You are on page 1of 22

POLYMER

CHARACTERIZATION,
ANALYSIS AND
TESTING

PHYSICAL PHARMACY 2

Polymer
Characterization
Branch of polymer science which is concerned
with the characterization of polymeric
materials on a variety of levels:
molecular mass
molecular structure
morphology
thermal properties
mechanical properties
CHE ELECTIVE III

Polymer
Solution
s

CONTENT
1. What Solvents will dissolve what
polymer?
2. What are effects of polymer-solvent
interaction that influence the solution
properties?
3. To what applications do the interesting
properties of polymer solutions lead?

How does a polymer


dissolves?
According to Chemistry:

LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE


POLAR MACROMOLECULES like poly (acrylic acid), poly
(acrylamide) and polyvinyl alcohol, among others, are soluble
in water
NONPOLAR POLYMERS such as polystyrene, poly(methyl
methacrylate), poly(vinyl chloride), and poly(isobutilene), are
soluble in nonpolar solvents.

How does a polymer


dissolves?
According to Thermodynamics:

Will dissolve If:

G = H TS < 0
G - the change in Gibbs free energy
H - the change in enthalpy
T- the absolute temperature
S- the change in entropy

How does a polymer


dissolves?
G = H TS < 0

A positive H solvent and polymer prefer their own


company, the pure materials are in a lower energy state.
A negative H the solution is in the lower energy state,
specific interactions are formed such as hydrogen bonding
between the solvents and polymer molecules.
Absolute T is positive

Why S is usually positive?

PHYSICAL PHARMACY 2

How does a polymer


dissolves?
According to Physical Chemistry:

HILDERBRAND EQUATION

s and p are the volume fractions of solvent and


polymer
sand p are solubility parameter for solvent and polymer

(s - p ) < 4.0
9

PHYSICAL PHARMACY 2

10

How does a polymer


dissolves?
Example:

Does Nylon 6.6 dissolves in water?


From the table:

(water - nylon6.6)
= (47.9 - 27.8) MPa1/2
= 20.1 MPa1/2 >> 4.00

11

SOLUBILITY FACTORS

12

SWELLING

DISSOLUTI
ON
PHYSICAL PHARMACY 2

13

Polymer Interactions in
Solutions

Motor Fuel
14

In order to reduce the temperature sensitivity, block


copolymers of polystyrene -hydrogenated
polyisoprene are added.

15

Other Interactions in
Solutions
Formation of polymer complexes. Some
biological macromolecules reactions are
important especially on effects of drugs, viscosity
Binding of ions to macromolecules. E.g.
calcium ions to polysaccharides
Adsorption of macromolecules. Stabilizers for
suspension and emulsion

16

Industrial
Applications of
Polymer Solution
17

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

Soapy Water

EFFECT: Selective precipitation onto clothing fibers


APPLICATION: Prevents oils from redepositing on
clothing during detergent washing: antiredeposition agent

18

Proteins

Wine

EFFECT: Gels on reacting with tannin


APPLICATION: Clarification of wines, removes
colloidal matter

PHYSICAL PHARMACY 2

19

Polystyrene

Triglyceride oil

EFFECT: Viscosity control, phase-separates during oil


polymerization
APPLICATION: Oil-based house paints, makes
coatings harder, tougher

20

Polyurethane

Esters

EFFECT: Solvent vehicle evaporates, leaving polymer


film for glues, solvent enters mating surfaces
APPLICATION: Varnishes, shellac, and glues
(adhesives)
21

PHYSICAL PHARMACY 2

22