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Container gardening or pot gardening is the practice of growing

plants, including edible plants, exclusively in containers instead
of planting them in the ground.
A container is the general term used in gardening for a small,
enclosed and usually portable object used for displaying live
flowers or plants. It may take the form of a pot, box, tub, pot,
basket, tin, barrel or hanging basket.
Pots, traditionally made of terracotta but now more commonly
plastic, and window boxes have been the most commonly seen.
Small pots are commonly called flowerpots.[2] In some cases,
this method of growing is used for ornamental purposes. This
method is also useful in areas where the soil or climate is
unsuitable for the plant or crop in question. Using a container is
also generally necessary for houseplants. Limited growing
space, or growing space that is paved over, can also make this
option appealing to the gardener.

Containers range from simple plastic pots, teacups to complex automatic-watering

irrigation systems. This flexibility in design is another reason container gardening is
popular with growers. They can be found on porches, front steps, and in urban locations,
on rooftops. Sub-irrigated planters (SIP) are a type of container that may be used in
container gardens. Potting material must be loose and allow drainage to offer proper
aeration for roots to breathe, preventing root rot.
Re-potting is the action of placing an already potted plant into a larger or smaller pot. A
pot that fits a plant's root system better is normally used. Plants are usually re-potted
according to the size of their root system. Most plants need to be re-potted every few
years, because they become "pot-bound" or "root-bound." Plants' roots can sense its
surroundings, including the size of the pot it is in, and increasing the pot size allows plant
size to increase proportionally.

Many types of plants are suitable for the container, including decorative flowers, herbs,
cacti, vegetables, and small trees. There are many advantages to growing plants in
containers, namely:

Less risk of soil-borne disease

Virtually eliminate weed problems

Mobile plants gives more control over moisture, sunlight & temperature

Country Garden is a cumulative of all the city and

town gardens. It is the special characteristic or pattern
garden adopted by a particular city or town.
At High Country Gardens, people build their
reputation by developing and offering unique and
exclusive perennials. The plants are chosen for their
beauty, hardiness, and their ability to create natural
habitat. Particularly well known are those which are
drought resistant/drought tolerant (xeric) perennials,
plants that once established, will need very little water
to thrive.
It may consist of hundreds of water wise and native
plants to choose from, many developed exclusively
for High Country Gardens.


Incorporate trees into beds with shrubs and mulch on top of the soil with wood chips. This
way you can avoid mowing or string-trimming around lone plants. Avoid mulch over landscape
fabric it doesnt work well.

Use fall leaves as mulch by collecting them and dumping them under trees and shrubs as

Improve your soil by adding compost and manure. Most plants will grow well in rich
hummus soil that holds moisture.

To edge your planting beds, use natural flat stone or large tumbled concrete pavers set
into a shallow trench filled with crushed gravel.

A country lawn doesnt have to be perfect. If starting from scratch, choose low
maintenance grass blends that are drought resistant. You can always get rid of lawn areas later, but
in the meanwhile, lawn will keep weeds from overrunning your property.

Choose easy long-lived perennials: Daylilies, perennial geraniums, sedum, rudbeckia,

coneflowers (Echinacea species), peonies, catmint, and ornamental grasses are all good for
country garden planting.

CLIMATE-prevailing climate of the particular country

SOIL-loamy soil

The cottage garden is a distinct style of garden that uses an informal design, traditional materials,
dense plantings, and a mixture of ornamental and edible plants.
the cottage garden depends on grace and charm rather than grandeur and formal structure.
Homely and functional gardens connected to working-class cottages.
The earliest cottage gardens were more practical than their modern descendants with an
emphasis on vegetables and herbs, along with some fruit trees, perhaps a beehive, and even
livestock. Flowers were used to fill any spaces in between.
Over time, flowers became more dominant. The traditional cottage garden was usually enclosed,
perhaps with a rose-bowered gateway.
Flowers common to early cottage gardens included traditional florist's flowers, such
asprimrosesandviolets, along with flowers chosen for household use, such ascalendulaand
Others were the old-fashionedrosesthat bloomed once a year with rich scents, simple flowers
likedaisies, and flowering herbs. Over time, even large estate gardens had sections they called
"cottage gardens".\

While the classic cottage garden is built around a cottage, many cottage-style gardens are created
around houses and even estates such as Hidcote Manor, with its more intimate "garden rooms.
The cottage garden design is based more on principles than formulae: it has an informal look, with
a seemingly casual mixture of flowers, herbs, and vegetables often packed into a small area.
The cottage garden is designed to appear artless, rather than contrived or pretentious. Instead of
artistic curves, or grand geometry, there is an artfully designed irregularity. Borders can go right up
to the house, lawns are replaced with tufts of grass or flowers, and beds can be as wide as needed.

Paths, arbores, and fences use traditional or antique looking materials. Wooden fences and gates, paths covered
with locally made bricks or stone, and arbores using natural materials all give a more casualand less formallook
and feel to a cottage garden.
Pots, ornaments, and furniture also use natural looking materials with traditional finisheseverything is chosen to
give the impression of an old-fashioned country garden.

Cottage garden plants are chosen for their old-fashioned and informal appeal. Many modern day gardeners use
heirloom or 'old-fashioned' plants and varietieseven though these may not have been authentic or traditional
cottage garden plants.
Cottage gardens are always associated with roses: shrub roses, climbing roses, and old garden roses with lush
foliage, in contrast to the gangly modern hybrid tea roses.
Climbing plants
Many of the old roses had cultivars that grew very long canes, which could be tied to trellises or against walls. These
older varieties are called "ramblers", rather than "climbers". Climbing plants in the traditional cottage garden
included European honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) and Traveller's Joy (Clematis viable).
Hedging plants
In the traditional cottage garden, hedges served as fences on the perimeter to keep out marauding livestock and for
privacy, along with other practical uses. Hawthorn leaves made a tasty snack or tea, while the flowers were used for
making wine. The fast-growing Elderberry, in addition to creating a hedge, provided berries for food and wine, with
the flowers being fried in batter or made into lotions and ointments.
Flowers and herbs
Popular flowers in the traditional cottage garden included florist's flowers which were grown by enthusiastssuch as
violets, pinks, and primroses
Fruit in the traditional cottage garden would have included an apple and a pear, for cider and Perry, gooseberries
and raspberries. The modern cottage garden includes many varieties of ornamental fruit and nut trees, such as crab-

A patio garden is a garden in an outdoor space for dining or recreation that adjoins a
residence and is often paved. It is a roofless inner courtyard garden, typically found in
Spanish and Spanish-style dwellings.
A patio garden may consist of Colored stones, surrounded by pavers of stained
concrete, to create the illusion of a stream bubbling through the center.
A patio garden plan might include the use of vertical gardening, raised bed gardening,
and container gardening. Each of these techniques is a successful way to garden in
confined or small areas.


A free-form hardscape, shade sail, airy plants, a circular firepit
Surround a small slate patio with lush plantings for a versatile backyard retreat space.
Warm fires make the courtyard an ideal winter hangout
Earthly sophistication; gives clean lines balanced by earth-toned materials and organic
An outdoor "area rug" of stained concrete pavers replaced a tired lawn


2.choice of container
3.appropriate soil( "synthetic" soil or potting soil.
These soils will be mixes of sawdust, woodchips,
peat moss, and more)
4.enough water
5.vegetables or plants acc. to the prevailing season
denias,Angel's Trumpet,Angelonia,Banana Plant,


Patio Gardens Create Extra Living Space

Patio Gardens Hide Eyesores

Patio Gardens Create Relaxing


Patios Create Spaces to Garden

Patio Gardens are Places to Entertain

A fern garden requires shade or partial shade, as

well as a great deal of moisture.
The fern is a modest sort. It creeps below the
forest floor, surfacing now and then to unfurl its
foliage. It eschews heavy perfume and bright
flower, opting instead for basic green.
The fern maintains its own lingo. While other plants
make do with stem, leaf, and shoot, the fern
prefers rhizome, frond, and crosier. No unseemly
pollination for the dignified fern. It procreates via
alternation of generations, sending its dust like
spore wafting on air; upon landing, the spore grows
into a tiny plant called a portholes, which produces
the familiar fern
Ferns require right positioning, should be
evergreen, soil must be loose and rich and can be
treated with compost

CLIMATE-warm and moist climate

SOIL- rich, neutral to alkaline, porous

organic soil


Growing a fern garden outdoors is easy. Ferns make excellent companions for woodland plantings
like hosta, columbine, liriope, and caladiums. Learning how to take care of ferns depends mostly on
the type you grow. While many types of hardy garden ferns are deciduous, some are evergreen.
There are a number of outdoor ferns to choose from with the following being the most common:

SOUTHERN MAIDENHAIR FERN Southern maidenhair fern is a hardy spreading plant

that will survive in a wider range of soil conditions, including rocks and acidic soils. This fern is very
delicate in appearance despite its hardiness.

LADY FERN Lady fern is drought tolerant, grows up to 3 feet, and has a beautiful
upright habit.

AUTUMN FERN Autumn fern is a semi-evergreen fern and has arching fronds. Foliage
turns a coppery pink colour in the spring, green in the summer and copper in the fall. This fern is
known for the year-round interest it adds to any shady garden and prefers very wet soil.

CHRISTMAS FERN Christmas fern is a popular fern in the southeast, where it is

evergreen. It looks similar to the Boston fern. This fern grows slowly but is well worth the wait.

MALE FERN The male fern is an evergreen fern that is shaped like a vase and will
grow up to 5 feet. This interesting fern likes light to full shade and very wet soil.


Ferns are extremely forgiving and have an incredibly
strong survival instinct. Ferns will grow where other
plants fail to thrive and most do well in rich, welldrained soil with an abundance of organic matter.
Planting a fern garden outdoors requires minimal
attention other than regular mulching and water
during very dry periods. Few pests bother ferns
other than the passing slug, which will devour nearly
anything. Taking care of outdoor ferns is so easy
that you often forget that they are there. They are
excellent for naturalizing, and will reward the
gardener with their graceful texture year after year.


Offer graceful, delicate fronds and a

refreshing greenness

Diversity of varieties

Low maintenance

Few pest problems

Majority of them do not require much


The traditional kitchen garden, also known as a potager (in

French, jardin potager) or in Scotland a kailyaird, is a space
separate from the rest of the residential garden the
ornamental plants and lawn areas. Most vegetable gardens
are still miniature versions of old family farm plots, but the
kitchen garden is different not only in its history, but also its
The kitchen garden may serve as the central feature of an
ornamental, all-season landscape, or it may be little more than
a humble vegetable plot. It is a source of herbs, vegetables
and fruits, but it is often also a structured garden space with a
design based on repetitive geometric patterns.
The kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can
incorporate permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings
around (or among) the annuals.

A potager garden is a French term
for an ornamental vegetable or
kitchen garden.
Plants are chosen as much for their
functionality as for their colour and
form. Many are trained to grow
upward. A well-designed potager
can provide food, as well as cut
flowers and herbs for the home with
very little maintenance.
A witches' garden is an herb garden
specifically designed and used for the
cultivation of herbs, for culinary,
medicinal and/or spiritual purposes.
Herbal baths, the making of incense,
tied in bundles for rituals or prayers,
or placed in charms are just some of
the ways herbs can be used for
spiritual purposes.

A vegetable garden (also known as a

vegetable patch or vegetable plot) is a
garden that exists to grow vegetables and
other plants useful for human consumption,
in contrast to a flower garden that exists for
aesthetic purposes. It is a small-scale form of
vegetable growing. A vegetable garden
typically includes a compost heap, and
several plots or divided areas of land,
intended to grow one or two types of plant in
each plot.
The herb garden is often a separate space in
the garden, devoted to growing a specific
group of plants known as herbs. These
gardens may be informal patches of plants,
or they may be carefully designed, even to
the point of arranging and clipping the plants
to form specific patterns, as in a knot garden.

A kitchen garden can be created by planting different herbs in pots or containers, with
the added benefit of mobility. Although not all herbs thrive in pots or containers, some
herbs do better than others. Mint, a fragrant yet invasive herb, is an example of an herb
that is advisable to keep in a container or it will take over the whole garden.[2]
Some popular culinary herbs in temperate climates are to a large extent still the same as
in the medieval period.
Herbs often have multiple uses. For example, mint may be used for cooking, tea, and
pest control. Examples of herbs and their uses (not intended to be complete):
Annual culinary herbs: basil, dill, summer savoury
Perennial culinary herbs: mint, rosemary, thyme, tarragon
Herbs used for potpourri: lavender, lemon verbena
Herbs used for tea: mint, lemon verbena, chamomile, bergamot, hibiscus
Herbs used for other purposes: stevia for sweetening, feverfew for pest control in the

With busy lives, many gardeners are

looking to
keep gardening tasks to a
manageable level.
However, there are particular
when easy or low maintenance
gardening is most
relevant. These might include;
When gardening in older age
When gardening with a disability
When new to gardening
When renting or renting out a
property with a garden
When managing a garden in a
holiday home
When raising a family

Lots of containers
Large no. Of tender
Bedding plants and
temporary planting
Wrong plant, wrong
Large specimen
Fast-growing hedges
Plants requiring
regular or intensive
Fine lawns


There is no such thing as a no maintenance garden or plant.
But many hardy evergreens, once established, will require little
Santa Barbara daisy (Erigeron) this plant makes an excellent
edging plant and has lovely pink and white flowers.
Lavender lavenders (Lavendula) are easy care. Give them
plenty of sun and dont over-water them. Their scent will make
you swoon.
Pentemon beard tongue plants (Penstemon) will bloom all
summer and fall and only requires an annual trimming to keep
it neat.
Ornamental grasses for the ornamental grass element, you
can install Mexican feather grass (Stipa) or any of the sedges
(Carex). For a bold, dramatic accent, consider New Zealand
flax (Phormium). Just make sure you give them plenty of room
so they can grow to their full size. Phormiums come in many
lovely colours.


Low maintenance landscaping involves methods for reducing the amount of watering, weeding,
pruning, deadheading, and dividing you have to do on a regular basis.
One way to reduce watering and weeding is to add a thick layer of mulch, such as bark or shredded
leaves, to your garden beds. The mulch will suppress weeds and retain soil moisture. You can also
install a drip irrigation system on a timer so you dont have to wrestle with the hose.
Some other low maintenance garden tips involve choosing plants for easy gardening, like those that
are not too big for your garden. Then you wont have to prune so often. Easy care garden plants are
the cornerstone of low maintenance landscaping. Choose plants that look good or bloom all
summer long but dont require deadheading.
Consider bulbs that need dividing every five years rather than every year. Annuals are not easy care
garden plants. Choose perennials or shrubs that live many years.


no fertilization required
no additional water
more water available for other uses and other people
zero to near zero work needed for maintenance
no lawn mowing
erosion reduced to a minimum
natural landscaped plants take full advantage of rainfall
when water restrictions are implemented, natural landscaped plants will survive, while more
traditional plants may not
increased habitat for native flora and fauna
increased beneficial insect population reduces pests

A rose garden or rosarium is a garden or park,

often open to the public, used to present and
grow various types of garden roses or rose
species. Designs vary tremendously and roses
may be displayed alongside other plants or
grouped by individual variety, colour or class in
rose beds.

A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an

alpine garden, is a type of small field or plot
of ground designed to feature and emphasize
extensive use of rocks or stones and
occasionally boulders, along with a few plants
native to
use of or
as decorative
and symbolic
elements in gardens can be traced back to very early
Chinese and Japanese gardens, rock gardens dedicated
to growing alpine plants have a shorter history. During the
age of the great plant explorers (basically the 1800s) there
was great interest in the exotic discoveries being brought
back to England, and people wanted to successfully grow
these amazing new treasures. Although others had
previously written about growing alpine plants, it was
Reginald Farrer that, with the 1919 publication of his twovolume book The English Rock Garden, literally rocked
the gardening world for the first time.
Plants commonly found in rock gardens are small as they
typically do not grow larger than 6 meters in height. So as
to not cover up the rocks, they may be grown in
containers, or in the ground. The kinds of plants usually
are types which prefer well-drained soil and less water.

The usual form of a rock garden is a pile of rocks, large and small, aesthetically
arranged, and with small gaps between, where the plants will be rooted. Some rock
gardens incorporate bonsai.
Some rock gardens are designed and built to look like natural outcrops of bedrock.
Stones are aligned to suggest a bedding plane and plants are often used to conceal the
joints between the stones. This type of rockery was popular in Victorian times, often
designed and built by professional landscape architects. The same approach is
sometimes used in modern campus or commercial landscaping, but can also be applied
in smaller private gardens.
The Japanese rock garden (which in the West is often referred to as a Zen garden) is a
special kind of rock garden with few plants.
Rock gardens have become increasingly popular as landscape features in tropical
countries such as Thailand. The combination of wet weather and heavy shade trees,
along with the use of heavy plastic liners to stop unwanted plant growth,[2] has made
this type of arrangement ideal for both residential and commercial gardens due to its
easier maintenance and drainage.

Town or city gardens are those which are
located within the premises of a city or town.
They do not have a common characteristic.
They may differ in
of plants used, and other features.
A combination of several town gardens which
share common characteristics give rise to a
country garden.
A town garden
may be a:Garden
landscaped area
Sit out spaces

1.Strengthens community image and

sense of place
2.Supports economic development
3.Strengthens safety and security
4.Promotes health and wellness
5.Fosters human development
6.Increases cultural unity
7.Protects environmental resources
8.Facilitates community problem
9.Provides recreational experiences

Water gardens, also known as aquatic gardens, are a type

of man-made water feature. They can be defined as any
interior or exterior landscape or architectural element whose
primary purpose is to house, display, or propagate a
particular species or variety of aquatic plant. The primary
focus is on plants, but they will sometimes also house
ornamental fish, in which case the feature will be a fish
Water gardening is gardening that is concerned with growing
plants adapted to pools and ponds. Although water gardens
can be almost any size or depth, they are typically small and
relatively shallow, generally less than twenty inches in depth.
This is because most aquatic plants are depth sensitive and
require a specific water depth in order to thrive. The
particular species inhabiting each water garden will
ultimately determine the actual surface area and depth


Natural Water Feature

Man-made Water Feature
Naturalistic Water Feature
Disappearing Water Feature
Live Water Feature
Sterile Water Feature
Bog Garden
Rain Garden/Bio Retention
System/Rain Harvesting
Aquatic Container Garden
Pool/Shallow Pool/Tide Pool
Reflection Pool/Reflecting Pool
Formal Pool
Swimming Pool
Pond/Fish Pond/Backyard
Pond/Garden Pond
Naturalistic pond
Wildlife Pond/Habitat Pond
Koi Pond
Swimming Pond
Water Courses

Ring Fountain
Table top Fountain
Wall Fountain
Spitter Fountain
Bubbler Fountain
Floating Fountain
Water Falls
Lotus pool
Rice paddy
Riparian zone restoration
Wildlife garden - with water-source
Stream pool
Plunge pool
Plunge basin
Spring (hydrology)
Seep (hydrology)
Mangrove swamp habitat

Weeping Wall
Water Wall
Wild River Lakes
Halka lever


Water garden plants are divided into three main

categories: submerged, marginal, and floating.
Submerged plants are those that live almost completely under
the water, sometimes with leaves or flowers that grow to the
surface such as with the water lily. These plants are placed in a
pond or container usually 12 ft (0.300.61 m) below the water
surface. Some of these plants are called oxygenators because
they create oxygen for the fish that live in a pond. Examples of
submerged plants are:
oWater lily (Hardy and Tropical)
oHornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum)

Floating plants are those that are not anchored to the soil
at all, but are free-floating on the surface. In water
gardening, these are often used as a provider of shade to
reduce algae growth in a pond. These are often extremely
fast growing/multiplying. Examples of these are:
oMosquito ferns (Azolla spp.)
oWater-spangle (Salvinia spp.)
oWater-clover (Marsilea vestita)
oWater Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes)
oWater Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

Marginal plants are those

that live with their roots
under the water but the rest
of the plant above the
surface. These are usually
placed so that the top of the
pot is at or barely below the
water level. Examples of
these are:
oIris or Flag (Iris spp.)
(Ranunculus fluitans)
oBulrush (Scirpus lacustris)
oCattail (Typha latifolia)
oTaro (Colocasia esculenta)
oArrowhead (Sagittaria
oLotus (Nelumbo spp.)
oPickerelweed (Pontederia

Often the reason for having a pond in a garden is to keep fish

Examples of common pond fish include:
Ricefish (Himedaka)
Rosy Red minnows
White Cloud Mountain minnows
Goldfish (Common, Comet, Shubunkin varieties, Wakin and the Fantail varieties. With
the possible exception of some of the fantail varieties, the fancy goldfish are not suited to
pond life.)
Crucian carp
Koi (Nishikigoi, Butterfly Koi and Ghost Koi)
Mirror carp
Carp (In Australia, carp are considered an invasive fish and it is illegal to release them
into waterways.[2])
Weather loach
Golden Orfe
Golden Tench
Black bass

Xeriscaping is landscaping and gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for
supplemental water from irrigation. It is promoted in regions that do not have easily accessible, plentiful, or
reliable supplies of fresh water, and is gaining acceptance in other areas as access to water becomes more

Lowered consumption of water: Xeriscaped landscapes use up to two thirds less water than regular lawn
Makes more water available for other domestic and community uses and the environment.
Reduce Maintenance: Aside from occasional weeding and mulching Xeriscaping requires far less time and effort
to maintain.
Xeriscape plants in appropriate planting design, and soil grading and mulching, takes full advantage of rainfall
Less cost to maintain: Xeriscaping requires less fertilisers and equipment, particularly due to the reduced lawn

Certain plants such as cacti and agave contain thorns or serrated edges which may harm pets and children.
Reduced areas for sports: Reducing lawn areas can limit a gardens use as a recreational area.

Vertical gardens -- think living walls are of the hottest new garden trends . A
vertical garden is a perfect solution for just about any garden indoors or out.
Vertical garden elements can draw
attention to an area or disguise an unattractive view.
In a vertical garden,
use structures or columnar trees to create
vertical gardeningrooms
containers, allow you to grow vines, flowers, and vegetables in a
vertical garden using much less space than traditional gardening requires.
Vertical gardening with upright structures can be a boon for
apartment dwellers,
small-space urban gardeners, and disabled gardeners as well as
for gardeners with large, traditional spaces. Indoors.
you can grow small-stature house plants as vertical gardens by creating
living walls, for a tapestry ofcolourand texture that helps to filter out indoor
air pollutants.
In cold-winter climates, houseplants grown in vertical gardens add muchneeded humidity in months when the furnace runs and dries the air out.
hotels and office buildings are incorporating living walls and vertical gardens
both inside and outside.