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Outline

Variation

Significant Figures

Accuracy

Precision

on same system (component, device,

sample of material) and

Variations between samples , batches

Conflict between supplier and buyer or

between process engineer and QC engineer

on the source of variations

BE CERTAIN about UNCERTAINTIES in

communication or exchange of data or

representation of data

Data representation

Numerical data

Why is it important to use numerical

representation? Is it always good?

How to represent numbers?

Use the number with proper number of

significant digits with appropriate

dimensions (units)

Caution on dimensionless numbers

Statistics in Engineering

As engineers perform experiments,

they collect data that can be used to

explain relationships better and to

reveal information about the quality

of products and services they

provide.

Frequency Distribution:

Scores for an engineering class are as follows: 58,

95, 80, 75, 68, 97, 60, 85, 75, 88, 90, 78, 62, 83,

73, 70, 70, 85, 65, 75, 53, 62, 56, 72, 79

To better assess the success of the class, we make a

frequency chart:

For example, 3 students did poorly, and 3

did exceptionally well. We know that 9

students were in the average range of 7079. We can also show this data in a freq.

histogram

Cumulative Frequency

The data can be further organized by calculating

the cumulative frequency (CDF).

The cumulative frequency shows the cumulative

number of students with scores up to and

including those in the given range. Usually we

normalize the data - divide 26.

chart

A Frequency Distribution is simply asummary of how often each score occursby grouping

scores together.

have to group the scores so that summary makes sense

decidehow many groupsyou want (thefewergroups, theless preciseyour description)

too manygroups, and it'stoo much work, too little summary (usually 10 to 20 groups is best)

take the range(difference between highest and lowest)

divideby number ofintervals(groups) you want

the lowest interval (group) should begin with a number that can be divided evenly by the size

of the interval width; make sure that the lowest and highest scores are included in your table

relationship between these depends on the frequency distribution

Graphs must be clearly titled; all symbols clearly identified

Histogram vertical bar graph; columns touch each other

Frequency distributions come inthree types: symmetrical, positively or negatively skewed

If a distribution issymmetrical, the lower half of the distribution mirrors the upper half

in symmetrical distributions, mean, median and mode will be the same (unless it is bimodal)

becausemeanwill be dragged down or up by the few scores out on the extreme tail, whilemodewill hang

out where the greatest action is

If the scores are piled up at thelow end, and "tail off" near the high end, it'spositively

skewed

If the scores are piled up at thehigh end, and "tail off" near the low end, then it'snegatively

skewed

PositiveorNegativeby the way the tail points --if tail points to high end, it's positive; if tail

points towards negative end, it's negative

Significant Figures

Accuracy & Precision

Why?

it can often be far too easy to

exaggerate a number's accuracy,

leading to mathematical errors. For

these reasons, significant digits are

important.

Is 1.2340 the same as 1.234?

Multimeters are sold as 4 digits or 4 and half digit

multimeters. More the digits, the cost is more?

Why?

Balance used by subjiwallah is cheaper than that

used by zaveriwallah. Why?

Representing quantity

Numerical value with the correct number of digits

Explicit mention of uncertainty

and of course units (dimensions) where necessary

How many digits to use?

of with certainty + the first in doubt

Most significant digit left most non zero digit

(0.52)

If there is no decimal point, the right most nonzero digit is least significant

Population 105 crores or 1050000000

If there is a decimal point, right most digit is

least significant even if it is zero

All digits in between the least and most

significant digits are taken to be significant

1234000,123.4,1,1001,1000,10.10

,0.0001010

1234, 1234000,123.4,1,1001,1000,10.10,0.0001010

all have four significant digits

1.2340(0 is least significant and 1 is most significant,

there are FIVE significant digits)

1.2340 is not the same as 1.234

0.1234(1 is most significant and 4 is least

significant)

0.001234(also has four significant digits)

All digits between and including most and least

significant digits are significant. The least has a

builtin uncertainty

If the digit to be reduced is more than 5, the

immediately more significant digit is increased by one

(1.2346 is rounded off to 1.235)

if the digit is less than five, the immediately more

significant digit is not increased by one(1.2343 is

rounded off to 1.234)

What if the digit to be reduced is 5?

Say 1.2345 or 1.2335,

Increment the last significant digit by one only if it is odd

1.2335 will be rounded off to 1.234

1.2345 will also be rounded to 1.234

Rules! (repeat)

Every approximate number has a specific number of significant

digits (or significant figures).

These are digits in the number which convey actual numerical

information, and are not just written down to show us where

the decimal point is located. Thus

(i) all nonzero digits are significant.

(ii) all zeros which are between nonzero digits are

significant.

(iii) all zeros to the right of the decimal point are

significant if they follow nonzero digits in the

number.

(iv) zeros which are present only to show the

position of the decimal point are not significant.

(v) zeros which can be omitted without affecting

the numerical value are not significant.

(This rule overlaps rule (iv.), but includes so-called leading

zeros sometimes written in the whole number parts of

decimal values.)

Zeros!

The first rule covers most situations. The

tricky cases are situations with digits which

are zeros, because the digit zero has two

roles in decimal numbers.

One role is to indicate the value zero at a

certain position (as in 105 equals one

hundred plus zero tens plus five ones).

The other role is to tell us where the

decimal point should be located (as in a

number like 0.0035).

Types of Zeros

Zero Type #1: Space holding zeros on

numbers less than one. Eg

0.00500,0.03040

They are there to put the decimal point in

its correct location. They DO NOT involve

measurement decisions. Upon writing the

numbers in scientific notation (5.00 x

103and 3.040 x 102), the non-significant

zeros disappear.

decimal point on numbers less than one.

written, the very first zero (to the left

of the decimal point) is put there by

convention. Its sole function is to

communicate unambiguously that the

decimal point is a decimal point. If the

number were written like this, .00500,

there is a possibility that the decimal

point might be mistaken for a period.

Many students omit that zero. They

whole number eg 200,2000

This is based on the way each number is written. When whole

number are written as above, the zeros, BY DEFINITION, did

not require a measurement decision, thus they are not

significant.

However, it is entirely possible that 200 really does have two

or three significant figures. If it does, it will be written in a

different manner than 200

Typically, scientific notation is used for this purpose. If

200 has two significant figures, then 2.0 x 102is used.

If it has three, then 20.0 x 102is used. If it had four,

then 200.0 is sufficient.

How will you know how many significant figures are in a

number like 200? In all such problem, the context of the

experiment and its measuring devices would tell you how

many significant figures to report to people who read the

report of your work

whole number.

00250 has two significant figures.

005.00 x 104has three.

number of significant figures

Exact numbers, such as the number of people in a room, have

an infinite number of significant figures. Exact numbers are

counting up how many of something are present, they are not

measurements made with instruments. Another example of

this are defined numbers, such as 1 foot = 12 inches. There

are exactly 12 inches in one foot. Therefore, if a number is

exact, it DOES NOT affect the accuracy of a calculation nor the

precision of the expression. Some more examples:

There are 100 years in a century.

2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule of oxygen to

form 2 molecules of water.

There are 500 sheets of paper in one ream.

Interestingly, the speed of light is now a defined quantity. By

definition, the value is 299,792,458 meters per second

Examples

142.56, 3001.378,5.40,

3001.378 has seven significant digits. It has seven digits and all seven are

significant. Five of the seven digits are nonzero digits, and so are significant by

rule (i.). The two zeros are between significant digits, and so are themselves

significant by rule (ii.). You can think of these two digits as being as significant

as the other digits in the number because they indicate the value here, for

instance, has no hundreds (as opposed to one hundred, or two hundred etc.)

and that it also has no tens (as opposed to one ten, or two tens, etc.)

5.40 has three digits and all three are significant. The two nonzero digits are

significant by rule (i.). The zero at the end is also significant by rule (iii.) it is

to the right of the decimal point and follows nonzero digits in the number. This

zero indicates that the number has been measured to two decimal places (or,

its uncertainty of measurement is 0.005, following the ideas described in the

previous slide). If the zero in this number was not the result of measurement

(that the value has 5 ones and 4 tenths, and zero hundredths, as opposed to

one hundredth or two hundredths, etc), then it should not have been written.

digits which are not significant

00352.6, 0.00516, 0.05016, 0.050160

00352.6 has four significant digits. Obviously the two zero digits on the left convey no information

its not clear why they were even written down here. This is an example of rule (v.).

0.00516 has three significant digits. The three zero digits here are intended simply to show the

location of the decimal point. This is an example of rule (iv.).

0.05016 has four significant digits. The zero between the 5 and the 1 is significant, by rule (ii.).The

two zeros on the left are not significant by rule (iv.). You might argue that all three zeros should be

considered significant because just as the rightmost zero (between the 5 and the 1) indicates no

thousandths, so, the leftmost zero indicates no ones, and the second zero indicates no tenths. But

this argument misses an important point. Suppose this value was the length of an object measured

in metres: length of this object = 0.05016 m If we simply re-expressed this length in millimetres (we

would need to multiply the number of metres by 1000 to get the equivalent length expressed in

millimetres), we could then write length of this object = 5.016 mm This is still the same physical

measurement of the same physical length but now those two zero digits on the left are not required.

Therefore they could not have been significant. This sort of observation is the source of rules (iv.)

and (v.), indicating when zero digits are not significant.

0.050160 has five significant digits. The two zeros on the left are not significant by rule (iv.), as

discussed in the previous example. The third zero is significant by rule (ii.) it is between two other

significant digits. The fourth zero is significant by rule (iii.) it is to the right of the decimal point and

to the right of a significant digit. The idea is that if this rightmost zero was not significant, it would

not have been written down at all.

Finally!

Significant digits in 0.00?

When adding or subtracting numbers, the

number of digits to the right of the decimal

point in the result should be the same as the

number of digits to the right of the decimal

point in the number with the fewest digits to

the right of the decimal point

When multiplying or dividing numbers, the

number of significant figures in the result is

the same as the least number of significant

figures in any of the multiplied or divided

terms

the correct number of significant figures:

1) 75m x 4m =

2) 75cm x 4.0cm =

3) 0.750 ft x 4.000 ft =

4) 7500 in. x 0.004 in.=

5) 125m / 25s =

6) 80f t / 16s =

7) 33,333mi / 3h =

8) 3750km / 2.50s =

9) (25m - 16m) / 0.0003s =

Answers: 3x102m2(1 sig. fig.),

3.0x102m2(2 sig. fig.),

3.00ft2(3 sig. figs.),

3.0x101in2(2 sig. fig.),

5.0m/s (2 sig. fig.),

5ft/s (1 sig. fig.)

10,000 mi/h (1 sig. fig.),

1.50x103km/s (3 sig. figs.),

30000 m/s (1 sig. fig.)

The data has to be good enough for the decisions we are making:

the precision and detail of the data actually get in the way of

making good decisions.

In the cartoon, the extra precision on the left actually makes things worse for our poor analyst

(who is about to be hit by a piano). The analyst has to spend too much time trying to understand

the data and misses the opportunity to take the much-needed action of getting out of the way

By the accuracy of an approximate number,

we mean the number of significant digits it

has.

By the precision of an approximate number,

we mean the actual position of the rightmost

significant digit. If that digit is to the right of

the decimal point, we state the position as so

many decimal places. If that position is to the

left of the decimal point, it is more common to

state the precision using words like tens,

hundreds, thousands,

readings, but accuracy requires calibration

classic illustration distinguishing the two is to consider a

target or bullseye. Arrows surrounding a bullseye indicate a

high degree of accuracy; arrows very near to each other

(possibly nowhere near the bullseye) indicate a high degree

of precision. To be accurate an arrow must be near the

target; to be precise successive arrows must be near each

other. Consistently hitting the very center of the bullseye

indicates both accuracy and precision.

Examples

321.56 has an accuracy of 5 significant digits and

a precision of 2 decimal places.

3.2156 has an accuracy of 5 significant digits and

a precision of four decimal places.

321560 has an accuracy of 5 significant digits

and a precision of tens (assuming the rightmost

zero is not significant.

0.00000003 has an accuracy of 1 significant digit

and a precision of 8 decimal places.

325,000,000 has an accuracy of 3 significant

digits and a precision of millions.

(many significant digits) but not very

high precision. Similarly, a number

can be very precise, but not very

accurate. This is why we need two

different terms here you cannot say

accuracy when you mean

precision, or vice versa.

The field of statistics deals with the

collection, presentation, analysis,

and use of data to

Make decisions

Solve problems

Design products and processes

Descriptive statistics

representation of collected data in the form of

Tables

Charts

Inferential statistics

Generalization from samples

Limited observations to predictions, risk

assessment, reliability

Limitations of inference arise from Sampling

error(Subjectivity in data collection, wrong theory..

describing and understanding variability

By variability, we mean successive

observations of a system or phenomenon

do not produce exactly the same result

Statistics gives us a framework for

describing this variability and for learning

about potential sources of variability.

ASSURANCE

Consider the following

Differences among different components manufactured

Differences among different batches of materials

(polymers, ceramics, composites manufactured

Differences between batches of chemicals..

CAS # same. But differences during minor constituents

Pharma impurity profile

Specifying the component is easier than specifying

materials

are random

Supply chain variations (Raw Material)

lead to variations in products (Paste as

eg.)

Supply chain management

Quality control and quality assurance

Tools operator, ambience and several

unknown variables which we assume to be

invariant and they may not be

How do you choose the material for a linear

scale?

How do you choose a multimeter?

How do you choose a balance?

some inherent variation that must be

understood before inferences about data

can be made

No two measurements are ever exactly

the same, due to both process and

measurement variability

We must always gather a sample of

several data points in order to make

valid inferences

Representing data by numbers helps clarify and

simplify communication

Can show general trend or common denominator

in the data

Danger of numerical data:

Liable to misrepresentation or manipulation

can over simplify/ignore individual differences

AGAIN There are lies, damned lies, and statistics

--Mark Twain

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