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System Development Life Cycle

Definition of SDLC
System development life cycle is a process used
by software industry to design, develop and test
high quality software.
The SDLC aims to produce a high quality
software that meets or exceeds customer
expectations, reaches completion within time
and cost estimates.

Development Life

Phase 1: Planning & Selection

Product identification and selection
Product initiation and planning
Identify potential development projects
Classify and rank projects
Select projects for development

Phase 2: Systems Analysis

Determine system requirements
Select appropriate methods to elicit
system requirements from users of system
Interviews, focus groups, surveys,
discussions, or other techniques

Phase 3: Systems Design

Structure system requirements
Modeling processes
Develop data flow diagrams (DFDs) based
on specific rules and guidelines that lead to
accurate and well-structured process
DFDs toand/or
of IS
techniques to represent data
Process modeling based on specifications
Conceptual data modeling user oriented
Select best alternative design strategy using both
qualitative and quantitative methods

Design the human interface

Design the interaction (dialogue)
Build a prototype
Perform usability testing
Design the database

Phase 4: System
Implementation & Operation
Implement system:
Design specifications are turned into
working computer code
Test code for errors and other problems
Use a sample data set
Install system
Prepare documentation
Train users of the system
Provide support
Maintain system on a regular basis

SDLC Model
A framework that describes the
activities performed at each stage of
a software development project.

Waterfall Model
Requirements defines
needed information,
function, behavior,
performance and
Design data structures,
software architecture,
interface representations,
algorithmic details.
Implementation source
code, database, user
documentation, testing.

Waterfall Strengths

Easy to understand, easy to use

Provides structure to inexperienced staf
Milestones are well understood
Sets requirements stability
Good for management control (plan, staf, track)
Works well when quality is more important than
cost or schedule

Waterfall Deficiencies
All requirements must be known upfront
Deliverables created for each phase are
considered frozen inhibits flexibility
Can give a false impression of progress
Does not reflect problem-solving nature of
software development iterations of
Integration is one big bang at the end
Little opportunity for customer to preview
the system (until it may be too late)

When to use the Waterfall


Requirements are very well known

Product definition is stable
Technology is understood
New version of an existing product
Porting an existing product to a new
High risk for new systems because of
specification and
design problems.
Low risk for well-understood
developments using familiar

Mrefers to contentthat uses a combination of text,

sound, graphics, animation and video which are

coordinated with the help of a computer. There is
a wide use of multimedia for presenting
information to the user at all levels. Multimedia
makes communication easier and the user can
understood things in a better way since the text
is supplemented with related image and music or







A Medium (Plural media) is something that can

be used for presentation of information.
There are two basic ways to presents
some information:1. Unimedium Presentation
2. Multimedia Presentation
Media used commonly for storage, access
and transmission of information are
1. Text (alphanumeric characters)
2. Graphics (line drawings & images)
3. Animation (moving images)
4. Audio (sound)
5. Video (video graphed real-life event)
Static content (such as a paper book) may be
considered multimedia if it contains both
pictures and text.

Usage / Application
Multimedia finds its application in various areas
including, but not limited to advertisements, art,
education, entertainment, engineering, medicine,
mathematics, business, scientific research and spatial
temporal applications. Creative Industries use
multimedia for a variety of purposes. An individual
multimedia designer may cover skills range from
1. Entertainment
technical, to analytical, to creative.
Multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment
industry, especially to develop special efects in movies
and animations (VFX, 3D animation, etc.).Several
movies contain many computer generated visual tricks.
Example: - Robots
Some video gamesalso use multimedia features.
Sounds and animations make games thrilling and
exciting for users. Multimedia applications that allow
users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as
passive recipients of information are

2. Education
InEducation, multimedia is used to producecomputerbased trainingcourses (popularly called CBTs) and
reference books like encyclopedia. A CBT lets the user
go through a series of presentations, text about a
particular topic, and associated illustrations in various
information formats.
In higher education separate technologies such as
voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity
applications) and video that share information and
interact with each other, synergistically creating new
Media convergence is rapidly changing the curriculum
in universities all over the world.
Foreign Language Learning- Multimedia program
incorporates sound; a leaner can see words and
phrases on screen. The learner can also request the
computer to pronounce any word displayed on screen
by selecting that word.
Multimedia Conferencing- Also known as Video
Conferencing. It stimulates face-to-face interactions

Distance learning is essentially the same as

conferencing; instead of transmitting a conference
session or a group meeting, a seminar, a lecture, or
a class is transmitted to students somewhere on
the network.
3. Journalism

Newspaper companies all over are also trying to

embrace the new phenomenon by implementing its
practices in their work.
Multimedia reporters who are mobile (usually
driving around a community with cameras, audio
and video recorders, and laptop computers) are
often referred to a sorts sMojos, from
Example of Multimedia Journalism Production is the
Common Language Project, later renamed to The
Seattle Globalist. Electronic newspapers

4. Fine arts

In Arts,there are multimedia artists, whose minds are

able to blend techniques using diferent media that in
some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. One
of the most relevant could be Peter Greenway who is
melding Cinema with Operaand all of digital media.
5. Business Organization

Multimedia is also helpful for providing:

Employee training- Training sessions become easy to
understand, more communicative, efficient and
Advertising and Sales Promotion- Make efective
executed advertisements of consumer products.
Visual presentations convey the ideas in more
efective manner.
Better Information Presentation for decision makingPresent information to shareholders, superiors and coworkers to easily understand. The visual impact can
be presented in 2 dimensional form or 3 dimensional
form through which sales trend and other composition

6.Mathematical and scientific research

Inmathematical and scientific research, multimedia is

mainly used for modeling and simulation.
Example- A scientistcan look at amolecular modelof
a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a
new substance.
7. Medical

In medical, doctorscan get trained by looking at a virtual

surgeryor they can simulate how thehuman bodyis
afected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteriaand
then develop techniques to prevent it.
Multimedia application like virtual surgeries also help
8. Engineering
doctors to get practical training.
Software engineers may use multimedia inComputer

Simulation for anything from entertainment to

trainingsuch as military or industrial training. Multimedia
forsoftware interfacesare often done as collaboration
betweencreative professionalsand software engineers.