You are on page 1of 34

Livestock Keeping Trends

Buffaloes:
kept mainly in the northern and southern irrigated plains,
cattle
raised throughout the country.
Sheep:
More than 50% of sheep are reared in the western dry
mountains, western dry plateau and northern dry
mountains.
Goats:
raised in all AEZs,
but larger herds are common in areas with forage and
grazing.

Division of Production systems

Livestock production depends upon different factors


Climate, altitude ,soil, vegetation, source of water
and economics
Different pattern of productions
1. Criteria for classification of livestock are
1. integration with crop
2 . relation to land
3 . Agro-ecological zone
4 . intensity of land

DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


(Cattle & Buffaloes)
There are four main types of system (FAO 1987)
1.

Rural subsistence smallholdings

2.

Rural, market-oriented smallholdings

3.

Rural commercial farms

4.

Peri-urban commercial dairy farms

1. Rural subsistence smallholdings

Producing milk for the family at minimal cost.

The average subsistence unit consists of three


buffaloes, including one or two adults.

Grazing provides more than half of the feed


requirement.

Some green fodder and straw is provided

Small quantity of concentrate is given to milking


cows.

This traditional system makes heavy demands on


family labour

2. Rural, market-oriented smallholdings

with satisfactory access to milk markets,

producing milk in excess of family requirements for


sale.

farmers usually keep better quality animals.

A typical unit consists of fewer than six buffaloes


and cattle, with two or three in milk. Milking animals
are generally stall fed

with seasonal green fodder, straw and concentrate,

Continue..

dry cows and herd followers are grazed.

Calves are retained during lactation,

and then the males are disposed of and females are


kept as replacements.

This system is the main source of milk in Pakistan.

3. Rural commercial farms

More than 40 animals,

90% buffaloes

10% cattle,

Mixed croplivestock farms

Or specialized farms for breeding and milk production.

Fodder crops are grown and straw may be home grown


or purchased.

Continue

Concentrates are fed

Dry females and heifers are, if possible, grazed.

There is usually a bull for natural mating

Artificial insemination service is also used.

These farms are well organised and keep good


records,

But their contribution to the total milk supply is


small.

4. Peri-urban commercial dairy farms

Around all big cities,

The largest being at the Landhi Cattle Colony, Karachi,

Where more than 150,000 milking animals are kept.

Herds have 15 to 50 animals

More than 90% are buffaloes,

Mostly adult lactating females.

Turnover is very high.

Animals close to calving or in calf are purchased,

The calf is allowed to suckle for a few days

and is then sold, generally for slaughter.

Continue

Dry females are either sold for slaughter

or returned to the rural areas for breeding.

Most cows are not mated, as pregnancy reduces


milk yield.

Green fodder is purchased,

Feed consists mainly of concentrate and straw.

Since this is a high-cost system,

Only high-potential animals are kept.

FARTHER CLASSIFICATION OF
PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

A. Based on Raising System


1.
2.
3.

extensive,
semi intensive
intensive

B. Based on economic objectives


1.
2.
3.
4.

subsistence,
semi subsistence,
semi commercial
commercial

1)

Extensive System:

It is further divided into following categories.


Subsistence or semi subsistence

It can be best described under following two


heading.
i) Pastoralism:
ii) Crop agriculture with extensive cattle production

Pastoralism

No settled agriculture

and sedentary cultivation

rather lead a life of nomadism.

Essentially opportunists

Prevalent in desert areas of

Punjab,

Sindh

and Baluchistan.

They breed and manage

indigenous breeds for livestock


(camels, donkey, sheep, goat & cattle )

i) Pastoralism
Management and Health:

Animals are grazed in tight groups


(browsing as well as grazing)
Milk production is a function of season rather than
lactation
Young calves fed milk at the time of milking
(in morning and evening.)
Production costs are lower in the pastoral system
Diseases and parasitic infestation is the most prevalent
along with the mineral & protein deficiency

Recommendations:

Need to prevent overstocking with consequent overgrazing,


degradation and finally loss of the grazing resource.

Existing pastoral systems must change if they are to survive.

The provision of adequate boarding, educational facilities

The provision for pastoralists of some form of insurance


against drought and other disasters

ii) Crop agriculture with extensive


cattle production:

between pastoral nomadism and settled agriculture


Termed as agro-pastoral
Occurs where
land resources are limited,
population is increasing rapidly
and there is a possibility of growing cash crops
Observed in almost all part of the country
Cattle & buffalo used in this system is normally
indigenous one

Management and Health:

Animals kept in native

When there is scarcity of feed

the livestock is shifted to the other areas of grazing

Milk production is a function of season rather than


lactation

Diseases and parasitic infestation is the most prevalent


along with the mineral & protein deficiency

iii) Commercial ranching:

No commercial ranching system although in Pakistan

A wide scope exists as almost 70% of arid & semi-arid land


of the country is consisted of ranges

Semi Intensive System


I) Sedentary crop agriculture
with livestock production:

Most important livestock production system


Includes more than the half population of livestock reared in the country
Cattle owned by landless people also included
Characterized by small size of holdings, a mixture of subsistence, semi
subsistence and cash economies
Keeping of cattle for work
milk production,
use of old animals for meat and
Use of agriculture wastes and industrial by-products as feed source.
cattle used as indigenous in origin
but crossbred animals are also kept to have high milk yield

Management and Health

Feeding is haphazard and management poor

Farmers dont cultivate sufficient area

Cattle are grazed,

fed tethered with industrial by products and available fodder

Health services are relatively available

Milk surplus to that of family needs is sold

The major problem of the farmers is the size of land holdings

Intensive Systems
Modern Sector Cattle production:

Two components

1. Dairying
2. Beef Production

The former has been developing in Pakistan


but yet is on its infancy stage
while there is no activity related to later

There are small numbers of large scale private or government


owned dairy farms

cattle are kept on very good concentrate feeds

Provided with veterinary cover and modern techniques of A.I.

most of the farmers keep their own bull.

Animals of high production potential are maintained

Production systems
(Sheep and goats)

Nomadic System:

Found mostly in parts of Sindh and Baluchistan.


More than 100 animals,
Move constantly throughout the year in search of
grazing.
Most of the lambs and kids are born between January
and April,
When flocks are at lower elevations.
Females are retained for flock replacement or
enlargement,
Males are sold before they are one year old.

Continue..

Grazing is mainly free

Some areas grazing or fodder may have to be


purchased.

Sheep are mostly shorn twice.

There is some milking to provide for family


consumption

and for sale in the local market.

Transhumant System:

Flock owners have a fixed base but move with their


families

To another grazing area for a major part of the year.

This system is prevalent in

tribal areas in parts of the North West Frontier Province

Punjab,

In parts of Sindh

Baluchistan

Throughout the northern areas.

Continue..

Average flock size is about 100 animals.

Grazing is mainly on rangeland or crop residues,

Sometimes areas have to be rented.

The flock owners have easy access to the market and


sell the male progeny,

Sheep are shorn two or three times each year.

There is some milking for family consumption

or for the sale of milk or milk products.

Sedentaryhousehold System

Flocks remain in the same locality


throughout the year, are

Taken out to graze during the day

and brought back in the evening.

Flocks are small, usually between 20 and 40 animals,

Graze stubble, roadsides, canal banks, waterlogged


areas, rangeland and weeds.

Continue..

Women frequently keep a few animals, mostly goats,


Near the house and feed them on household scraps,
weeds and nearby grazing.
Before the feast of Eid-ul-Azha,
Some entrepreneurs purchase 50100 male sheep and
goats,
Which they fatten and sell at a high price.

Systems of milk production


An estimated 80 to 90 percent of milk in
developing countries is produced in smallscale farming systems. These operations
are based on low inputs, so production per
dairy animal is quite low.
TMR (Zero Grazing)

TMR (Zero Grazing)


A TMR or Total Mixed Ration is a method of
feeding cows that combines all forages,
grains, protein feeds, minerals, vitamins
and feed additives formulated to a
specified nutrient concentration into a
single feed mix. The TMR or complete
ration mix is then offered free choice.

Zero Grazing
High input and high output system
More milk you get from

your cows, more


sensitive they are to any changes in
management, bad feed or treatment.
Dairy herds may spend the majority of their
time indoors in modern, well ventilated and
light cattle sheds or outside in small lots close
to the milking parlour, depends on the climate.
Friesian

Grass-based systems
Dairy cows are extensively grazed. This is

typical of what the general public might


consider to be a traditional way of farming.
Grass land can be kept in natural way,
without irrigation. It is necessary to use a
synchronization for this system.
calving commencing 4 to 6 weeks before
the start of the spring rains.

Grass based system


AI will then commence 6 to 8 weeks after

the first rains have fallen.


Disadvantage of this system is no milk
production and income during dry season.
Jersey