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# Introduction to Management Accounting

Chapter 8

## Flexible Budgets and

Variance Analysis

## Favorable and Unfavorable Variances

Favorable variances arise
when
actual
results exceed budgeted.
Unfavorable variances arise when
actual results fall below
budgeted.
Favorable (F) versus Unfavorable (U)
Variances
Profit Revenue Costs
Actual > Expected
F
F
U
Actual < Expected
U
U
F

Learning
Objective 1

## A static budget is prepared for only one level

of a given type of activity. Differences between
actual results and the static budget for level
of output achieved are static-budget variances.
A flexible budget (variable budget) adjusts
for different levels of activities. Differences
between actual results and the flexible
budget are flexible-budget variances.

Learning
Objective 2

## To develop a flexible budget, managers

determine revenue and cost behavior
(within the relevant range) with
respect to cost drivers.
Note that the static budget is just
the flexible budget for a single
assumed level of activity.

## Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 14/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton/Schatzberg/Burgstahle

Learning
Objective 4

Evaluation of Financial
Performance
Actual results may differ from
the master budget because...

## 1) sales and other cost-driver activities were

not the same as originally forecasted, or

## 2) revenue or variable costs per unit of activity and

fixed costs per period were not as expected.

## Evaluation of Financial Performance

Flexib
Actua
le
l
Salesbudge
resul Flexiblet for Activity Stati
ts at budget
c
actua variance actual Variance
Budg
sales
s
l
(4) =
activit
activi
et
(2) =
(3)(5)
y
ty
(1)-(3)
7,000
7,000
2,000U (5)9,000
level
(3)
\$217,000

\$217,000
\$62,000 U \$279,000
(1)
ble costs
158,200
5,670 U
152,600
43,600 F 196
ibution margin \$ 58,730 \$ 5,670 U
\$ 64,400
\$18,400 U \$ 82
costs
70,300
300 U
70,000

70,000
ating income
\$ (11,570) \$5,970 U
\$(5,600)
\$18,400 U \$ 1

## Isolating the Causes of Variances

Managers use comparisons among
actual results, master budgets,
and flexible budgets to evaluate
organizational performance.

## Isolating the Causes of Variances

Effectiveness is the degree to which
a goal, objective, or target is met.
Efficiency is the degree to which inputs are
used in relation to a given level of outputs.
Performance may be effective,
efficient, both, or neither.

## Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 14/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton/Schatzberg/Burgstahle

Learning
Objective 5

Flexible-Budget Variances

## Total flexible-budget variance

= Total actual results
Total flexible-budget planned results
Actual
results
\$(11,570)

\$5,970 Unfavorable

Flexible
budget
\$(5,600)

Flexible-budget variances

## Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 14/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton/Schatzberg/Burgstahle

Sales-Activity Variances

Actual
otal sales - activity variance
= sales unit Master budgeted sales units

Flexi
ble
budg
et

## (7,000 9,000) \$9.20

\$18,400
Unfavorable
=

Maste
r
budg
et

Activity-level variances

## When should management

investigate a variance?
Many organizations have developed
such rules of thumb as investigate
all variances exceeding \$5,000 or 25%
of expected cost, whichever is lower.

## Some organizations compare the most

recent budget periods actual results with
last years results for the same period.

## These comparisons are not as useful as comparisons

of actual outcomes with planned results.

The End

End of Chapter 8