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COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

EPIDEMIC STATUS
PALAKKAD

DR.K.A.NAZAR
DEPUTY DISTRICT
MEDICAL OFFICER
DIDTRICT MEDICAL OFFICE
PALAKKAD

FEVER
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

FEVER
60000
50000

50147
47764

40000
30000

31376
21253

20000
16029
15448
13141
13131
18161
17199
15084
14867
10000
12135
0

28174
2013
20505
1990119998
19175
2014

ADD
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

ADD
10000
9000
8000
7193
7000
6000
5170
5000
3981411739003900
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

2013
2014

DENGUE HOTSPOTS

DENGUE FEVER 2009-2013


2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

443

315

224

222

179
138

130

95

71

54
37
30
30
27
18
9
8
6
6
5
4
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Jan
Feb Mar Apr May Jun

87
85
56

7
4
2
Jul

2
1
Aug

3
1
0
Sep

6
2
0
Oct

81
68
1
0
Nov

73
42
2
0
Dec

DENGUE FEVER probable Cases 2013-2014


2013

2014

443

315
224

222

179
130
54
27
Jan

37
8

Feb

85

70
30
9

Mar

18
Apr

32
May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

68
Nov

42
Dec

MALAREA
18
16

16

14
12
10

13
11

6
4
2 2

5
3
1

2013
2014

3
2

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

2
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

LEPTOSPIROSIS
14
13
12
11
10

10
9

8 8

8
7

6
5

4
3

7
6

5
2

2013
2014

LEPTOSPIROSIS HOT SPOTS

MALAMPUZHA
VALLAPPUZHA
PIRAYIRI
MALAMPUZHA
KODUMBA
VALLAPPUZHA
KUTHANUR
PIRAYIRI
AGALI
KODUMBA
SHOLAYUR
KUTHANUR
VANIYAMKULA
AGALI
MSHOLAYUR
VANIYAMKULA
M

TYPHOID
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

TYPHOID
120
105

100
88
80

61

60
40 37
20 19

31
22

35
25
22

21
9

32

27

32

35
25

2013
2014
32

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
EPIDEMIC STATUS &CONTROL

DR.K.A.NAZAR
DSO
i/c, DMO(H),

MAJOR COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES
MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASES
DENGUE FEVER
MALAREA
CHKUNGUNIYA
FILARIASIS
JAPANES ENCEPHALITIS

WATER BORNE DISEASES


ADD
HEPATITIS A
TYPHOID

CHOLERA
LEPTOSPIROSIS

COMMON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES

DENGUE FEVER
LEPTOSPIROSIS
HEPATITIS A
FILARIASIS

MOSQUITO BORN
DISEASES

TYPE OF MOSQUITO

DISEAESES

1.ANOPHELES

MALARIA

2.CULEX

JAPANES ENCEPHALITIS, FILARIASIS

3.AEDES

DENGUE,CHKUNGUNYA,YELLOW,
FEVER

4.MANSONOIDS

FILARIASIS, CHKUNGUNYA

CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES

CONTROL OF VECTOR BORNE


DISEASES
Environmental
Biological
Chemical

management strategies

controls

methods

Elimination of mosquito is the most


effective prevention strategy

Lets remove stagnant water


and eliminate mosquitoes

Possible Breeding Grounds of Aedes

Artificial containers:
Vases, saucers underneath flower pots,
trays underneath air-conditioners,
buckets jars and jugs of earthenware,
cement troughs, dumped tyres and
solid wastes such as cans, disposable
cups and bowls, and plastic bags.

Possible Breeding Grounds of Aedes Albopictus (2)

Natural containers:
The hollow space inside a
bamboo, hollows of a tree and
the rachis of a leaf.

Elimination of Mosquitoes

Cover water containers


tightly so that
mosquitoes cant get in
to lay eggs.

MOSQUITO BREEDING
CONTAINERS

Elimination of Mosquitoes

Dispose of domestic
wastes, empty bottles, cans
and lunch boxes properly
into a covered bin to
prevent the accumulation
of stagnant water.

Elimination of Mosquitoes
Change water for vases
and aquatic plants at
least once a week,
leaving no water under
the pots or in the
bottom saucers.
Scrub the container
surfaces thoroughly to
prevent mosquito eggs
sticking on them.

Elimination of Mosquitoes

Remove or puncture
any dumped tyres to
prevent the
accumulation of
stagnant water.

ENVIRONMENTAL

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Reduce or eliminate vector breeding grounds altogether


Improve design or operation of water resources
development projects

Elimination of Mosquitoes

Keep ditches free from blockage.

Elimination of Mosquitoes

Fill up uneven ground surfaces to prevent


the accumulation of stagnant water.

Elimination of Mosquitoes

Remove stagnant
water immediately if
mosquitoes are found
to be breeding. Use
environmentally
friendly insecticides
such as lavicidal oil if
necessary.

Cover all water containers with


cloth including the cement tubs,
drums and vessels

Elimination of Mosquitoes

In cultivation ponds,
water tanks or large
containers, biological
controls such as
keeping fishes to eat
mosquito larvae would
be a good option.

BIOLOGICAL

CONTROLS

use bacterial larvicides and larvivorous fish (Gambusia


Fishes) & Biolarvicides (Bacillus sphaericus) that target and
kill vector larvae without generating the ecological
impacts of chemicals

CHEMICAL

METHODS

indoor residual sprays


space spraying
chemical larvicides and adulticides

PERSONAL PROPHYLACTIC
MEASURES
Use of mosquito repellent creams, liquids,
coils, mats etc.
Screening of the houses with wire mesh
Use of bed nets treated with insecticide
Wearing clothes that cover maximum
surface area of the body

PREVENTION OF LEPTOSPIROSIS

PREVENTION OF LEPTOSPIROSIS
Prevent

contamination of living &


working areas by urine of infected
animals.
Control of rodent population
Do not allow animals to urinate in or
near ponds or pools.
Food articles must be stored properly
fitting containers.
Provide proper protective clothing,
shoes,gloves,etc to high risk groups.
Disinfections of contaminated work
area.

CONTROL OF WATER
BORNE
DISEASES

HEALTH EDUCATION
Providing

education on good
sanitation and personal
hygiene, especially handwashing

Hand

washing this is the


most vital component of
personal hygiene in disease
prevention

HOUSE HOLD HYGIENE


At

home, the water should be


Boiled,
Filtered,
OR other methods and
necessary steps taken to
ensure that it is free from
Microorganisms

INTERRUPTING THE ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION


OF THE DISEASES

Disposing

of organic and animal


wastes properly to avoid flies
Proper Disposal of Human
Faeces will reduce the number of
cases
Infected individuals (and
domestic animals) should be
treated with medicine to reduce
disease transmission

Good

food hygiene (food is a


significant breeding ground for
pathogens).

Washing

food prior to cooking and


Cooking food for long enough at a
sufficiently high temperature are both
important to kill harmful bacteria.
Protecting food from flies interrupts
the faeces-flies-food route (at a
household level).

Ensuring

uninterrupted
provision of safe drinking
water is the most important
preventive measure to be
implemented,in order to
reduce the risk of outbreaks
of water-borne diseases.

CHLORINATION OF WATER

K
N
A
H
T OU
Y