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Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a realworld process or system over time.
The act of simulating something first requires that a
model be developed; this model represents the key
characteristics or behaviors/functions of the selected
physical or abstract system or process.
The model represents the system itself, whereas the
simulation represents the operation of the system over

Simulation is used in many contexts such as:

simulation of technology for performance optimization

safety engineering
video games

Often, computer experiments are used to study simulation

models. Simulation is also used with scientific modelling of
natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their

Physical simulation refers to simulation in which
physical objects are substituted for the real thing
i.e., computer simulations modelling selected laws
of physics.
Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical
simulation,often referred to as a human in the loop
simulation, in which physical simulations include
human operators, such as in a flight simulator or
driving simulator.

Human in the loop simulations can include a

computer simulation as a so-called synthetic
Simulation in failure analysis refers to simulation in
which we create environment/conditions to identify
the cause of equipment failure. This was the best
and fastest method to identify the failure cause.

A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to
model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a
computer so that it can be studied to see how the
system works.
By changing variables in the simulation, predictions
may be made about the behaviour of the system.
It is a tool to virtually investigate the behaviour of
the system under study.


Modeling of natural systems in Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Human systems in Economics and Social Science.
In Engineering, to gain insight into the operation of the natural
and human systems.
Network traffic simulations where the model behaviour
changes for each simulation.
In the field of Cybertherapy, to make the patients overcome
traumatic experiences, from fear of heights to social anxiety.

Simulation in education and training:

Simulation is extensively used for educational
purposes. It is frequently used by way of adaptive
Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and
military personnel.This usually occurs when it is
prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to
allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real

Virtual simulations represent a specific category of simulation
that utilizes simulation equipment to create a simulated world
for the user.They allow users to interact with a virtual world.
Virtual worlds operate on platforms of integrated software and
hardware components. In this manner, the system can accept
input from the user (e.g., body tracking, voice/sound
recognition, physical controllers) and produce output to the
user (e.g., visual display, aural display, haptic display) . [15]
Virtual Simulations use the aforementioned modes of
interaction to produce a sense of immersion for the user.


Body tracking:
The motion capture method is often used to record the users
movements and translate the captured data into inputs for the
virtual simulation. For example, if a user physically turns their
head, the motion would be captured by the simulation hardware in
some way and translated to a corresponding shift in view within
the simulation.
Capture suits and/or gloves may be used to capture movements of
users body parts.
Eye trackers can also be used to detect eye movements so that the
system can determine precisely where a user is looking at any given

Physical controllers:

Physical controllers provide input to the simulation only through

direct manipulation by the user. In virtual simulations, tactile
feedback from physical controllers is highly desirable in a number of
simulation environments.
Omni directional treadmills can be used to capture the users
locomotion as they walk or run.

Voice/sound recognition:
This form of interaction may be used either to interact with agents
within the simulation (e.g., virtual people) or to manipulate objects in
the simulation (e.g., information).
Users may use headsets with boom microphones, lapel microphones
or the room may be equipped with strategically located microphones.

Training a human to be adaptable under stress is elusive without
the actual situation. Classroom instruction will never be able to fill
the knowledge gap between school and reality. Simulation, on the
other hand, can erase common mistakes and bring a student
closer to the reality experience.
It is not the physical reality that provides the immersive
environment for the participant, but the cognitive realism afforded
by complex and engaging tasks.
The exposure to and completion of the tasks (afforded by the
simulation) develop the necessary knowledge and skills which are
transferable to the live context.

Learning by doing, peer-to-peer teach

ing, and computer simulation are all
part of the same equation.

~Nicholas Negroponte

Physical systems in which we are uncertain about the
values of parameters, measurements, expected input
and disturbances are termed Stochastic Systems.
In probability theory, a purely stochastic system is one
whose state is randomly determined, having a random
probability distribution or pattern that may be
analyzed statistically but may not be predicted

In this regard, it can be classified as non-deterministic

(i.e., "random") so that the subsequent state of the
system is determined probabilistically.
Any system or process that must be analyzed using
probability theory is stochastic at least in part.


Stochastic systems and processes play a fundamental
role in mathematical models of phenomena in many
fields of science, engineering, and economics.
Training and research in mathematical finance.
In various engineering disciplines like power systems,
robotics, automotive technology, signal processing,
manufacturing systems, semiconductor manufacturing,
communication networks, wireless networks etc.
In the field of neuroscience


In mathematics, specifically in probability theory, the field of

stochastic processes has been a major area of research.
A stochastic matrix is a matrix that has non-negative real entries
that sum to one in each column, row, or both.

Artificial intelligence:
In AI, stochastic programs work by using probabilistic methods to
solve problems, as in simulated annealing, stochastic neural
networks, stochastic optimization,genetic algorithms and genetic

Computer science
Although most computers are deterministic machines, their
complexity makes deterministic analysis impossible. Consequently,
stochastic forensics analyzes computer crime by viewing computers
as stochastic processes.

In music,mathematical processes based on probability can generate
stochastic elements.
Stochastic processes may be used in music to compose a fixed piece
or may be produced in performance.

Few other fields in which Stochastic models

are used:
Natural Science
Color reproduction
Language and linguistics
Social sciences
Oil reservoirs
Stochastic methods are widely used for uncertainty assessment in
future performance predictions of oil and gas reservoirs