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BY:JOHN CRISTOPHER M.

MORTA, RN

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

(HIV)

What Are HIV & AIDS?

HIV~ (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) The virus


compromises the bodys ability to handle disease
and causes AIDS.
AnRNAbasedvirusthatcausesAIDS

AIDS~ (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) It is


related to HIV, but they are not one and the same.
A person has AIDS only in the final stages of HIV,
after the immune system becomes unable to defend
itself against foreign invaders like bacteria, other
viruses, and allows the development of certain
cancers.

WhatdoesHIVlooklike?

HIV Capsule
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HIV

Two Key Parts of the Immune System


1. T4 or CD4 Cell

HIV

2. Antibodies

Healthy T Cell & Infected T Cell


HIV
Particles
(yellow)

T4 cell are particularly important in the adaptive immune system.


These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses

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STATISTICS

Since 1981 1.7 million people in the


U.S. are estimated to have been
infected with HIV.
1 in 5 of those infected are
unaware.
MSM (Men who have sex with
men ) accounted for 61% of all new
HIV infections in the U.S. in 2009.
Over 619,000 with HIV have already
died since the epidemic began.

GLOBAL STATISTICS2015
17 million people were accessing
antiretroviral therapy
36.7 million [34.0 million39.8 million]
people globally were living with HIV
2.1 million [1.8 million2.4 million] people
became newly infected with HIV
1.1 million [940 0001.3 million] people died
from AIDS-related illnesses

Department of Health
Development Bureau

Cumulative Jan1984 - Mar 2016


Total Reported Cases : 32,647
AIDS Cases : 2,842

Number of Newly Diagnosed with HIV per


day:
2008: 1
2010: 4
2012: 9
2014: 17

2016: 25

ETIOLOGY
The world first became aware of AIDS
in the early 1980s.
Researchers arent sure exactly when
and how HIV developed.
The most likely theories assume that
HIV-1 was transmitted to humans
from chimpanzees sometime in the
early 20th century.

HIV Transmission
Requires:
1. Infected body fluid

AND
2. Entry into body

Infected body fluids


Four Fluids, if infected, can transmit HIV
a. Blood
b. Semen
c. Vaginal Secretions
d. Breast Milk
If these enter the body

Which Fluids are safe?


Four Fluids that cant transmit
HIV
a. Spit/saliva
b. Pee/Urine
c. Sweat
d. Tears
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HIV Transmission
Three Most frequent ways to get
infected
1. Unprotected sexual intercourse
2. Injected Drug Use
3. From an infected mother to her infant.
Other, much more rare, ways to get infected
a. Blood Transfusions / Organ Transplant (1:600,000)
b. Health Care Setting

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How Does HIV get into a T Cell?


1. HIV attaches to
infection fighting T4
cell
2. Locks on to two
entry
areas of the T4 cell
at once. (Keys in
lock)
3. Tricks T4 cell to
allow
Virus RNA to enter
All graphics Russell Kightley

Graphics may not be reproduced w/o permission

What Does HIV do inside a T Cell?


1. Viruss RNA changes
into DNA
2. Enters Cell nucleus &
becomes part of
Hosts DNA!
3. Programs T cell to
produce virus in
abundance
4. New viruses bud off
Host T cell, killing T
cell, & enters
bloodstream
5. New HIV viruses
infect more T cells

New HIV viruses leaving a


cell

6. What is the Window


Period?
The time period between a persons
exposure & actual infection with HIV and until
antibodies are detectable in the body.

After three months there are usually


enough antibodies to show on an AIDS test.

Nearly all people (99%) develop antibodies by


THREE months.

HIV and the Immune System


7. A person can be HIV infected and not
have AIDS if the persons immune system is
intact.
Often this period is from 8-10 years.
Has no symptoms, person is a carrier.
8. After this period, the immune system
begins to lose the fight.
At this point the person has AIDS

9.WhatdoesAIDSstandfor?
A.Acquired

I.Immune
D.Deficiency
S.Syndrome

WHATISAIDS??

1.

The Late stage of HIV


infection

2. A group of symptoms & signs of disease that


occur together.
3. Severe immune system breakdown
4. Less than 200 T cells (or CD4 cells).
Normal 1000

SYMPTOMS
When HIV emerges from latency (the
period when someone with HIV shows
no signs of it) symptoms can include:
Dry, flaky skin (Xeroderma)
Chronic fatigue
Fever that comes and goes (Pyrexia)
Diarrhea that lasts more than a week
Heavy night sweats (Hyperhidrosis)
Rapid weight loss
Swollen lymph nodes
White spots on tongue, mouth & throat

DIAGNOSIS
To be tested for HIV you usually give a sample of blood, urine or
a swab of fluids from your mouth.
It is recommended that if you are sexually active or have
multiple partners you should be tested every 6 months.

TREATMENT
There is no cure for HIV. Antiretroviral therapy can reduce the presence of the
virus in the body, but can not eliminate it.

PROGNOSIS
The prognosis for
those with HIV is
improving with the
development of
antiretroviral drugs
that help reduce the
amount of HIV in the
blood to an
undetectable viral
load

PREVENTION
To prevent HIV transmission during sex you need
to use a condom.
HIV can be spread through vaginal, anal or oral
sex.
Open sores from STDs like herpes & syphilis
provide gateways for HIV to enter the body.
Gonorrhea & Chlamydia may weaken the skin &
mucous barriers that help prevent infection.
If you inject drugs, use a new sterile needle each
time to significantly reduce the risk of HIV
transmission.

FACTS
HIV is not airborne
and cannot be caught
by touching skin,
sweat or saliva.
You cannot get HIV
by holding hands or
sharing drinks.
Mosquito's do not
inject other peoples
blood when they bite
and so cant spread
HIV.

Website References
www.aids.gov
www.aidshealth.org
www.aidsmap.com
www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet
www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/statistics/EB_HIV_Mar-AIDSreg2016.pdf
Graphics Russell Kightley
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