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sneeze

drop

cant sleep

flu

coughing

tissue

wash
hands
sore throat
spread

doctor

fever

nasal
sick

cold

cure
miss work

runny nose

tired
children

infection

miss school

walk in clinic

liquids

medicines
virus

pneumonia
headache

Common cold
Influenza
health

Group 12
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inh Th Nh Mai
Hunh Phng Mai
Trn Gia Lc

Common cold
Definition
Common cold (nasopharyngitis,
acute coryza, head cold, or a cold)
is a viral infection of your upper
respiratory tract

It is the most frequent infectious


disease in humans

Common cold
Symptoms
Usually begin 1 3 days after infection, include:

Cough

Sneezing

Runny nose

Common cold
Symptoms
Usually begin 1 3 days after infection, include:
Nasal congestion

Common cold
Symptoms
Usually begin 1 3 days after infection, include:

Sore throat

Common cold
Symptoms

Sometimes: muscle ache, headache and tiredness

Common cold
Symptoms
A fever is generally not present in
adults, but it is common in infants and
young children

Cold symptoms can last 2 14 days,


but you probably recover in 7 10
days

Common cold
Complications
Acute ear infection
It is a frequent complication of common cold in children
Typical symptoms: earaches, a green (yellow) discharge from the
nose, the return of a fever following a cold

Common cold
Complications

Wheezing
A cold can trigger
wheezing in children
with asthma

Common cold
Complications
Sinusitis
A common cold that doesnt resolve may lead to sinusitis
inflammation and infection of the sinuses

Common cold
Cause
More than 200 viruses can cause a common cold
The most commonly implicated virus: rhinovirus

Common cold
Cause
Others: human coronavirus, influenza viruses, human respiratory
syncytial virus, enteroviruses, metapneumovirus,

Coronavirus

Common cold
Cause
Others: human coronavirus, influenza viruses, human respiratory
syncytial virus, enteroviruses, metapneumovirus,

Respiratory
syncytial virus

Common cold
Cause
A cold virus enters your body through your mouth, eyes or nose

Common cold
Cause
The virus can spread through droplets in the air when someone
coughs, sneezes or talks.
But it also spreads by hand-to-hand contact with someone who
has a cold or by sharing contaminated objects (towels,
telephones, door knobs, )

Common cold
Treatment
There is no cure for the common cold
You can get relieve from your cold symptoms by:
Get plenty of rest
Drink lots of fluids to replace fluids lost during mucus
production or fever
Gargle with warm salt water to relieve inflamed throat and
cough suppressant

Common cold
Treatment

Common cold
Treatment

Common cold
Treatment
Use OTC cold and cough medicines may help ease symptoms,
although they dont make your cold go away faster:
Use decongestants to relieve from a block nose for a few
hours (not use them for more than 7 days; for children under 6)
Take Paracetamol, Ibuprofens or Aspirin to relieve muscle
pain, headache, sinus pain or a sore throat, and reduce a fever if
you have one

Common cold
Treatment
Many alternative treatments:

Menthol

Vitamin C

Common cold
Treatment
Many alternative treatments:
Zinc supplements

Echinacea

Common cold
Prevention
Always wash your hand with soap and water
Clean these environmental surfaces in your home or place of work
Avoid close, prolonged contact with anyone who has a cold
Avoid sharing food, utensils, cups, or bottles,

Influenza
Definition

Influenza
Definition
Influenza (commonly
called the flu) is a viral
infection that attacks
your respiratory system
your nose, throat and
lungs. The flu and its
complications can be
deadly

Influenza
Definition

People at higher risk of developing flu complications include:


Young children
Older adults
Pregnant women
People with weakened immune systems
People who have chronic illnesses

Influenza
Symptoms
Common symptoms include:
Fever over 38oC
Aching muscles (especially in your back, arms and legs)
Chills and sweats
Headache
Dry cough

Influenza
Symptoms
Common symptoms include:
Extreme weakness
Nasal congestion
Watery eyes
Reddened eyes, skin, mouth, throat and nose
In children: diarrhea, abdominal pain

Influenza
Symptoms

After 5 days, fever and other symptoms have usually disappeared,


but a cough and weakness may continue

Influenza
Complications
High-risk children and adults may develop complications such as:
Pneumonia
Bronchitis
Sinus infections
Ear infections

Pneumonia is the most common and most serious. For older


adults and people with a chronic illness, it can be deadly

Influenza
Cause
Influenza viruses cause the flu. There are 3 types of influenza
viruses:

Influenza
Cause
Type A:
The most serious type with the
most acute symptoms
Usually break out every 2 3
years, and give rise to human
influenza pandemics
H5N1 virus

Influenza
Cause

Influenza
Cause
E.g.: H1N1 (swine flu in 2009), H2N2 (Asian flu in 1957),
H5N1(bird flu in 2003), H7N9, H10N7,

Influenza
Cause
Years

Name

Subtype

Extent of Outbreak
(Estimated deaths)

1918 1919

Spanish flu

H1N1

40 50 million

1957 1958

Asian flu

H2N2

1 2 million

2003 2013

Bird flu

H3N2

371

2009 present

Swine flu

H1N1

Ongoing pandemic

Influenza
Cause
Type B: similar symptoms to
type A, but not as serious.
The outbreaks happen every
4 5 years
Type C: the mildest type, with
symptoms similar to a cold

Influenza
Treatment
Take antiviral medicines, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir
(Relenza), amantadine (generic), or rimantadine (Flumadine). If
taken soon after you notice symptoms, they may shorten your
illness by a day or so and help prevent serious complications

Influenza
Treatment
Take antiviral medicines, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir
(Relenza), amantadine (generic), or rimantadine (Flumadine). If
taken soon after you notice symptoms, they may shorten your
illness by a day or so and help prevent serious complications

Influenza
Treatment
Some at-home tips can help ease your symptoms:

Stay home if
you are sick

Influenza
Treatment
Some at-home tips can help ease your symptoms:

Get more sleep

Influenza
Treatment
Some at-home tips can help ease your symptoms:
Drink plenty of liquids so that your urine is clear or pale yellow

Influenza
Treatment
Some at-home tips can help ease your symptoms:
Consider pain relievers, such as Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen to
combat the achiness associated with influenza

Influenza
Treatment
Some at-home tips can help ease your symptoms:

Wear a mask if you leave your room

Influenza
Prevention
The best prevention is to receive an annual vaccination

Influenza
Prevention

Annual influenza vaccination is recommended by WHO for


everyone 6 months old and older.
It is usually offered between September and mid-November
Vaccines are typically 67 92% effective

Influenza
Prevention
Some practical ways to help prevent the spread of influenza:

Wash your hands frequently with soap (or alcohol-based hand rub)

Influenza
Prevention
Some practical ways to help prevent the spread of influenza:

Scrub your hands vigorously for at least 15 seconds

Influenza
Prevention
Some practical ways to help prevent the spread of influenza:

Keep your hands away from your face and eyes. Because the
germs spread in this way

Influenza
Prevention
Some practical ways to help prevent the spread of influenza:

Try to avoid close


contact with sick people

Influenza
Prevention
Some practical ways to help prevent the spread of influenza:

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or
sneeze, then put it in the trash

Influenza
Prevention
Some practical ways to help prevent the spread of influenza:

If you dont have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your upper


arm, not into your hands

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