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Academic Writing

Year 2

Martina Raftery and Colette Fahy

Outline

Research & Planning


Writing
Proofing
Referencing
Time management

Stress management
Contemporary Art Archive
2 by Lyndall Jones

Essay
Part One
Lectures
750 words (25%)
Part Two
Elective
2,000 words (75%)
Due 16th of December

Learning Outcomes
Important to consider the Learning Outcomes as
these are the grading criteria your lecturers will use
to correct your work.

Research
Analysis
Communication
Need to demonstrate that you have come to
the class and engaged with the ideas
presented.

Essay Question
Key words
Understand directive words - Glossary
What is your topic?
Who is your audience?
What is your aim?

Active Research

Reading
SQ3R

Plan
Get sequence of ideas in place
Keep research and writing focused
Identify what is relevant and what isnt
Helps build an argument
Evenly distribute word count
Reduce stress
How do I do this?
-Bullet points, Mind Maps, doodles, talking it
out

Break it down !
Introduction 200 words
Point 1 400 words
Point 2 400 words
Point 3 400 words
Point 4 400 words
Conclusion 200 words
Total 2,000 words
Remember this is an example.
Adjust your plan to fit in all your key points.

Essay Construction
Your conclusion is the roof of
your argument. It seals your
essay.
The body contains the main
themes. Like the rooms of a
house, they are connected
but each has a different
purpose.
The introduction is the first
layer
References form the
foundation

Paragraph Structure
Each paragraph
Introduce
Backup with
evidence
Summarise

Write
Get started!
Follow your structure
Refer back to the research question
Workspace: consistent, comfortable &
organised
Refine and reassess later

Academic
Writing

Express yourself clearly


Correct spelling, grammar, punctuation
Non descriptive
Minimal use of I, my, me
Offers and argument or critique
Academic writing is not about:
-long complicated words/sentences
-original ideas that no one has ever
written about
-sweeping statements

Education is not the filling of a pail,


but the lighting of a fire.
W. B. Yeats
Or Plutarch

Being Critical
Put forward a question or argument
Explore and evaluate
Examine
limitations/shortcomings/weaknesses
Reference experts
Make a constructive suggestion
Remember be respectful, this is not about
slating another persons work/ideas/methods
Struggling? Have a chat with classmates
about your topic. You will soon find you have
an opinion or stance to take.

Key Phrases:
Introduction
The objective of this essay is
The essay will focus on.
This essay will aim to answer
the question
This essay will attempt to
examine
This essay will explore

Key Phrases: Main


Body
It is argued that
It is proposed that
The authors posit that
The authors assert that
In addition,.
Furthermore,
Significantly

Conclusion
In conclusion,
All things considered
Rule: Never bring in new
information unless making a point
about future directions in the
discussed topic
Academic Phrasebank http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/

Proof and Edit


What to look for:
Relevant to topic?
Back up points - bring in expert opinions?
Spelling, Grammar & Punctuation
Formatting
Referencing
Strategies: Spell-Check, text to speech,
swap with a friend, print out and doodle

Remember
Use UK spelling rather than US spelling
e.g. colour rather than color
Use font size 12
Double space your writing
Dont over rely on quotes
Reference

NCAD Referencing
System
Harvard Style

Why Reference?
Credit your sources
Demonstrate readings
Bring in experts opinions
Strengthen your argument
Avoid plagiarism accidental or
not

Plagiarism

MARK AIRS/ISTOCKPHOTO.COM

Need to cite and reference all information that is not your intellectual
property. This includes paraphrased information, i.e. information
you have put in your own words.

Trustworthy
Source?
Credible
Academic writing: use of correct spelling,
grammar and proper terminology
Recently dated
Use websites for your own understanding and
then reference academic sources
No Wikipedia

Reliable Evidence and


Sources
NCAD Library
NCAD Online
Journals
NIVAL
Google Scholar

Searching the Library


Catalogue and Online
Journals

Donald Judd (1987)Complete writings, 1975 - 1986


Eindhoven: Van Abbemuseum.

Things to note
The authors
name
The year it was
published
The title
Who published it
Where it was
published
Pages you used

It takes a great deal


of time and thought
to install work
carefully. This should
not always be
thrown away.
From: Donald Judd
(1987)Complete writings,
1975-1986.Eindhoven:
Van Abbemuseum p. 111

Quote
It takes a great deal of time and
thought to install work carefully. This
should not always be thrown away.Most
art is fragile and some should be placed
and never moved again (Judd, 1987, p.
35).
Paraphrasing
Judd placed a great importance on the
curation of work, remarking that this
process should take a large amount of
time and thought to be done correctly
(1987, p. 35).

Citations in the Text


Author
Year
Page Number
(Smith, 1990, p.
25)

Image courtesy of
introvertspring.com

Two authors (Smith and Blake, 2000, p.7)


More than three authors (Smith et al.
1999, p.100)

Artwork
Include only when referred to in the text.
Piet Mondrians work Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942143) (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2 Piet Mondrian Broadway Boogie Woogie(1942-43) Oil on canvas,


The Museum of Modern Art, New York

Bibliography
List ALL material consulted
Placed at the end of your
essay
List it alphabetically by
authors name
Citation software Zotero

Bibliography - Book
Author (or editor), (year of
publication in parenthesis), Title in
Italics. Place of publication:
publisher.
Poyner, R. (1998) Design without Boundaries. London:
Booth-Clibborn Editions.

Bibliography
Chapter with Different
Authors

Author, year (in parenthesis), title of


chapter or essay then write in
followed by name & initial of
editor/overall author, title in italics.
Place of publication: publisher, page
number(s).
Smith, P. J. (1997) British Art in the 1980s
and 1990s in Murphy, B. (ed), Art from
Britain. Sidney: Museum of Contemporary

Bibliography
Web Resource
Author/ editors name, (year in
parenthesis), Title in Italics. Place of
Publication: Publisher (if
ascertainable). Available from: URL
(Accessed: date)
Holland, M. (2004) Guide to Citing Internet
Sources. Poole: Bournemouth University.
Available at:
http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk.library/usin
g/guide_to_citing_internet_sources.html
(Accessed: 4 November 2004)

Bibliography
Journal Article
Author, (year of publication), title of
article, title of journal in italics,
volume number (part number), page
numbers of article.
Dawes, J. and Rowley, J. (1998)
'Enhancing the customer experience:
contributions from information
technology', Management Decision,
36(5), pp. 350-357

Bibliography
Film
Title of film (Year of
Distribution) Director
[Material designation]. Place
of distribution: Distribution
Company.
Macbeth (1948) Directed by
Orson Welles [Film]. USA:
Republic Pictures

Some Exceptions
No page number (just leave it out!)
Anonymous work - use title of work
(Treasures of Art, 1990, p.84)
No author or year (website) - use title as
author and n.d. for year
If no main author (video or film) use the title
Exact year unknown (ca. 1750) or (n. d.)
More than one publication - use letters to
distinguish and list chronologically in
bibliography (Smith, 1988a, p.1)

Where to Find the


Guidelines?

Checks for potential plagiarism


and provides feedback to you and
assess your work quickly.

Why Use?
Before submitting written academic assignments to
lecturers/ depts, a final check for plagiarism will
ensure that the writing is original and well cited.
Plagiarism is often unintentional and students may
not realize they have accidentally plagiarized.
TurnItIn will do a quick and thorough check of
papers for similar work. Using TurnItIn
will give you peace of mind that your essays are
plagiarism-free.

TurnItIn
You are being asked to use TurnItIn software
yourself to check for plagiarism before
submitting your academic work.
You will receive information on how to set up
your account and use it through your college
email.
It will provide the information which allows you
to join a class on the Turnitin website

Process
Upload your written material to turnitin
A similarity check provides a basic indication of
how much information contained in a specific
submission is matched to other sources in the
Turnitin repository.
Direct quotation, citations, or bibliography areas of
the paper are checked by the lecturer /
department.

Contd
When your work is submitted a comparison
document called an Originality Report is
produced.
This document details the matching or similar
text between a submission made on Turnitin
and other sources.
The Originality Report can be downloaded or
printed

Common Writing
Mistakes
Did not specify essay question at
start
No clear introduction
Poor structure
Overly descriptive
Written in the first person I, my
Misuse or absence of punctuation
Poor referencing

Fuchsia
Macaree

Where are you wasting


your time ?

Perfectionism is a form of
procrastination
What is making you strive towards
perfectionism?
Remember ideals are directions, not
absolutes
Focus on your end goal and dont
obsess over the fine detail

Time Management
Organise: notes, workspace,
emails
theorganisedstudent.tumblr.com
Prioritise with to do lists
Timetabling
Colour code

Stay Focused
Pomodoro Principle
25 mins of work and 5 mins break
(x3)
20 min break
Timers Tomato Timer App
Limit Distractions Cold Turkey App

S.M.A.R.T. Goals

Example
Specific Begin introduction
Measurable I will write 200
words
Attainable I can manage
200 words
Relevant Working towards
deadline

Stress Management
Exercise
Social Support
Meditation: Mindfulness
Free Meditation Downloads
The Free Minfulness Project
UCLA Mindfulness

Questions?

Need Help?

Opening Hours: 9 to 5 Mon Fri


Email:
learningsupport@staff.ncad.ie