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# State of

Matter
CHEMISTRY AS LEVEL CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
BY: DANICA PRINZESSIN (DANICA PUTRI)

States of matter
Gas:
1. No fixed
shape or
volume
2. Randomly
arraged
3. Far apart, can
be
compressed
4. Move freely
in all
directions

Liquid:
the container
2. Close together
3. Fixed volume
4. Compressed slighty
5. Arraged fairly
randomly
6. Limited movement in
all directions

Solid:
1. Fixed shape and
volume
2. Touching each other
3. Cant be compressed
4. Regular arrangement
5. Can vibrate only

## diagram of objects changes in form

The Gasseous
State
Ideal Gases:
The volume depends on:
1. Pressure, measure in pascals (Pa)
2. Temperature, measure in Kelvin (K), 0
celcius=273K

## Kinetic Theory of Gases:

1. The gas molecule move rapidly and
randomly.
2. The distance between the gas molecule
is much greater than the diameter of the
volume.
3. No attraction or repulsion between the
molecules.
4. All collision between particle are elastic.
5. The temperature of the gas is related to
the average kinetic energy of the
molecules.

## General gas equation:

General gas equation
Gas pressure
Where:
p=pressure [Pa; N / m2]
V=volume [m3]
m=mass [kg]
M=molar mass [kg / kmol]
R=general gas constant R = 8.314510 kJ /
(kmol K)
T=thermodynamic temperature [K]
n=molecular number density [1 / m3]
k=Boltzmann's constant k = 1.380 x1023
J/K
General gas e.q combined with the gass
law:

## Limitations of the ideal gas laws:

Real gas dont obey the K.E.Theory in 2
ways:
1. There isnt zero attraction between the
molecules.
2. Cant ignore the volume of the
molecules themselves.
These differences are especially noticeable
at very high pressures and very lown
temperatures, under this conditions:
1. The molecule are close to each other.
2. Not negligible volume compared with
the volume of the container.
3. Van der Waals or dipole-dipole forces
attraction.
4. Attractive forces pull the molecules
towards each other.
5. The effective volume is smaller than
expected for an ideal gas.

## Deviated to ideal gas: HCl

Not approaches ideal gas behavior: NH4
Approaches ideal gas behavior: He

## The Liquid State

Boiling Point:
Liquid to Gass
Energy transferred make the particles
move faster.
The forces attraction of the prticles
weaker.
The particle with most energy are the first
to escape from the forces holding.
Evaporates.
Move fast and randomly , then the particles
out.
Melting
Point:
Solid to Liquid
The particles vibrate more vigorously.
The forces attraction of particles are
weaker.
Temperature is higher than 0 degree
celcius.
Freezing Point:
Liquid to Solid
Loss kinetic energy.
Increasing forces attraction of
particles .

## The Solid State

Structure of solid

Lattice:
Ions, atoms, or molcules
arrangement in the solid
substance.

1. Ionic lattices
Characteristic:
. Hard.
. Brittle.
. High melting points.
. High boiling points.
. Many of them are soluble in water.
. Only conduct electricity when molten or
in solution.
Giant Ionic: (e.g. NaCl, MgO)
. Dissolvent in water.
. Free ions.
. Conduct electricity.

## Ionic bond of NaCl, it also

Giant ionic same as MgO

2. Metallic Lattices

Characteristic:
The layers can slide over each other.
Delocalised elestron.
Lattice of kations.
Shiny.
Malleable.
Conduct electricity.
When the layer slide, new metallic
bond are easily re-formed between
ions.

3. Alloys
Mixture of 2 or more metals or metal
with non-metal.
The metal added to create the alloy
becomes part of the crystal lattice of
the other metal.
Characteristic:
The presence of different sized
metal ions makes the arrangement
of tle lattices less regular.
Layers cant slide easily.
Stronger than pure metal.

e.g.
1. Zinc 30% and Copper 70%.

## 2. Aluminium with other elements (such as

coper, magnesium, silicone, manganese).

4. Simple
molecular
Characteristic:
Can forms crystals.
Weak van der waals forces.
Strong covalent bonds.
Easily broken when heated
Forms crystal lattice.

Hydrogen bond:
H binds with element F,N, and O
Characteristic:
High boiling point
Interact with other atoms are negative or
electron-rich.

## Allotrops: different crystalline or

molecular forms of the same element.

## Iodine crystal and

its structure

5. Giant mollecular
structure
Graphite
The carbon atoms are arranged in
planar layer, form hexagon layers.
Each carbon atom is joined to 3 other
carbon atoms by strong covalent
bonds.
4th electron of each carbon atom
occupies at p orbital.
Softness, the layers can slide.
Good conductor of electricity.
High melting and boiling points.
e.g. Pencil, lubricant.

Diamond
Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent
bonds with other carbon atoms.
High melting points and boiling
ponts.
Hardness.
Doesnt conduct electricity or heat.
Artifical diamonds can be made by
heating other forms of carbon under
high pressure.

Silicon (IV)oxide
Structure smiliar to diamond.
Each oxygen atom is bonded to only
2 silicon atoms.
Each silicon atom is bonded to 4
oxygen atoms.
Colourless crystals.
High melting point and boiling
point.
Doesnt conduct electricity.
Hardness.

6. Ceramics
Ceramics: An inorganic non-metallic
solid which is prepared by heating a
substance or mixture of substances to a
high temperature.
Characteristic:
Very high melting point and boiling
points.
Dont conduct electricity, theyre
electrical insulators.
Dont conduct heat, no free
electrons.
Retain strength at high temperature
above 550 degree celcius
(refractories).
Hard.
Unreactive chemically.

Uses of ceramics:
Ceramics containing Magnesium
oxide:
Refractory in furnace linings.
Electrical insulators in industrial
electrical cabel.
Fire resistant wall furnaces.
Ceramics containing Aluminium Oxide:
Refractory in furnace linings.
As an abrasive for grinding hard
materials.
In transparent aluminium oxide for
furnaces and military vechiles.
Ceramics containing silicon(IV)oxide:
Refractory in furnace linings.
As an abrasive.
Manufacture of glass.

Conserving material

## There is only a limited supply of

metal ores in the earth.
Huge wasre dumps and landfill sites
scarring the landscape and problem
swith litter.

Saves energy.
Conserves supplies of the ore.
Less waste.
Landfill sites dont get filled up
fast.
Cheaper than extracting the
metal from the ore.

## 2 metals are easily to recycle:

Copper and Aluminium.
Copper:
Less energy is needed to extract
and refine the recycled copper.
Less energy is needed to recycle
copper than is needed to transport
copper ore to the smelting plant
and extract copper from it.

Aluminium:
Isnt necessary to extract the
aluminium is much cheaper than
extracting aluminium from bauxite
ore.
Doesnt need the treatment of
bauxite.
The aluminium scrap needs less
energy to melt it.
The expensive electrolysis of
aluminium oxide doesnt need to be
carried out.

Thanks