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PART I: OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

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Facts About the CIIT MPM Programme
First of its Kind in Pakistan and at least 50
Years Overdue!
2 Semesters / 11 Course Modules / 33 Credit
Hours
Detailed Review of Specialized Project
Management Subject Areas
Comparable in Standard to MPM Programmes
Offered at Universities in Developed Countries
Designed at CIIT and Sets a Benchmark in
Project Management Education in Pakistan
Intended for Professionals Genuinely
Interested in Project Management for their
Career Development
First Step on the Road to a „Project
Management Center of Excellence„ at CIIT
Islamabad
Helps Meet Pakistan‘s Growing Need for
Highly-Qualified Project Management
Professionals

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

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Outline of Presentation Part I
Your Course Instructor

Project Management Training CDs/DVDs

How this Course will be Conducted

Project Management Training (On-Line)

Self-Introduction by Course Participants

Project Management Graduate Degree
Programmes (On-Campus)

Rules for MPM Participants: The Do‘s
and The Dont‘s
Course Objectives

Project Management Resources on the
World Wide Web

Course Text Books

Projects in History

Assessment of Course Participants

Projects in the Contemporary Age

Who Should Study Project Management?

Projects in Pakistan (Examples)

Basic Terminology (The five P‘s)

Project Typology

The Parameters of a Project

The Project Life-Cycle Model

Simple and Complex Projects

The Holistic Model of Projects

Projects as Instruments of Change
Project Management Literature

The Universal Popularity of Project
Management: A Macro- and Microperspective

Project Documentaries on TV

Project Management Softwares

Project Employment Opportunities

Project Management Associations

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

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Your Course Instructor My Professional Work Experience     1992: 1993-96: 1997-98: Since 2005: Executive Assistant at Hilal Consultants Pvt. Islamabad Programme Coordinator at the Hanns-Seidel Foundation. Islamabad Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad Research Fellow at the Institute of Strategic Studies.. Ltd. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad. Islamabad Assistant Professor in the Department of Management Sciences at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Pakistan 4 .

MS) Total Quality Management (MS) Business Research Methods (MBA) International Human Resource Management (MBA) Seminar in Human Resource Management (MBO) Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 5 .Subjects I Taught at CIIT Islamabad Project Management (MBA. MS) Operations Management (MBA. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Islamabad. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.

Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Pakistan 6 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Pakistan 7 . Islamabad.Presentation of the “Best Teacher 2007” Award Assistant Professor Dr.

azkhan. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.de Detailed Exposure to all PM Subject Areas & Methodology Review of Case Studies Completion of Course Outline Weekly Assignments / Midterm & Final Examination Excellent Course Text Books Supplemented by Handouts Extensive Class Interaction Theme-Oriented MS PowerPoint Presentations All Lectures and Communications Exclusively in English Encourage Creative Thinking – Severely Penalize Cramming Guest Speaker and (Possible) Visit to a Project Site Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 8 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad.How This Course Will Be Conducted 15 Classes @ 3 Hours = 45 Hours Holistic Subject Perspective Course Material Available at www.

individually and briefly.Self-Introduction by MPM Participants All MPM participants are requested to introduce themselves. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. stating their:  Full Name  Higher Education Background  Designation and Name of Employing Organization  Project Management Courses Previously Attended  Experience with Managing or Working on Projects  Reasons for Interest in the MPM Programme  Expectations from the MPM Programme Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 9 . Islamabad.

Rules for MPM Programme Participants Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Pakistan 10 .

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. inform me immediately. critical and creative in your approach to learning project management! Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 11 . Do ask questions or bring up relevant points for discussion in the classroom. Islamabad. analytical. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. You will not be punished for this! There is no such thing as a stupid question or discussion and I am very patient with students. Listening is the basis for comprehension which is the prerequisite for performing well in this course. Be inquisitive. Do not hesitate otherwise it may be too late for me to help you. If you are having comprehension problems.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DO‘s Do listen to my lectures very attentively and carefully.

Islamabad. Pakistan 12 . in class! Some good advice for you: Read from the beginning of the course and NOT towards the end! You won‘t regret it. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DO‘s Do read the prescribed course literature. or at all. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. It is the basic requirement for comprehending project management and for you to perform well in this demanding course! Please note that using only my PowerPoint slides for your exam preparation is NOT sufficient! YOU MAY FAIL IF YOU DO SO! The questions in your midterm and final examinations may relate to material contained in the recommended course text books and handouts which may not have been discussed in detail.

Do fill out the anonymous course evaluation form which will be distributed to all MPM participants at the end of the semester. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.pk. extension 269 or by eMail at aurangzeb_khan@comsats. individually or as a group. if you have a course-related problem or problems and seek counseling. You can also contact me at my tel. Pakistan 13 . Islamabad.30 AM onwards) . I‘m usually in my office from Mondays to Fridays (9. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DO‘s Do visit me at my office on the second floor of the CIIT building. Our department is striving hard to continuously and significantly improve the quality of all its undergraduate and graduate level courses and your critical feedback and constructive criticism in this connection is always welcome and very valuable to us.edu. Assistant Professor Dr.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. I don‘t care what events in your personal or professional lives prevent you from coming to my class. weddings. or leave the campus. Period! Don‘t come to class just to get marked present and then wander of to the canteen for gossip. funerals.30 PM means 6. engagements. you‘ll simply be marked absent. are your issues. hospitalizations. not mine. Visiting family and friends. outside the 15-minute customary pause. Islamabad. Course participants who are late will be marked absent! Don‘t ask me to mark you present if you are going to be absent in that class.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DONT‘s Don‘t be late to class. Assistant Professor Dr. Anyone doing this will have their attendance revoked. official committments etc. meals or refreshments. 6. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. If you are absent in my class. Pakistan 14 .30 PM sharp and not a second later! Two roll calls will be taken (at the beginning of class and after the break).

I expect you all without exception to behave as such from the minute you enter my class to the minute you leave it! Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 15 . distract the attention of other MPM participants or behave immaturely in the class. They must be switched OFF prior to entering the classroom and no SMS messages may be sent while the class is in progress! Do not run in and out for making or answering calls. not me. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. As educated adults. Islamabad.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DONT‘s Don‘t use cell phones in my class. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. but do not come to my class! Don‘t chit-chat among yourselves. If making or answering calls is so important to you. stay at your home or office and do them there. Such behaviour distracts the class and disrupts my presentation. You are only hurting yourself and your colleagues.

Pakistan 16 . From nothing comes nothing – if your work is crap. Many students do nothing until the last day before the submission deadline and then run frantically to me at the eleventh hour complaining about the problems they are having in getting the required information. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Assistant Professor Dr. be prepared to get a crappy evaluation from me! And don‘t whine about it. Don‘t pester me for more marks. Dear. Tough! You should have started work promptly and then you wouldn‘t need to stress yourself out. Islamabad.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DONT‘s Don‘t procrastinate on your weekly class assignments. I evaluate my students objectively and actually devote considerable time to read line by line through each examination paper and class assignment. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. My usual response: Tough. Start work immediately after receiving your topics.

I will schedule a single repeat examination. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. It is the responsibility of the MPM participants concerned to immediately contact me if they have missed out on a weekly assignment or examination! Do so as soon as possible. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. but NO second or third repeats. Pakistan 17 . Setting repeat examinations is a big nuisance for me and some marks are normally deducted by our department as a disincentive for being absent! In the event that MPM participants have missed out on their examinations due to compelling circumstances.Rules for Course Participants: The DONT‘s Don‘t miss out on your weekly assignments and examinations. he or she will be considered as having scored zero marks which will be final. Islamabad. If the student also misses the repeat examination.

at the very least. you may have your paper cancelled by the department or. in full or in part. Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 18 . been plagiarized or copypasted from the World Wide Web without referencing. NO CHEATING & PLAGIARISM! If I find that your class assignments have. If caught. We at CIIT have the technical means for ensuring this and we don‘t hesitate to use it. I routinely check to ensure that written material submitted to me for evaluation is not plagiarized. midterm or final examinations. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. I will give you zero marks and reassign you another topic. you may lose a percentage of your marks. Islamabad.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DONT‘s Don‘t cheat in the sessional. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

Pakistan 19 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. It is the WORST thing you can do in my class – apart from outright misbehaviour and cheating / plagiarism. In case of reproduction. My PowerPoint slides are meant to serve as a subject guideline only and are NOT meant to be memorized. DO NOT reproduce the contents of the slides in any of your weekly assignments or in any examination. marks will be heavily deducted and your precious GPA will drop like a stone from the sky. Islamabad. Assistant Professor Dr.Rules for MPM Course Participants: The DONT‘s Don‘t follow the „rote“ (Learning by Memorization) approach which you may have grown accustomed to since your schooldays. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

and increasingly important field of management science. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.Objectives of This Course Module  To acquaint the course participants comprehensively and at considerable depth with project management by using upto-date literature and research on this highly interesting. challenging. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.  To demonstrate the ubiquitousness of projects. which are a cornerstone of human civilization. Islamabad. and to convey an appreciation that the development of a country‘s economy and society is dependent in part on them.  To motivate the MPM participants to apply their acquired knowledge to projects which they will be directly or indirectly involved in professionally and to help them undertake their projects systematically and more effectively and efficiently. Pakistan 20 . Assistant Professor Dr.

 To promote networking between the MPM participants and to encourage them to share in and outside class their personal experiences working on projects. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. over the past five decades. evolved into a very substantive body of knowledge and that a good understanding of the subject is crucial for managing a modern organization sucessfully. Pakistan 21 . Islamabad.  To set a benchmark in project management education being taught at the introductory level at universities across Pakistan and to motivate teachers of this subject to continuously raise their standards of instruction.Objectives of This Course Module  To show that project management has. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.  To stimulate interest among the MPM participants in project management as a full-time career option after graduation.

Islamabad. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Students should please note. that this introductory course in project management is NOT intended to be a substitute for these certification examinations but merely as an aid which can help them acquire foundation knowledge which is required for attempting these certification examina-tions subsequently.Objectives of This Course Module  To provide the course participants with the basic knowledge they would require for successfully qualifying certification examinations in project management being offered by the PMI and other professional associations. however. Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 22 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. 1815 Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad.Look at Projects in Their Broader Context! Mittelalterlicher Stadt am Fluss – Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Pakistan 23 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Pakistan 24 .C Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.(Chinese Philiosopher Confucious) 551 B. Islamabad.C – 479 B.

3rd edition. 2006 ISBN: 0-07-060093-7 Project Management: A Managerial Approach Jack R. John Wiley & Sons. Jr. 4th edition. Pakistan 25 . 2006 ISBN: 0-471-74277-5 Assistant Professor Dr. Ireland McGraw Hill. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. 2002 ISBN: 0-07-139310-2 Project Management: The Managerial Process Clifford F. Meredith & Samuel J. Gray & Erik W. Larson MGraw Hill.Recommended Course Text Books Project Management: Strategic Design and implementation David I. Mantel. Islamabad. Cleland & Lewis R. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. 6th edition.

Islamabad. Pakistan 26 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.Assessment of the MPM Programme Participants Assistant Professor Dr. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

Assessment of MPM Participants (The A-Student) The „A“-Student demonstrates a very high level of motivation to learn project management. The „A“-Students confidently acquire a holistic perspective and in-depth knowledge of project management concepts. Pakistan 27 . are creative. The „A“-Student is also inquisitive and often likes to discuss in detail issues raised by the teacher who finds it a pleasure and an inspiration to work with such students. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. bright. he or she is an avid reader and grasps the subject matter easily. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. ambitious and hardworking. and have the ability to easily apply the theoretical knowledge they acquired from their teacher to real-life case situations which are presented to them in class or which they encounter at their workplaces. Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. display excellent analytical and critical thinking skills. Punctual and attentive.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. does exhibit some noticeable qualitative deficiencies. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.Assessment of MPM Participants (The Average Student) The „average“student is generally a good student whose work . average students may understand the underlying concepts of project management and they may have familiarized themselves with most or all important aspects of the subject. Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 28 . Shortcomings may arise in different ways. They may also not properly comprehend the holistic perspective of project management on which this course is based. Islamabad. though. For example. but they encounter difficulty in applying their knowledge to real-life situations.

chatting and eagerness to run outside the lecture hall. Not surprisingly. both in class examinations and at their workplaces. Pakistan 29 . constant fidgeting. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.Assessment of MPM Participants (The Horror Student) These students are a BIG PAIN in my A**! Typical qualities of a „horror“ student are. Islamabad. among other irritants. They usually find it highly challenging to apply the concepts and material they were exposed to in this course. disinterest in attending class and listening to the lectures. poor command over the English language. I try to avoid this type of student like the plague! Assistant Professor Dr. unwillingness to read the recommended project management course literature and do his or her assignments. and a tendency to rote learn. these students have great difficulty grasping the subject course material – or may have understood virtually nothing of it at all by the end of semester. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

which is of 2 hours duration. all of which are mandatory and carry equal marks. There is no limit on the length of pages to be submitted. Pakistan 30 . Assgnments can be written in typed form or By hand and must be submitted in the next class. Teamwork is strongly encouraged. Islamabad.Assessment of MPM Participants (Distribution of Course Marks) Weekly Assignments (25 Marks) MPM participants are expected to show that they can convincingly relate concepts discussed in class with their project-related professional work. Three questions will be asked. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Midterm Examination (25 Marks) MPM participants are expected to demonstrate a basic understanding of project management and all subject material covered in class until the time of the examination. Assistant Professor Dr.

In preparing for this three-hour long examination. given its weightage. Do not underestimate the difficulty level of this examination! Assistant Professor Dr. will primarily determine the MPM participant‘s overall GPA.Assessment of MPM Participants (Distribution of Course Marks) Final Examination (50 Marks) MPM participants will be required to creatively apply their project management knowledge to a real or fictitious case situation which is followed by five mandatory questions. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. MPM participants who demonstrate excellent command over all subject areas of project management and who can present innovative ideas and approaches to problem situations can expect to perform very well in this examination which. Pakistan 31 . note that the entire course material is relevant and that the questions asked may relate to any part of it. each carrying equal marks. Islamabad.

The research objective(s). Charts and Charts and Abbreviations Abbreviations Introduction Introduction Research ResearchObjectives.25 PAGES MAXIMUM (excluding Annex and Bibliography) Title TitlePage Page Table Tableof ofContents Contents List Listof ofTables. Pakistan 32 . publisher and page number) along with relevant details relating to interviews held etc.The Project Report 20 . author. Hypotheses Hypothesesand and Methodology Methodology Analysis Analysis Conclusion Conclusionand and Recommendations Recommendations Appendix Appendix Bibliography Bibliography • A good project report must be based on a sound concept and well researched using the best possible available pool of primary and/or secondary data and information • The introduction should be brief (max. date and place of publication. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. relevant and logical (max. Graphs. the bibliography section must include all documented reference sources (source title. hypotheses and methodology must be clear. Assistant Professor Dr.Graphs. Tables. which must not be a mere reproduction of descriptive details! Such details may be included if they are relevant as a basis of reference for the analysis • The conclusions and recommendations (max. 4 pages) • The analysis – qualitative and/or quantitative – must constitute the bulk of the research report and relate directly to the theory of project management. A critical and holistic perspective is essential when undertaking the analysis. 3 pages). Footnotes can be included. concise. 3 pages) should sum up the report‘s essential findings and give recommendations for correcting major practical shortcomings which may have been identified and examined in the course of the study • The appendix contains any important support documents not included in the main text body. Islamabad. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Objectives.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad.Samples of Examination Papers (MBA& MS Classes) MBA MBAFirst First Sessional Sessional Examination Examination Sample Sample 11 MBA MBAFirst First Sessional Sessional Examination Examination Sample Sample 22 MBA MBAFirst First Sessional Sessional Examination Examination Sample Sample 33 MBA Second Sessional Examination Sample 1 MBA Second Sessional Examination Sample 2 MBA Second Sessional Examination Sample 3 MS MS Midterm Midterm Examination Examination 1 2 MS MS Final Final Examination Examination 1 2 Project Management is also about using plain common Sense! Assistant Professor Dr. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Pakistan 33 .

should be thoroughly familiar with all the subject areas and methodology. Islamabad. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.Who Should Study Project Management? Anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in initiating. processes and tools and techniques of project management. Assistant Professor Dr. monitoring. Pakistan 34 . planning. evaluating and/or controlling a project in a position which involves a substantive level of decision-making. implementing. A good and common project management knowledge platform will increase the likelihood of the project attaining its goal within time and budget. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. responsibility. communication and coordination.

e. Pakistan 35 . Islamabad.. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. the senior and resource managers of the organization(s) which are implementing the project and the project customers / users .Who Should Study Project Management? At the very least a project‘s key stakeholders – i.should all understand the methodology being used to undertake the project. consultants. external suppliers and contractors. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Assistant Professor Dr. its sponsor. manager. team members.

Islamabad. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. these persons would normally be directly involved in a large number of projects Assistant Professor Dr.Professionals Who Should Be Thoroughly Familiar With Project Management (Examples) Managers Architects Consultants Economists Development Officials Engineers Government Officials IT Professionals Natural & Social Scientists Public Administrators Policy Makers Researchers In the course of their professional lives. Pakistan 36 .

Terminology Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Pakistan 37 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Islamabad.

Assistant Professor Dr.Basic Terminology  Projects  Subprojects Many definitions for these words have been proposed. Pakistan 38 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.  Programmes  Portfolios  Processes  Project Management Sample definitions along with practical examples are contained in the following slides. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Islamabad.

.What is a Project? (Definition #1) (Guide to the Project Management – Body of Knowledge. Pakistan 39 . 2004. 5) Assistant Professor Dr. Ed. Islamabad. p. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. the Project Management Institute. 3rd.

/ Daniel B. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Pakistan 40 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. 2002.65) Assistant Professor Dr. p. Crane: Effective Project Management. Islamabad. John Wiley & Sons.What is a Project? (Definition #2) (Robert Wysocki / Robert Beck Jr.

Pakistan 41 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Gray / Erik W. 2. Larson. Islamabad. Project Management: The Managerial Process.What is a Project? (Definition #3) (Clifford F. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.. p. ed. 15) Assistant Professor Dr.

1992) Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 42 .R. Islamabad.What is a Project? (Definition #4) (J. The Handbook of Project-Based Management: Improving Processes for Achieving Your Strategic Objectives. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Turner. Mcgraw Hill: New York. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

Islamabad. Cleland / Lewis R.What is a Project? (Definition #5) (David I. Pakistan 43 . 4th ed. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Ireland. Project Management: Design and Strategic Implementation. 10) Assistant Professor Dr.. p. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

more manageable components of larger. similar to the project manager. Subprojects are comprised of project team members and are headed by subproject managers who. analogous to the main project in which they are integrated.What are Subprojects? Subprojects are smaller. risks etc. Assistant Professor Dr. schedules. communication and other requisite skills. Islamabad. must have excellent decision-making. costs. human resources. and be in a position to manage the implementation of the subproject work effectively and efficiently. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Subprojects have. more complex projects Subprojects have their own goals and outputs or deliverables which together constitute the final deliverable. Pakistan 44 . their own scope.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Facilities Accommodation Cultural Olympiad Sponsorship Management Transport Pre-Games Training Media Facilities and Coordination IT-Projects Telecommunications Opening and Closing Ceremonies Security Arrangements Public Relations Medical Care Financing The Sydney Olympic Games 2000 was a highly complex project which comprised several distinct work areas. Pakistan 45 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad. and which all had to be integrated and coordinated within the framework of the overall olympic project. in their own right.Subprojects Example: The Sydney Olympic Games 2000 Events Human Resources and Volunteers Test Games and Trial Events Venues. each of which could be considered as subprojects. Assistant Professor Dr.

What is a Programme? Afforestation Primary Education Promotion Electrification Immunization Poverty Alleviation Privatization Project A Project B Project D Programme X Project E Space Exploration Urban Regeneration EXAMPLES OF PROGRAMMES A programme is basically a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually Water Resource Development Project C Project F Weaponization Assistant Professor Dr. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Pakistan 46 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad. Pakistan 47 .Example of a Programme Project Projectfor forUpgrading UpgradingEquipment Equipment A A CAPITAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT INVESTMENT PROGRAMME PROGRAMME may comprise following projects Project Projectfor forTraining TrainingPersonnel Personnel Project Projectfor forExpanding Expanding Production ProductionLines Lines Project Projectfor forAcquiring AcquiringLarge-Scale Large-Scale Funding Funding Assistant Professor Dr.

Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Pakistan 48 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

Pakistan 49 . Islamabad.Assistant Professor Dr. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.

Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. Pakistan 50 .Programmes & Projects: Similarities  Programmes and projects have goals and objectives which define their purpose of existence  Programmes and projects have life-spans defining a starting and ending point in time  Programmes and projects consume resources and necessarily incur a cost  Programmes and projects require application of a methodo-logy and must be managed properly to bolster their chances of success  Programmes and projects aim at helping organizations achieve their mission and adding value to them. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.

Pakistan 51 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. a programme must integrate and maintain the operationality of that output for a specified period of time Assistant Professor Dr.Programmes & Projects: Differences X Programmes may have multiple overarching goals whereas projects have one prime goal X A programme has a comparatively longer life-span. and obviously costs more than the combination of all the projects which constitute it X A programme is inherently more complex than a constituting project – it has a broader scope and may require extensive coordination between its various constituting projects X Whereas a project results in the creation of an output and is then ended. Islamabad.

selecting and monitoring projects which are aligned with its mission. comprising dozens or hundreds of single projects. cost. and implementation Portfolios are dynamic. time requirement. goals and objectives and add value to them Assistant Professor Dr.and consume a large chunk of an organization‘s resources The projects comprising the portfolio may be in various stages of initiation. Some portfolios may be quite large.The Project Portfolio The project portfolio is the set of projects which an organization is undertaking. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad. priority. complexity. Their composition will change over time as some projects end or are prematurely terminated and new projects are added A major challenge for organizations is to devise a system for identifying. risk level. planning. Pakistan 52 . Projects usually differ in their type. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. etc.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Pakistan 53 .What is a Process? Assistant Professor Dr.

What is a Process?

According to the Project
Management Institute, a process
can be defined as:

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

54

Project Management Process Illustration
PROCESS INPUTS
(Typical)

Process Maturity, Methodology,
Benchmarking and Optimization,
Constraints, Templates, Infrastructure, Policy and Cultural Framework

Project Business Case

Information

PROCESS STEPS

Technology

Opt. Project Portfolio Mix

Qualitative & Quantitative
Tools
Outputs of Other
Processes

Material Inputs

Stakeholder Interaction

Requests, Instructions

Quality of Process Inputs,
Knowledge, Competence,
Experience, Insight, Ability,
Communication,
Cooperation, Coordination

PROCESS OUTPUTS
(Selected Examples)

Project Feasibility Report

1

2

3

N

Transformation of Inputs to Outputs

TIME &
COST
Process
Process Effectiveness
Effectiveness and
and Efficiency
Efficiency

Given that the output of one project management
process normally becomes input to another,
deficiencies in one or more processes will
consequently reverberate across the entire process
chain

Project Master Plan
(or Subsidiary Plans)
Customer Change
Request
Revised Cost and
Schedule Baseline

Project Status Report

Project management uses
processes extensively to
produce “deliverables” (see
small sample above). Some
processes are quite complex
and have a high risk of error.

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

55

Project Management Process Diagramme
(Screening A Project)
Project Proposal Idea

Data Collection and
Back-Up

Need / Strategic Fit/
ROI / Payback Risk

Self-Evaluation of
Project Criteria

Periodic assessment
of Priorities

Reject

Priority Team
Evaluates Proposal
and Reviews
Portfolio for Risk
Balance

Return for More
Information

Hold for
Resources

Assign Priority,
resources, Project
Manager & Evaluate
Progress

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

56

This directory should be periodically revised and the processes therein Assistant Professor Dr. Pakistan 57 . Islamabad. graphically illustrated and subsequently documented for reference by project stakeholders in a “project process directory”.Focus on Processes Systematically All project management processes should be identified and described. duration and risk factors. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. with each process task carefully analyzed in terms of its input(s) and output(s) plus its estimated cost.

Wysocki / Robert Beck Jr.What is Project Management? (Robert K. / David B. Assistant Professor Dr. Effective Project Management. 2002. John Wiley & Sons. Pakistan 58 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Crane. ed. Islamabad. 2. 79).. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. p.

Islamabad. Pakistan 59 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.What is Project Management? [ISO 9001:2000] Assistant Professor Dr.

. Pakistan 60 . 4) Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planing. al. ed. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Islamabad. p. John Wiley & Sons.What is Project Management? (Harold Kerzner. New York et. 7. Scheduling and Controlling. Inc.. 2001.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. technological and others – which are characterized by a high and increasing degree of complexity. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. market. political. Pakistan 61 .Essential Functions of Project Management Project Management helps organizations tackle the pressure of change in environments – global. regulatory. economic. social.

hence. Islamabad. systematic. objectives and mission. It is. Pakistan indispensible for an organization’s 62 .Essential Functions of Project Management Project Management offers a focused. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. and therewith its goals. integrated and processdriven framework of application of an organization’s resources for effective and efficient realization of its projects. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. an important “strategic tool” Assistant Professor Dr.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Specialized technical tasks and the tools used in project management often the prime focus of interest by Assistant Professor Dr. integrating work occurring in all project areas. Islamabad. Pakistan 63 .Essential Functions of Project Management Project Management is primarily about leadership. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. steering the project in the right direction and effectively managing stakeholders and complexity.

Essential Functions of Project Management Project Management teaches “best practices” based on years of experience with projects in diverse fields across the globe. that what works well in one project situation may not at all work well in another. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. Islamabad. Pakistan cognizant of the context-sensitivity of 64 . It should be kept in mind. though. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Use good judgement and always be Assistant Professor Dr.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. is offer a systematic but flexible framework which can increase the chances of the project Assistant Professor Dr. though. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. What Project Management essentially does. Islamabad.e. Pakistan 65 . that it achieves its goal within time and allocated budget to the satisfaction of all stakeholders concerned.Essential Functions of Project Management Using Project Management is no guarantee that the project will be sucessful – i.

it would be an error of judgment to apply the full gamut of project management processes and tools to a project which can probably be successfully managed Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad. Just as one wouldn’t commission a bazooka or a flame thrower to kill a cockroach.Essential Functions of Project Management The intensity with which Project Management is applied must be proportional to the need and complexity of that project. Pakistan 66 . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences.

Project Management is an evolving Assistant Professor Dr.e.and pre-ferably to exceed stakeholder needs (i. Islamabad. Pakistan 67 . Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. cost. unidentified requirements) from a given project within the constraints of scope.Essential Functions of Project Management Project Management seeks at least to meet . COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.e. the identi-fied requirements) as well as stakeholder expecta-tions (i. time and quality.

Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences. and the flow of tasks in the projects which it undertakes? If affirmative. outline and draw two examples of such diagrammes. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology. If your organization does not use process diagrammes. Pakistan 68 . then develop your own based on your experience working on Assistant Professor Dr. Islamabad.WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT #01 Does your organization use “process diagrammes” to document the relationship between.