Artificail inteklligence

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Artificail inteklligence

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Note: Some slides and/or pictures are adapted from Lecture slides / Books of

Dr Zafar Alvi.

Text Book - Aritificial Intelligence Illuminated by Ben Coppin, Narosa Publishers.

Ref Books

Artificial Intelligence- Structures & Strategies for Complex Problem Solving by George F.

Luger, 4th edition, Pearson Education.

Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach by Stuart Russell & Peter Norvig.

Outline

Knowledge Representation

Problem solving

Problem solving steps

Knowledge Representation

The representation that is used to

represent a problem is very important.

The way in which the computer

represents a problem, the variables it

uses, and the operators it applies to

those variables can make the

difference between an efficient

algorithm and an algorithm that

doesnt work at all.

Knowledge Representation

There are many ways to represent

knowledge

Semantic Nets

Inheritance

Frames

Semantic Nets

A semantic net is a graph consisting

of nodes that are connected by

edges.

The nodes represent objects, and the

links between nodes represent

relationships between those objects.

The links are usually labeled to

indicate the nature of the

relationship.

Semantic Nets

Semantic Trees

A semantic tree is a kind of semantic net that has

the following properties:

Each node (except for the root node) has exactly one

predecessor (parent) and one or more successors

(children).

When searching a semantic tree, we start at the root

node.

Some nodes have no successors. These nodes are called

leaf nodes. One or more leaf nodes are called goal nodes.

These are the nodes that represent a state where the

search has succeeded.

An ancestor of a node is a node further up the tree in

some path. A descendent comes after a node in a path in

the tree.

Semantic Trees

A path is a route through the semantic

tree, which may consist of just one node

(a path of length 0).A path of length 1

consists of a node, a branch that leads from

that node, and the successor node to which

that branch leads.

A path that leads from the root node to a

goal node is called a complete path.

A path that leads from the root node to

a leaf node that is not a goal node is

called a partial path.

Semantic Trees

When comparing semantic nets and semantic trees visually,

one of the most obvious differences is that semantic nets

can contain cycles, but semantic trees cannot.

A cycle is a path through the net that visits the same

node more than once.

In semantic trees, an edge that connects two nodes is called

a branch.

If a node has n successors, that node is said to have a

branching factor of n.

A tree is often said to have a branching factor of n if the

average branching factor of all the nodes in the tree is n.

The root node of a tree is said to be at level 0, and the

successors of the root node are at level 1. Successors of

nodes at level n are at level n + 1.

Tree

Search Tree

Searching a semantic net involves traversing

the net systematically (or in some cases, not so

systematically), examining nodes, looking for a

goal node.

Clearly following a cyclic path through the net

is pointless because following A,B,C,D,A will not

lead to any solution that could not be reached

just by starting from A.

We can represent the possible paths through a

semantic net as a search tree, which is a type

of semantic tree.

Problem Solving

Historically people viewed the

phenomena of intelligence as

strongly related to problem solving.

They used to think that the person

who is able to solve more and more

problems is more intelligent than

others.

Hit and trail method (classical approach)

Mouse example

Consider that a child is to switch on the light in a

dark room

where we generate different combinations to

solve our problem, and the one which solves the

problem is taken as the correct solution.

The rest of the combinations that we try are

considered as incorrect solutions and hence are

destroyed.

Problem Representation

The key to problem solving is

actually good representation of a

problem.

Natural representation of problems is

usually done using graphics and

diagrams to develop a clear picture

of the problem in your mind.

light by a child in a graphical form.

Each rectangle represents the state of

the switch board.

Goal can be found at different levels

Components of Problem

Solving

Problem Statement (The two major

things that we get to know about the

problem is the Information about

what is to be done and constraints to

which our solution should comply)

Problem Solution (Ultimate aim or

Goal State or the state that

represents the solution of the

problem)

Components of Problem

Solving

Solution space (The set of the start state,

the goal state and all the intermediate states)

Travelling in solution space (travel inside

solution space in order to find a solution to

our problem. The traveling inside a solution

space requires something called operators.

The action that takes us from one state to the

other is referred to as an operator. In case of

the mouse example, turn left, turn right, go

straight are operators

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