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Job Analysis

Contents of this chapter


Different

Terms of Job Analysis


Definition of Job Analysis
Preliminary Questions to Ask
Why do we do Job Analyses?
Who is Involved in Job Analysis?
Typical Division of HR Responsibilities
Job Analysis Process
Job Analysis Methods
Criteria for Choice of Job Analysis Method
Job Functions
How will be a Job Function statement
Time Spent on Each Job Function
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Different Terms of Job


Analysis
Task: a unit of work activity performed
by a worker within a limited time period
Duty: several related tasks that are
performed by a worker
Position: the set of all tasks & duties
performed by a worker
Job: a group of identical positions
Job Family: Grouping of related jobs
with broadly similar content, e.g.
marketing, engineering, office support,
technical.
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Relationship of task, job and job


family
JOB FAMILY
Grouping of related jobs with broadly similar content, e.g.
marketing, engineering, office support, technical.
JOB
Group of tasks performed by one person that
make up the total work assignment of that
person, e.g. customer support representative.
TASK
Smallest unit of analysis, a specific
statement of what a person does; for
example, answers the telephone.
Similar tasks can be grouped into a
task dimension, e.g. responsible for
ensuring that accurate information is
provided to customer.

Definitions
Job

Analysis: the process of collecting &


analyzing information about jobs to
write:

Job Description: a document that identifies


the tasks & duties performed by a job
Job Specification: a document that identifies
the qualifications required by a job
Most

organizations combine the Job


Description & the Job Specification into
a single document for each job

Usually simply called a Job Description


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Goal: Match Person & Job

Need

information about the Person & about the Job


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Preliminary Questions to
Ask
Is

it a newly created job?

Is

the job in one department or several?

How

many incumbents are in the job?

Are

there significant variations within the


job?

How

does the job relate to or interact with


other jobs in the organization?

Are

there significant changes that will


impact the job in the near future?
Technology changes
Department reorganization
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Why do we do Job
Analyses?

Reduce

Role Conflict and Ambiguity

reduce discrepancy between what organization


thinks job is and what job is in reality
Design

and Evaluation of Training

focus training on most difficult and/or most


frequent elements of job
Performance

Appraisal

criteria for appraisal should be matched with


most important elements of job

Why Job Analysis..?


Job

Design

simplify job with too many disparate


activities
Personnel

Selection

once KSAs are identified, job requirements


can be generated
items on job tests can be written based on JA
e.g., if job requires high intelligence, give
intelligence test

Why Job Analysis.?


Compliance

with Civil Rights Legislation

CRA of 1964, 1991, Age Discrimination Act,


Americans with Disabilities Act
if discrimination occurs, must be justifiable
business practice
JA is necessary, but not sufficient component

Job

Evaluation

judges relative worth of jobs in an


organization
sets fair compensation rates

Typical Division of HR
Responsibilities: Job Analysis

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Who is Involved in Job


Analysis?
Who Collects
the
Information?

Who

Provides

the
Information?

How

to Resolve
Discrepancies

Job Analysis Process

Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 4.1, p. 141


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Phase 1: Scope of the


Project

1. Decide purposes of the job analysis


project
How do you want to use the Job
Descriptions?

Job design
Recruiting
Selection
Performance appraisal
Training
Compensation

2. Decide which jobs to include in the job


analysis project
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Phase 2: Methods of Job


Analysis
1. Decide what data (information) is
needed
At a minimum, for each
analyzed, we need data on:

job

being

Tasks & duties performed on the job


Qualifications required by the job

2. Identify sources of job data


Job incumbents: observation, interview,
questionnaire
Supervisor
of
job:
interview,
questionnaire
Other sources
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Phase 2: Methods (more)


3. Select specific procedures of job
analysis (more)
3.1 Structured Job Analysis Procedures
a) Functional Job Analysis (FJA): adds to the
Job Description 7 scales (numbers) that
measure:
3 worker-function scales: % of time spent with:
Data
People
Things
1 worker-instruction scale
3 scales that measure the general educational
requirements: reasoning, mathematics, & language
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Phase 2: Methods (more)


Structured Job Analysis Procedures
(more)
b) Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

Standardized questionnaire
Questions focus on worker activities on the job
For non-managerial & non-professional jobs
http://www.paq.com/?FuseAction=Main.PAQProgram

c) Professional and Managerial Position


Questionnaire (PMPQ)
Standardized questionnaire
For professional & managerial jobs
http://www.paq2.com/pmpqmain.html

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Phase 2: Methods (more)

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Phase 2: Methods (more)


Structured Job Analysis Procedures
(more)
f) Task Inventory Procedure
Questionnaire with a master list of possible tasks
Check-mark the tasks done by the job

g) Other structured Job Analysis procedures:


Critical Incidents Technique
Ability Requirements Scales
Personality-Related Job Analysis Procedures
Cognitive Task Analysis

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Phase 3: Data Collection & Analysis


a) Collect job data
Get the organization ready
Reduce sources of bias
Conduct effective interviews

b) Analyze the job data


c) Report results to organization
Write the job descriptions

d) Periodically recheck the job data


Update & revise the job descriptions
as needed
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Phase 4: Assessment
a) Evaluate the Job Analysis project
Continuous improvement: learn from both
successes & mistakes to continuously get
better
Did the project finish on-time and under-budget?
If not, what went wrong? What would you do differently?

Did you collect the correct information?


What additional information would you collect if you did
the project over?
What information would you not collect?

Are the Job Descriptions being used as intended?


If not, whats missing to make them useful?
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Methods of Job Analysis


A.

Interviews

B.

Structured Questionnaire /
Inventory

C.

Direct Observation

D.

Logbooks / Work Diaries

A. Interviews
Most

commonly used method

very adaptable
Usually

conducted with

job incumbents
technical experts
supervisors
Questions

like:

what are your most typical duties?


How long do they take?
How do you do them?
Con:

people may
misrepresent/exaggerate job

B.
Questionnaire/Inventory
Lists of many (>200) job
characteristics and activities
rated in term of frequency and importance
very

commonly used (esp. with


interviews)

PAQ Example of Sources of Job


Information

Rate the extent to which each is used by the worker as


a source of information in performing the job:

Extent of Use: N - Does not apply


1 - Very infrequent
2- Occasional
3 - Moderate
4 - Considerable
5 - Very substantial

C. Observation
Unobtrusive

method

camera; video; audio


Excellent

for understanding and


appreciating conditions under which
job is performed

Allows

analyst to experience aspects


of job that worker may not be aware of

D. Logbook / Worker
Diaries

Worker makes systematic entries in


book outlining activities
May be useful for jobs that are difficult
to observe
But,

not commonly used

too much variance in writing skills


can exaggerate tasks performed

Criteria for Choice of Job


Analysis Method
Degree

of suitability/versatility for use


across different jobs.
Degree of standardization in the process
and in the reporting of results.
Acceptability of process and results to those
who will serve as sources and/or users.
Degree to which method is operational and
may
be
used
off-the-shelf
without
modification, as opposed to a method
requiring
tailor-made
development
and
application.
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Criteria for Choice of Job Analysis


Method
Amount

of training required for sources and


users of job information.
Costs of the job analysis, both in terms of
direct administrative costs and opportunity
costs of time involvement by people.
Quality of resultant information in terms or
reliability and content validity.
Usability of results in recruitment, selection,
and employment activities.

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Typical Areas Covered in a Job Analysis Questionnaire

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Thanks
for
attending this session

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