You are on page 1of 63

*Exercise 17

Gross Anatomy of the Brain & Cranial Nerves

*The Nervous System

1.Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal cord 2.Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All nervous tissue outside the CNS Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Ganglia Sensory receptors

Functional Organization of the Nervous System

Central Central Nervous Nervous

System System

Sensory Sensory or or Afferent Afferent

Division Division delivers delivers

Functional Organization of the Nervous System Central Central Nervous Nervous System System Sensory Sensory or or
Functional Organization of the Nervous System Central Central Nervous Nervous System System Sensory Sensory or or

Nervous Nervous System System

information information to to the the

Peripheral Peripheral Nervous Nervous

System System

Somatic Nervous

Somatic Nervous

System

System

Functional Organization of the Nervous System Central Central Nervous Nervous System System Sensory Sensory or or

Motor Motor or or Efferent Efferent

Division Division delivers delivers

Functional Organization of the Nervous System Central Central Nervous Nervous System System Sensory Sensory or or

sympathetic

sympathetic

MOTOR MOTOR commands commands

to to effectors effectors

Autonomic Nervous

Autonomic Nervous

System

System

parasympathetic

parasympathetic

*Divisions of the PNS

  • I. Sensory Division

Nerve fibers that conduct impulses toward the CNS

II. Motor Division

Nerve fibers that conduct impulses away from the CNS

A.Somatic Division voluntary (controls skeletal muscle) B.Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involuntary (controls smooth & cardiac muscle, glands, adipose) 1. Sympathetic – fight or flight 2. Parasympathetic – resting and digesting

4

*Embryology of the Brain

*Brain forms from three swellings at the tip of the developing neural tube

*Prosencephalon *Forms the cerebrum and diencephalon *Mesencephalon *Forms part of the brain stem *Rhombencephalon *Forms the cerebellum and part of the brainstem

5

Figure 12.2c, d

Figure 12.2c, d

*Major Regions and Landmarks

*Four major regions in the adult brain 1) Cerebrum 2) Diencephalon 3) Brain Stem

midbrain

pons

medulla oblongata

4) Cerebellum

7

*The Cerebrum

Has two hemispheres (left and right)

Surface contains

1. Gyri - elevated ridges 2. Sulci - shallow grooves 3. Fissures – deep grooves

FISSURES:

1. Longitudinal fissure separates two cerebral hemispheres 2. Transverse fissure separates cerebellum from cerebrum

GYRI:

1. Precentral gyrus

Contains the primary motor area which is responsible for conscious or voluntary movement

2. Poscentral gyrus Contains the primary somatosensory cortex where impulses travelling from sensory receptors are localized

SULCI:

1. Parieto-occipital sulcus separates parietal from occipital lobe 2. Lateral sulcus separates temporal from parietal lobe 3. Central sulcus separates frontal and parietal lobe

Precentral gyrus
Precentral gyrus

*Brain Gyri/Sulci/Fissures

Postcentral gyrus

Precentral gyrus Gyri/Sulci/Fissures Postcentral gyrus Central sulcus Central sulcus Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Lateral sulcus Lateral
Central sulcus Central sulcus Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Lateral sulcus Lateral sulcus *Brain Gyri/Sulci/Fissures Temporal lobe
Central sulcus
Central sulcus
Parietal lobe
Frontal lobe
Lateral sulcus
Lateral sulcus
*Brain
Gyri/Sulci/Fissures
Temporal lobe
cerebellum
12
Transverse fissure

Parieto-occipital sulcus

Parieto-occipital sulcus

Occipital lobe

* Brain Lobes Figure 12.6a–b

*Brain Lobes

Figure 12.6a–b
Figure 12.6a–b

*The cerebral lobes

1. Frontal Lobe *Precentral gyrus

*Primary motor cortex – conscious or voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.

*Premotor cortex – memory bank for skilled motor activities or activities of a patterned and repetitious nature.

*Brocas area - Motor area on left hemisphere that controls the muscles involved in speech.

*Prefrontal cortex – responsible for personality, complex reasoning, and intellect.

14

* Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

= primary motor cortex Figure 12.8a
= primary motor cortex
Figure 12.8a

*The cerebral lobes

2. Parietal Lobe *Postcentral gyrus

*Primary Somatosensory Cortex – receives impulses from sensory receptors (touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, and pain)

*Somatosensory association area – where the meaning of incoming stimuli is interpreted (awareness).

16

* Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

= primary motor cortex Figure 12.8a
= primary motor cortex
Figure 12.8a

*The cerebral lobes

3. Temporal *Primary Auditory Cortex – temporal lobe. *Auditory Association Area – interprets the sound heard by above area

*Wernickes area – only on left hemisphere, between parietal and temporal lobes. Unfamiliar words are sounded out.

*Uncus - Olfactory area (smell). DEEP

18

* Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

= primary motor cortex Figure 12.8a
= primary motor cortex
Figure 12.8a

* Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

= primary motor cortex
= primary motor cortex

Figure 12.8b

*The cerebral lobes

4. Occipital

*Primary Visual Cortex – perception of light

*Visual Association Area – interprets the images seen on the area above

5. Insula *Gustatory cortex (taste)

21

* Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex

= primary motor cortex Figure 12.8a
= primary motor cortex
Figure 12.8a

* Cerebral hemispheres - internal structures

*The cerebrum & cerebellum contain extensive areas of

*Gray matter (neural cortex) on the surface *White matter (tracts) on the interior

23

* Cerebral hemispheres - internal structures

*Gray matter

Slide # 46 Pyramidal neuron

Cell bodies of the neurons Dendrites Small unmyelinated axons Neuroglias

*White matter - fiber tracts (collections of myelinated axons & dendrites) that carry impulses to/from the neural cortex

*Corpus callosum is a commissural tract (connects and permits communication between hemispheres)

*Fornix is a tract concerned w/ olfaction & limbic system

24

*Sagittal Section

25
25

* Cerebral hemispheres - internal structures

Septum pellucidum – membrane that separates the lateral ventricles

Basal Nuclei

Clusters of neuron cell bodies (gray matter) embedded in the white matter of the cerebrum

Subconscious regulation of voluntary motor activities

  • a. Caudate Nucleus (comma shaped)

  • b. Lentiform Nucleus – putamen (lateral) and globus pallidus (medial)

26

*Basal Nuclei

* Basal Nuclei Figure 12.11a
* Basal Nuclei Figure 12.11a

Figure 12.11a

*Basal Nuclei

* Basal Nuclei Figure 12.11b

Figure 12.11b

*Diencephalon: external view

1.Olfactory bulbs & tract 2.Optic nerve 3.Optic chiasma 4.Optic tracts 5.Pituitary gland (hypophysis) 6.Mammilary bodies – relay for olfaction

29

Optic tract
Optic
tract

*Diencephalon: external view

Pituitary gland removed
Pituitary
gland
removed

Mammillary body

*The diencephalon is composed of

1.Thalamus – Major integrating & relay station for sensory impulses traveling to the cerebral cortex

*Two large lobes of gray matter connected by the interthalamic adhesion or intermediate mass of thalamus

2.Epithalamus - Forms the roof of the third ventricle

*Contains choroid plexus – production of CSF *Contains pineal gland - Regulates sleep-awake cycle

31

*Diencephalon

* Diencephalon Figure 12.12

Figure 12.12

*The diencephalon is composed of

3.Hypothalamus - Autonomic center for regulation of body temperature, water balance, metabolism, drives, etc.

*Secretes hormones

*Pituitary gland – hangs from the floor of the hypothalamus by the infundibulum

*Also secretes hormones

*Mammilary bodies – relay station for olfaction

33

*Diencephalon

* Diencephalon Figure 12.12

Figure 12.12

*

The Brain Stem

*Midbrain

*Cerebral Aqueduct – connects third and forth ventricles

*Cerebral peduncles – nerve fiber bundles connects pons to cerebrum

*Corpora quadrigemina

*Superior colliculi – process/control reflexive responses to visual stimuli

*Inferior colliculi – process/control reflexive responses to auditory stimuli

35

*The Brain Stem: Midbrain

Brain Stem: Midbrain Figure 12.12

Figure 12.12

* The Brain Stem: Midbrain

The Brain Stem: Midbrain 37

37

*

The Brain Stem

*Pons Consists of tracts and nuclei Connects brain to lower CNS Forms the wall of the forth ventricle *Medulla Oblongata Primarily composed of tracts

Decussation of Pyramids – crossover for major motor tracts Olivary nucleus

Autonomic (involuntary) reflex centers – heart rate, blood pressure, vomiting, swallowing, respiratory rhythm 38

*

*

*

*

Cerebellum

Two hemispheres connected by the

vermis

Surface is convoluted cortex of gray matter

Slide #45 – Purkinje cells

Inner tree-like arbor vitae – white matter

1.Unconscious coordination of skeletal muscle activity

2.Balance and coordination

39

* The Cerebellum

The Cerebellum 40

40

* The Brainstem & Cerebellum

The Brainstem & Cerebellum 41

41

1. 1. CEREBRUM CEREBRUM R. & L. R. & L. Hemispheres Hemispheres
1.
1.
CEREBRUM CEREBRUM
R. & L.
R. & L.
Hemispheres Hemispheres
EXTERIOR EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR EXTERIOR

(gray

(gray

matter

matter

cortex)

cortex)

INTERIOR INTERIOR

lateral sucus lateral sucus sulci - grooves separates temporal from sulci - grooves separates occipital temporal
lateral sucus
lateral sucus
sulci - grooves
separates temporal from
sulci - grooves
separates occipital temporal lobe from
Ridges Ridges
occipital lobe
central sulcus
& &
central sulcus
separates the frontal and
separates parietal the frontal lobe and
Grooves Grooves
parietal lobe
longitudinal fissure
longitudinal fissure
separates the 2 cerebral
separates hemispheres the 2 cerebral
fissures - deep
hemispheres
fissures grooves - deep
grooves
transverse fissure
transverse fissure
separates cerebrum from
separates cerebellum cerebrum from
cerebellum
primary motor
primary area motor
precentral
area
precentral syrus
voluntary
syrus
movement voluntary of
skeletal movement muscles of
k
l
l
l
premotor cortex
premotor cortex
memory bank for skilled motor
memory bank activities for skilled or motor
patterened/repetitious activities or behavior
patterened/repetitious behavior
frontal frontal
lobe lobe
Broca's area
Broca's area
Located on the left hemisphere -
Located motor on area the that left controls hemisphere the -
motor muscles area involved that controls in speech the
muscles involved in speech
prefrontal cortex
prefrontal cortex
responsible for
personality, responsible cognition for &
personality, intellect cognition &
intellect
primary somatosensory cortex
postcentral
primary somatosensory cortex
postcentral gyrus
located on the postcentral gyrus - touch,
gyrus
temperature, located on the vibrations, postcentral pain gyrus from - body touch, wall
temperature, vibrations, pain from body wall
parietal parietal
lobe lobe
somatosensory association area
somatosensory association area
interprets stimuli sent from the
interprets primary somatosensoryy stimuli sent from cortex the
primary somatosensoryy cortex
primary auditory
primary cortex auditory
cortex
LOBES LOBES
auditory association area
auditory association area
interprets the sounds
interprets heard by the the primary sounds
heard auditory by the complex primary
temporal temporal
auditory complex
lobe lobe
Wernicke's area
Wernicke's area
only on left hemisphere -
where only on unfamiliar left hemisphere words are -
where unfamiliar sounded out words are
sounded out
uncus
uncus
olfactory (smell)
olfactory area (smell)
area
primary visual
primary cortex visual
corpus callosum
cortex
perception of
corpus callosum
connects the 2
perception light of
connects hemispheres the 2
occipital occipital lobe
light
hemispheres
visual association area
lobe
visual association area
fornix
interprets the images seen on
fornix
interprets the primary the images visual cortex seen on
connects limbic
the primary visual cortex
connects system areas limbic
system areas
gustatory cortex
septum
insula insula
gustatory cortex
pellucidum septum
pellucidum
separates the 2
lateral separates ventricles the 2
42
lateral ventricles
caudate caudate
basal nuclei
basal nuclei
nucleus nucleus
regulation of
voluntary regulation motor of
putamen
voluntary activities motor
putamen
lentiform
activities
lentiform nucleus
nucleus
olfactory tract olfactory tract external external olfactory bulb olfactory bulb 1. 1. CEREBRUM CEREBRUM optic nerve
olfactory tract
olfactory tract
external
external
olfactory bulb
olfactory bulb
1.
1.
CEREBRUM CEREBRUM
optic nerve
optic nerve
See See previous previous slide slide
optic chiasma
optic chiasma
pituitary gland
pituitary gland
mammilary bodies
mammilary bodies
relay for olfaction
relay for olfaction
2.
thalamus
2.
DIENCEPHALON DIENCEPHALON
thalamus
final relay point for ascending sensory
final relay point information for ascending sensory
information
intermediate mass
two large lobes of gray matter
intermediate mass
two large lobes of gray matter
(interthalamic adhesion)
recognition of sensation as pleasant or
(interthalamic adhesion)
recognition of unpleasant sensation as pleasant or
unpleasant
mammilary bodies
mammilary bodies
relay station for olfaction
relay station for olfaction
internal
internal
hypothalamus
hypothalamus
pituitary gland
autonomic center for
pituitary gland
secretes hormones
regulation autonomic of center body temp., for
secretes hormones
regulation water balance, of body etc. temp.,
water balance, etc.
secretes hormones
secretes hormones
optic chiasma
optic chiasma
choroid plexus
choroid plexus
epithalamus
epithalamus
roof of the 3rd ventricle
pineal gland
roof of the 3rd ventricle
pineal gland
regulates sleep-awake
cerebral peduncles
regulates cycle sleep-awake
cerebral peduncles
connects pons to cerebrum
cycle
connects pons to cerebrum
3.
superior colliculi
3.
MIDBRAIN MIDBRAIN
superior colliculi
visual replex center
visual replex center
corpora quadrigemina
corpora quadrigemina
inferior colliculi
4.
PONS
inferior colliculi
4.
PONS
auditory replex center
Consists of tracts and nuclei
auditory replex center
Consists of tracts and nuclei
Connects brain to lower CNS
Connects brain to lower CNS
Forms wall of 4th ventricle
external:
Forms wall of 4th ventricle
external:
olfactory tract olfactory tract external external olfactory bulb olfactory bulb 1. 1. CEREBRUM CEREBRUM optic nerve
Unconcious coordination of skeletal muscle activity, Unconcious control of coordination balance and of coordination, skeletal muscle
Unconcious coordination of skeletal muscle activity,
Unconcious control of coordination balance and of coordination, skeletal muscle positional activity,
control of balance awareness and coordination, positional
vermis connects R. & L. hemispheres
vermis connects R. & L. hemispheres

convoluted surfacce

  • 5. 5. composed cortex, of vermis gray matter

CEREBELLUM

CEREBELLUM

composed convoluted of gray surfacce matter

awareness

cortex, vermis

internal:

internal:

arbor vitae is white matter

arbor vitae is white matter

olfactory tract olfactory tract external external olfactory bulb olfactory bulb 1. 1. CEREBRUM CEREBRUM optic nerve
6. MEDULLA OBLONGATA 6. MEDULLA OBLONGATA composed of fiber tracts composed of fiber tracts Contains autonomic
6.
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
6.
MEDULLA OBLONGATA
composed of fiber tracts
composed of fiber tracts
Contains autonomic reflex centers for heart rate,
Contains blood pressure, autonomic vomiting, reflex swallowing, centers for respiratory heart rate,
blood pressure, vomiting, rhythm swallowing, respiratory
rhythm
43
decussation of pyramids decussation of pyramids
decussation of pyramids
decussation of pyramids
Olivary nuclei Olivary nuclei
Olivary nuclei
Olivary nuclei

PROSENCEPHALON PROSENCEPHALON

MESENCEPHALON MESENCEPHALON

RHOMBENCEPHALON RHOMBENCEPHALON

*The cranial meninges

The brain & spinal cord are covered by 3 CT membranes called meninges.

1. Dura mater (outermost)

Subdural Space – between dura mater and arachnoid mater

2. Arachnoid mater (middle)

Subarachnoid space – between the arachnoid mater and pia mater. Filled with CSF (cerebro-spinal fluid)

3. Pia mater (innermost) – clings to brain

44

*The cranial meninges

45

*The cranial meninges – dura mater

The dura mater folds inward to form septums that secure the brain to structures inside the cranial cavity.

a. Falx cerebri - formed by dura mater that dips into the longitudinal fissure and separates the 2 hemispheres

Creates the Superior Sagittal Sinus (collects blood from the brain).

b.Falx cerebelli – separate the two cerebellar hemispheres

c. Tentorium Cerebelli – separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

46

*Dura Mater

* Dura Mater sinus Inferior sagittal Figure 12.25
sinus
sinus
Inferior sagittal
Inferior sagittal

Figure 12.25

*

*

*

The cranial meninges

Arachnoid mater

*

Arachnoid villi are projections of the arachnoid mater that protrude through the dura. They allow CSF to drain back to the venous circulation.

Pia mater

*

Highly vascular Covers the entire brain

*

Meningitis – inflammation of the meninges

48

*Meninges

* Meninges Figure 12.24a

Figure 12.24a

The Relationship between the Brain, Cranium, & Meninges

*

50
50

*Ventricles of the brain

*Central passageway of the brain enlarges to form ventricles

*Contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

1. Lateral ventricles

*Septum pelucidum – membrane separates lateral ventricles

*Interventricular foramina – Opening from lateral ventricles to 3 rd ventricle

51

*Ventricles of the brain

2.Third ventricle

*Cerebral aqueduct – opening from 3 rd ventricle to 4 th ventricle

3.Forth ventricle *Medial aperture & Lateral apertures (2)

*CSF back to subarachnoid space

*Central canal

*CSF to spinal cord

52

* Ventricles of the Brain Cerebral aquaduct
* Ventricles of the Brain
Cerebral
aquaduct
* Ventricles of the Brain Cerebral aquaduct Median aperature Lateral aperatures 53
Median aperature
Median
aperature
* Ventricles of the Brain Cerebral aquaduct Median aperature Lateral aperatures 53

Lateral

aperatures

53

*Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

*CSF cushions delicate neural structures *Supports the brain

*Hydrocephalus – accumulation of CSF – results in an enlarged head

*Pathway of CSF:

*Continually formed at the Choroid plexuses (Capillary knots hanging from the roof of the ventricles).

*Formed by Ependymal cells (a neuroglia).

54

*Circulation of CSF

* Circulation of CSF Figure 12.26b

Figure 12.26b

* The Circulation of CSF

56
56

Start Here

Start Here Choroid plexus Dural sinuses to blood Arachnoid villus Subarachnoid Space Lateral Ventricles Circulation Interventricular

Choroid plexus

Dural sinuses to blood

Arachnoid villus

Subarachnoid

Space

Lateral Ventricles
Lateral
Ventricles

*CSF Circulation

Interventricular foramina

Third

Ventricle

Cerebral aquaduct

Fourth

Ventricle

  • 57 Lateral & median apertures

*Cranial Nerves

*12 pairs of cranial nerves *To help to remember:

On Occassion Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny Very Good Vehicle Any How

58

*The Cranial Nerves

(I) 59
(I)
59

PLAY

*Cranial Nerves

* Cranial Nerves Figure 13.5a

Figure 13.5a

*Cranial Nerves

(V) of trigeminal nerve (V) *Cranial Nerves
(V)
of trigeminal nerve (V)
*Cranial Nerves

Optical canal = optic nerve (II)

Superior orbital fissure = oculomotor nerve

(III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve

(VI), opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve

Inferior orbital fissure = maxillary division

Figure 7.4b

*Cranial Nerves

of trigeminal nerve (V) Stylomastoid foramen = facial nerve (VII) *Cranial Nerves accessory nerve (XI)
of trigeminal nerve (V)
Stylomastoid foramen = facial
nerve (VII)
*Cranial Nerves
accessory nerve (XI)

nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), and

Foramen magnum = spinal cord from brain stem

Foramen ovale = mandibular division

Jugular foramen = glossopharyngeal

Figure 7.4b

Figure 7.4b

* Cranial Nerves Olfactory foramina = Olfactory nerve (I) Optical canal = optic nerve (II) Foramen

*Cranial Nerves

Olfactory foramina = Olfactory nerve (I)

Optical canal = optic nerve (II)

Foramen rotundum = maxillary division of

trigeminal nerve (V)

Foramen ovale = mandibular division of

trigeminal nerve (V)

Internal acustic meatus = Facial (VII) and

vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerves

* Cranial Nerves Olfactory foramina = Olfactory nerve (I) Optical canal = optic nerve (II) Foramen
* Cranial Nerves Olfactory foramina = Olfactory nerve (I) Optical canal = optic nerve (II) Foramen

Hypoglossal canal = hypoglossal nerve (XII)

* Cranial Nerves Olfactory foramina = Olfactory nerve (I) Optical canal = optic nerve (II) Foramen

Jugular foramen = glossopharyngeal nerve (IX),

vagus nerve (X), and accessory nerve (XI)

Foramen magnum = spinal cord

from brain stem

Figure 7.4b