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**The Stationary States of the Many-Electron Atom are
**

determined by the overall properties of the Atom, not those of

the individual electrons that exist in the atom.

What are these overall properties?

• The total orbital angular momentum of the electrons, L

• The total spin angular momentum of the electrons, S

• The total angular momentum of the atom, J

Thus, the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian for the atom are

labeled by these properties. These labels are called

Atomic Term Symbols.

**Atomic Term Symbols
**

The 'definition' of the term symbol:

LJ

2S+1

Note: In the symbol L must be replaced with its alphabetic 'code':

L=0 is S,

L=1 is P,

L=2 is D,

L=3 is F,

L=4 is G,

L=5 is H...

J is the vector sum of L and S:

J = (L+S), (L+S-1), (L+S-2), ....|L-S|

Assigning Term Symbols: The ground state of hydrogen atom is one electron in the lowest energy atomic orbital: the 1s. Therefore the total orbital angular momentum of all (one) electrons is L=l=0. Applying the 'definition' of the term symbol results in a 2S1/2 atomic term for the ground state of the H atom. . but at different energies. This symbol is ‘read’: “doublet Ess one half” Exciting the single hydrogenic electron to higher orbitals results in different atomic states or 'terms' of the atom. Note that an H atom with the electron in a 3d and 10d orbital both result in 2D3/2 and 2D5/2 terms. and the total electron spin is S=s=1/2.

Therefore. any electron configuration (orbital population) that consists of any combination of closed shells or subshells will result in this (totally symmetric 1S0 term. the contribution from closed subshell electrons may be neglected. What can’t be neglected? The resultant angular momenta of the open-shell electrons in the atom! . The ground state of the neutral helium atom is therefore 1S0 since the total orbital and spin angular momentum of this configuration is zero. in the designation of atomic terms. In fact.The lowest electron configuration of He is 1s2.

sometimes many microstates are needed to describe a given Term. It is our job to account for each and every possible way in which the properties of the electrons will sum up and sort those possibilities into those corresponding to distinct Terms (total energies. . ms (s is the same for all e-’s ) of each electron: This is called a microstate.Because the angular momenta of each electron adds to the rest of the electrons vectorially. be more than one possible result of this addition. atomic eigenstates). A given microstate is not necessarily a good description of the state of the entire atom. ml. in general. We will seek to categorize each the ways in which the electrons add up by a complete description of the l. there will.

this value is #microstates(single open subshell) = (2(2l+1))!/e!(2(2l+1)-e)! 3.To determine the states (Terms) of a given Atom or Ion: 1. If you have e electrons in a single open subshell of 2l+1 orbitals. Determine the lowest term for the configuration by Hunds Rules. Decompose your table into terms by elimination 5. . Test the total degeneracy of the resultant terms to account for all the microstates counted in parts 2 and 3 6. Tabulate the number of microstates that have a given ML and MS 4. Determine the number of distinct microstates that can represent that configuration. Write down the electronic configuration (ignore closed subshell electrons) 2.

Summary Examples H (1s1) ground state term symbol is 2S1/2 He (1s2) Ground state term symbol is 1S0 .

He (1s12s1) An Excited State Configuration Terms: 1S0 . 3S1 { There is neither a 3 S0 nor a 3 S-1 Term } .

B (1s22s22p1) {ground state} Term symbol: 2P1/2. . 2P3/2 The spin orbit splitting is regular so 2 P1/2 is the ground state.

2 2 2 C (1s 2s 2p ) {lowest electron configuration} Calculate the number of possible electron arrangements in the given configuration: There are 6!/4!2! = 15 microstates expected Write down all these possibilities : .

Tabulate the total numbers by ML and MS .

Decompose this table into terms .

Check with reality: .

2 2 3 N (1s 2s 2p ) {lowest energy configuration} This configuration has 6!/3!3! = 20 microstates Draw all the possibilities .

Tabulate the totals .

Assign Terms .

Check with reality .

however. the ordering of the J levels is now inverted .What are the atomic state term symbols resulting from the lowest energy configuration of O (1s2 2s2 2p4) ? Aha! We don't haver to do this because the terms arising from p2 and p4 are exactly the same! Note.

Reality: .

you should try Ti(1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2) Here is the answer depicted graphically .If you think you have mastered the process of determining the states arising from a given electronic configuration.

Some results of this procedure for your amusement: .

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