUME DURATION REST REVERSIBILIT Y
INDIVIDUALIZATIO N

VARIATION SEQUENCE TIMING BALANCE FUN

PROGRESSION
It is the act of moving forward or advancing towards a specific goal step by step ‡ E.g.
‡

Simple Less Light

Complex More Heavy

OVERLOAD
Working above & beyond what one is used to be doing. ‡ E.g.
‡

Training method Strength

Training variables

Increase: training load, number of sets, number of repetitions Flexibility Increase in the range of motion (ROM) Cardiovascular Increase duration, intensity,

SPECIFICITY
It refers to the specific adaptation responses to the specific of stimulus imposed. ‡ E.g.
‡

Strength
x Rugby vs soccer

Endurance
x Basketball vs netball

Flexibility
x Fencing vs martial arts

FREQUENCY
It is the optimal number of training sessions to be performed in a week to yield optimum physiological improvements. It is dependent upon principles of reversibility & rest ‡ E.g.
‡

2 days / week 3 days / week 4 days / week 5 days / week

INTENSITY
Degree of stress imposed on the body¶s systems to yield the necessary acute physiological changes ‡ Determines the µQUALIT OF TRAINING¶ ‡ E.g.
‡

Heart rate for cardiovascular training Training load for resistance training Range of motion for flexibility

INTENSITY
Scale of Intensities for Speed & Strength Exercises Intensity number % of max Intensity
‡ 1 2 3 4 5 6 performance 30 ± 50 50 ± 70 70 ± 80 80 ± 90 90 ± 100 100 ± 105 Low Intermediate Medium Submaximum Maximum Supermaximum

INTENSITY
‡

5 zones of Intensity for Cyclic Sports
Duration of work 1-15s Levels of intensity Up to maximum limits Maximum Submaximu m Medium Low System producing the energy ATP-CP ERGOGENESIS % Anaerobic 100-95 Aerobic 0-5

Zone no 1

2 3 4 5

15-60S 1-6 min 6-30 min Over 30 min

ATP-CP & LA LA & aerobic Aerobic Aerobic

90-80 70-(40-30) (40-30)-10 5

10-20 30-(60-70) (60-70)-90 95

INTENSITY
‡

4 Zones of Intensity Based on HR Reactions to Training Load
Zone 1 2 3 4 Type of intensity Low Medium High Maximum eart rate / min. 120-150 150-170 170-185 >185

VOLUME
‡ ‡ ‡

Amount of work performed in a training session, dependent upon type of training Summation of: set, reps, intensity, duration, frequency E.g.
Increase duration of a training session.
x Previous training ± 3 sessions of 60 minutes activity /

week x New training ± 3 X 90 minutes activity / week

Increase number of training sessions / week.
x From 3 X 120 minutes to 5 X 120 minutes

Increase number of repetitions, drills, or technical elements / training lesson.

DURATION
The amount of time required to be spent on specific exercise or phase of training to yield the necessary physiological changes & adaptation. ‡ E.g.
‡

Must train between 35-45 minute for aerobic capacity for 10-11 weeks for optimum adaptation.

REST
‡ ‡

Time spent to allow body to recuperate & regenerate after training. Dependent upon:
Type of training Intensity Objective of training Fitness level Muscle Energy utilization

‡

E.g.
Rest between 48-72 hrs in resistance training is recommended

REVERSIBILITY
The onset of detraining effect following no training continuation after exceeding the appropriate rest period. ‡ E.g.
‡

One start to lose muscle strength following 96 (4 days) hrs of no strength

INDIVIDUALIZATION
Specific training consideration & prescription to individual differences. ‡ E.g.
‡

Age Gender Fitness level Training goal Training experience

VARIATION
Varieties of elements implemented to prevent stagnation from happening either physiologically or psychologically due to saturation and/or boredom ‡ E.g.
‡

Change the training program once ion every two weeks.

SEQUENCE
The sequencing of exercises/ methods of exercise/ muscles groups during a workout will affect the acute expression of the physiological stress. ‡ E.g.
‡

Resistance training ± work big muscles to small muscles. General warm-up ± specific warm-up ± main activity ± cool down.

TIMING
To train what and when, as to take advantage of the body¶s chronological changes. ‡ Specific training/exercise based on the different phases of training. ‡ E.g.
‡

Train strength & hypertrophy in the evening to used the advantage of testosterone hormone release. Do not train when you are sick or fatigue.

BALANCE
‡

To attain a balanced ratio of development for all the necessary components of physical fitness required for the sports and the human body (the concept of balanced multilateral development).

FUN
‡

To make training sessions more challenging, meaningful & enjoyable.

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