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Principles of Engineering

© 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

Vectors

Vector Quantities

Have both a magnitude and direction

Examples: Position, force, moment

Vector Notation

Vectors are given a variable, such as A or B

Handwritten notation usually includes an

r ur

arrow, such as u

A or B

Illustrating Vectors

Vectors are represented by arrows

Include magnitude, direction, and sense

Magnitude: The length of the line segment

Magnitude = 3

30°

+X

Illustrating Vectors

Vectors are represented by arrows

Include magnitude, direction, and sense

Direction: The angle between a reference axis and

the arrow’s line of action

Direction = 30° counterclockwise from the

positive x-axis

30°

+x

Illustrating Vectors

Vectors are represented by arrows

Include magnitude, direction, and sense

Sense: Indicated by the direction of the tip of

the arrow

Sense = Upward and to the right

30°

+x

Sense

+y (up)

+y (up)

-x (left)

+x (right)

(0,0)

-y (down)

-x (left)

-y (down)

+x (right)

Trigonometry Review

Right Triangle

A triangle with a 90° angle

Sum of all interior angles = 180°

Pythagorean Theorem: c2 = a2 + b2

te

o

p

Hy

s

nu

p)

y

h

e(

Opposite Side

(opp)

90°

Adjacent Side (adj)

Trigonometry Review

Trigonometric Functions soh cah toa

sin θ° = opp / hyp

cos θ° = adj / hyp

tan θ° = opp / adj

te

o

p

Hy

s

nu

p)

y

h

e(

Opposite Side

(opp)

90°

Adjacent Side (adj)

Trigonometry Application

The hypotenuse is the Magnitude of the

Force, F

In the figure here,

The adjacent side is the x-component, Fx

The opposite side is the y-component, Fy

ten

o

p

Hy

use

F

Opposite Side

Fy

90°

Adjacent Side Fx

Trigonometry Application

sin θ° = Fy / F

Fy= F sin θ°

cos θ° = Fx / F

Fx= F cos θ°

tan θ° = Fy / Fx

se

u

ten

o

p

Hy

F

Opposite Side

Fy

90°

Adjacent Side Fx

Fx and Fy are negative if left or down, respectively.

**VectorurX and Y Components
**

Vector A

Magnitude = 75.0 lb

Direction = 35.0°CCW from positive x-axis

+y

Sense = right, up

35.0°

-x

+x

-y

**Vector X and Y Components
**

Solve for

+y

35.0°

-x

+x

-y

**Vector X and Y Components
**

Solve for

+y

35.0°

-x

+x

-y

**Vector X and Y Components – Your Turn
**

ur

Vector B

Magnitude =

Direction =

+y

Sense =

-x

75.0 lb

35.0°CW from positive x-axis

right, down

+x

35.0°

-y

**Vector X and Y Components – Your Turn
**

Solve for

+y

-x

+x

35.0°

-y

**Vector X and Y Components – Your Turn
**

Solve for

+y

-x

+x

35.0°

-y

Resultant Force

Two people are pulling a boat to shore.

They are pulling with the same magnitude.

35.0

35.0

Resultant Force

**List the forces according to
**

sense.

Label right and up forces

as positive, and label left

and down forces as

negative.

35

35

Resultant Force

Sum () the forces

Magnitude is 122.9 lb

Direction is 0° from the positive x-axis

Sense is right

Resultant Force

•Draw the resultant force ()

Magnitude is 123 lb

Direction is 0° from the positive x-axis

Sense is right

Resultant Force

60.

30.

**Determine the sense,
**

magnitude, and

direction for the

resultant force.

Resultant Force

Find the x and y components of vector C.

60.

Resultant Force

Find the x and y components of vector D.

30.

Resultant Force

**List the forces according to
**

sense.

Label right and up forces

as positive, and label left

and down forces as

negative.

60

30

Resultant Force

Sum () the forces

Sense is right and up.

Resultant Force

Draw the x and y components of the resultant

force.

Two equivalent ways to draw the X and Y components

496.4 lb

59.8 lb

496.4 lb

59.8 lb

Resultant Force

Solve for magnitude.

59.8 lb

496.4 lb

Magnitude is 500. lb

Resultant Force

Solve for direction.

500. lb

496.4 lb

59.8 lb

opp

tan

adj

59.8 lb

tan

496.4 lb

1

59.8

tan

496.4

7

Direction is 7° counterclockwise from the positive x-axis.

Resultant Force

Draw the resultant force (FR)

Magnitude = 500. lb

Direction = 7° CCW from positive x-axis

Sense = right and up

500. lb

7°

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