You are on page 1of 16

INTRODUCTION

TheAcropolis ofAthens(Greek: ) is an ancientcitadel


located on a high rocky outcrop above the city ofAthensand containing
the remains of severalancient buildingsof great architectural and
historic significance, the most famous being theParthenon. The word
acropoliscomes from the Greek words(akron, "edge, extremity")
and(polis, "city").[1]Although there are many other acropoleis in
Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is
commonlyis
known
as "The
without
qualification.
The Acropolis
located
on aAcropolis"
flat-topped
rock that
rises 150m

(490ft) above sea level in the city ofAthens, with a surface area
of about 3hectares. It was also known asCecropia, after the
legendaryserpent-man,Cecrops, the first Athenian king. While
the earliest artifacts date to the MiddleNeolithicera, there have
been documented habitations inAtticafrom the Early Neolithic
(6th millennium BC). There is little doubt that aMycenaean
megaronstood upon the hill during the lateBronze Age

ON THE GLOBE

PROPYLAEA
Propylaea,PropyleaorPropylaia is any monumentalgatewaybased
on the original Propylaea that serves as the entrance to theAcropolisin
Athens. The wordpropylaea(propylaeumis the Latin version) is the
union of theprefixpro(before or in front of) plus the plural of the
Greekpylonorpylaion(gate), meaning literally that which is before the
gates, but the word has come to mean simplygate building.The
Brandenburg GateofBerlinand thePropylaeainMunichare specifically
copied from the central portion of the Propylaea.

TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE


TheTemple of Athena Nikeis a temple on theAcropolis of Athens
.NikemeansvictoryinGreek, andAthenawas worshiped in this
form, as goddess of victory in war and wisdom. Thetempleis the
earliest fully ionic temple on the Acropolis, compensated by its
prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of
the Acropolis to the right of the entrance, thePropylaea. There the
citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a prosperous outcome in
the long war fought on land and sea against theSpartansand their
allies. The Temple of Athena Nike was an expression of Athens'
ambition to be the leading Greekcity state.

PARTHENON
TheParthenon(Greek:) is atempleon theAthenian Acropolis,
Greece, dedicated to theGreek goddessAthena, whom the people of
Athens considered their virgin patron. Its construction began in 447BC
when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was
completed in 438BC, although decoration of the Parthenon continued
until 432BC. It is the most important surviving building of
Classical Greece, generally considered the culmination of the
development of theDoric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered
some of the high points ofGreek art.

ERECHTHEION
TheErechtheion(Greek:) is an ancientGreek templeon the
north side of theAcropolisofAthensinGreece.
The temple as seen today was built between 421 and 405 BC. Itsarchitect
may have beenMnesicles, and it derived its name from a shrine
dedicated to the legendaryGreek heroErichthonius. The sculptor and
mason of the structure was Phidias, who was employed by Pericles to
build both the Erechtheum and the Parthenon. Some have suggested that
it may have been built in honor of the legendary kingErechtheus, who is
said to have been buried nearby. Erechtheus was mentioned in
Homer'sIliadas a great king and ruler of Athens during the Archaic
Period,

OLD TEMPLE OF ATHENA


TheOld Temple of AthenawasanArchaictemplelocatedonthe
AcropolisofAthens.UntilitsdestructionbythePersiansin480BC,itwastheshrine
ofAthenaPolias,thepatrondeityofthecityofAthens.Itwaslocatedatthecentreof
theAcropolisplateau,probablyontheremainsofaMycenaeanpalace.Apartfromits
in-situfoundations,numerousarchitecturalmembersintheDoricorderbelongingto
itsdifferentconstructionphaseshavebeenfound.Thecomplexissometimes
describedbythename"Drpfeldfoundations",afterthearchaeologistwhofirst
studiedit.

ATHENA PROMACHOS
TheAthena Promachos wasacolossalbronzestatueofAthenasculptedby
Pheidias,whichstoodbetweenthePropylaeaandtheParthenonontheAcropolis
ofAthens.Athenawasthegoddessofwisdomandwarriorsandtheprotectressof
Athens.PheidiasalsosculptedtwootherfiguresofAthenaontheAcropolis,the
hugegoldandivory("chryselephantine")cultimageofAthena Parthenosinthe
ParthenonandtheLemnian Athena.ThedesignationAthena Promachosisnot
attestedbeforeadedicatoryinscriptionoftheearlyfourthcenturyBC.Pausanias
forone,referredtoitas"thegreatbronzeAthena"ontheAcropolis.

THEATRE OF DIONYSUS
TheTheatre of Dionysus Eleuthereusis a major open-airtheatreand
one of the earliest preserved inAthens. It was used for festivals in honour
of the godDionysus. It is sometimes confused with the later and betterpreservedOdeon of Herodes Atticus, located nearby on the southwest
slope of theAcropolis.

ODEON OF HERODES
TheOdeon of Herodes Atticusis astonetheatre structure located on
the south slope of theAcropolis of Athens. It was built in 161 AD by the
Athenian magnateHerodes Atticusin memory of his wife,Aspasia Annia
Regilla. It was originally a steep-sloped amphi theaterwith a three-story
stone front wall and a wooden roof made of expensive,cedar of Lebanon
timber. It was used as a venuefor music concerts with a capacity of
5,000.

ELEUSINION
AnAtheniantemple toDemeter, theEleusinionwas the place where all
sacred objects associated with theEleusinian Mysterieswere kept
between ceremonies. It was located at the base of theAcropolis.
The Eleusinion played an important role in thePanathenaic festival.

CHALKOTHEKE
TheChalkotheke(Greekfor "bronze store") was a structure on the
Athenian Acropolis. Its name and function are only known from 4th
century BC inscriptions.[1]One decree orders the listing of all objects
stored in the Chalkotheke and the erection of asteleinscribed with that
list in front of the building.[2]

PANDROSEION
ThePandroseionwas a sanctuary dedicated toPandrosus, one of the
daughters ofCecrops I, the first king of AtticaGreece, located on the
Acropolis of Athens. It occupied the space adjacent to theErechtheumand
the oldTemple of Athena Polias.
The sanctuary was a walled trapezoidal courtyard containing the altar of
Zeus Herkeios(protector of the hearth, of the courtyard) under the sacred
Olive Tree planted by Athena. At the west was an entrance stoa from the
propylea.

SANCTUARY OF ZEUS
POLIEUS
TheSanctuary of Zeus Polieuswas a no walled open-air sanctuary
dedicated toZeus Polieus (city protector)around500 BCon the
Acropolis of Athens, sited to theErechtheion's east. None of its
foundations have been discovered and its trapezoid plan and many
entrances have been worked out from rock cuttings on the acropolis.
The eastern area of the sanctuary is thought to have housed the oxen
for the annualBouphoniaor ox-sacrificing. Its main entrance had a
pediment.

STOA OF EUMENES

TheStoa of Eumenesis astoaon theacropolis of Athens, sited between


theOdeion of Herodes Atticusand theTheater of Dionysos. It was built
against the slope of the hill (meaning it needed a retaining wall supported
by piers and round arches. It is named after its builder,Eumenes
II of Pergamum(whose brotherAttalus II of Pergamumbuilt theStoa of
Attalusin Athens's agora, probably commissioning it from the same
architect). It was two-storied, 46m longer than the Stoa of Attalus and
unlike it had no rooms behind its two-aisle hall, meaning it was designed for
promenading rather than business. Originally marble-faced, its arcades
were built into the 1060 Byzantine defensive wall and are still visible. It had
Doric columns externally, Ionic columns on the ground-floor interior and
Pergemene-type capitals on the top floor interior. In front of the Stoa are the
foundations of the 320BCMonument of Nikias.

Presentation made by :Hamza Siddiqui