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1.Can it be assumed that the
nonverbal plays a role in FL
classroom communication?
2.What specific functions does the
nonverbal play in teaching and
learning a FL?

images. and ideas that become part of the utterance.  To help the speaker activate and recall words. .NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE ENCODING  1) To mark units in which utterances are produced. thoughts.

. accentuation. intonation. Pronunciation of stressed syllables coincide with matching body movements to the extent that even without hearing the words. 1998)  The voice qualities of pitch. syllabication. an observer can actually see when the speaker is pronouncing stressed syllables by watching the corresponding body movements. Brown points out that the body movements of speakers of English are synchronized with phonemic clauses.NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE ENCODING PHONEMIC CLAUSES: A SEQUENCE OF SEGMENTAL PHONEMES BOUNDED BY SILENCE AND/OR A TERMINAL COUNTOUR.(Trager & Smith. and the pause. rhythm. loudness.

NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE ENCODING  The second way in which nonverbals are used in language encoding is by helping speakers get their thoughts out smoothly. "movements which are intimately tied to the content and / or flow of speech"  Illustrators serve five functions: 1) To indicate the intention to continue speaking while looking for a particular word. the speaker may either make movements as if trying to pluck the word out of the air or snap the fingers. Illustrators. . 2) As a sort of self-primer the speaker may wave an arm in the air or snap the fingers.

explaining how to take something apart. . 5) To indicate enthusiasm or disinterest. or defining concepts such as zig-zag.NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE ENCODING  Illustrators serve five functions: 3) To explain something that is difficult to put into words such as giving directions. 4) To punctuate speech or to add emphasis.

2) providing additional context. . and 3) facilitating recall.NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE DECODING  Nonverbals contribute to the comprehension of messages in three ways: 1) heightening attention.

and 3) providing imagery value . Gestures may contribute in at least three ways to a bottom-up approach in the early stages of information processing by: 1) providing movement.NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE DECODING  In a bottom-up approach attention is focused on the message itself in an attempt to extract and identify individual features into a pattern. 2) making the message more vivid.

1978)  Nonverbals in the FL classroom can facilitate comprehension by activating concepts already stored as mental representations in the students' memories. by providing additional  "The process of comprehension involves activating concepts related to those of the input and the context and engaging in inferences based primarily on those concepts" (Ortony. .NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE DECODING  Nonverbals enhance comprehension contextual information.

 The third way nonverbals contribute to comprehension is by facilitating recall. prepositions of place. or 3) providing redundancy. Elaborating to-be-remembered information by : 1) presenting it in a more descriptive context. and action verbs.NONVERBALS IN LANGUAGE DECODING  Allen and Valette (1994) suggest using gestures to convey the meanings of specific words such as descriptive adjectives. leads to a more durable memory trace . 2) enhancing the semantic involvement during the encoding process.

2) proxemics-space requirements. . and 4) nonverbal cues used to manage conversations. facial responses etc.. 3) kinesics-hand gestures.Nonverbals in Definitions of Communicative Competence  Hymes' definition of communicative competence includes the nonverbals: 1) haptics-permissible physical contact between speakers.

facial expression. Communicative competence includes nonverbal competence knowledge of all the varying nonverbal semantics of the second culture. . and an ability both to send and receive nonverbal signals unambiguously”.Nonverbals in Definitions of Communicative Competence  “We cannot underestimate the importance of nonverbal communication in second language learning and in conversational analysis. (Brown. and gestures. 1987)  Grammatical competence is concerned not only with the rules of grammar but also knowledge of the paralinguistic and kinesic features of the language such as intonation.

and gestures. clothing and ornamentation. .  Strategic competence includes nonverbal strategies which are used when communication breaks down or to enhance the effectiveness of communication.Nonverbals in Definitions of Communicative Competence  Sociolinguistic competence includes appropriate use of nonverbal signals such as eye tact. respect for personal space. how and where people touch others.

(1983)a gesture may serve as a coping strategy by either filling in for a word or expression or sustaining rapport throughout a momentary silence.Nonverbals in Definitions of Communicative Competence  Savignon states. .

by miming the action.  The comprehension approach makes liberal use of gestures.  New vocabulary in the direct method is presented by paraphrases.  In the early stages of the silent way hand gestures are used to indicate where further work is needed and to elicit desired responses. or by manipulating objects.Nonverbals in Instructional Models  Savignon's Theatre Arts component involves pantomime. .

Nonverbals in Instructional Models  Lozanov's suggestology is largely dependent upon the teacher's nonverbal behavior.  Total Physical Response synchronizes the language with body movements.  Teachers' nonverbal behavior is important in the natural approach .

.NONVERBALS AS TEACHING STRATEGIES AND IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT  Nonverbals may be used to: 1) Vary the tempo. and 7) Give students an idea of what to expect. 4) Indicate who is to respond. 2) Control participation. 6) Mark beginnings and ends of lessons. 3) Signal changes. 5) Cue choral response.

.NONVERBALS AS PART OF THE FL CULTURE  "The expression of culture is so bound up in nonverbal communication that the barriers to culture learning are more nonverbal than verbal" (Brown. 1987)  Kirch (1979) points out that culturally inappropriate body language manifests a foreign accent as much as inadequate phonological knowledge.

NONVERBALS AS PART OF THE FL CULTURE  Raffler. "If bilingualism is the goal of FL teaching student should be made truly bilingual.Engel (1980) states. which implies that he should also become bi-kinesic" .

1985) . FL fluency demands competency in nonverbal language" (Nuessel."A full appreciation and complete understanding of another language requires the student to become aware and attentive to all the channels of communication available for encoding and decoding linguistic information.