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REASONING

LOGICAL ARGUMENT

ARGUMENT
An argument is a pattern of reasonign that
encourages the making of conclusion based
on logical thinking
An argument consists of 2 premises
and a conclusion.
There are 3 types of Arguments

Type 1 Argument
(Deductive Reasoning)
Premise 1: All A (things/objects)
are B (situation)
Premise 2: C (specific things) is A
Conclusion: C is B

Example of Type 1 Argument


Premise 1: All men are mortal.
Premise 2: Einstein is a man.
Conclusion: Einstein is mortal.
Premise 1: All even numbers are divisible by 2
Premise 2: 30 is an even number
Conclusion: 30 is divisible by 2.
30 ialah nombor genap

Activity
Make your own examples of Type 1
Argument . One is non-mathematical
example and another with a
mathematical example.

Type 2 Argument
(Direct Reasoning Argument)

Premise 1: If P happens then Q happens


(Implication)

Premise 2: P happens (antecedent happens)


Conclusion:
Q happens (consequence happens)

Example of Type 2 Argument


Premise 1:
If a number is a factor of 12 then that
number is a factor of 24
Premise 2: 3 is a factor of 12
Conclusion: 3 is a factor of 24

Example
Premise 1: If a set has m elements the
that set has 2m subsets.
Premise 2: Set P has 5 elements.
Conclusion: Set P has 25 subsets.

Activity
Create one mathematical example using
Type 2 Arguments

Type 3 Arguments

(Indirect Reasoning Argument)

Premise 1: If p happens, then q happens


Premise 2: q does not happen
Conclusion: p does not happens

Example of Type 3 Argument


Premise 1:
If m is an interger then 2m is an even
number
Premise 2: 2m is not an even number
Conclusion: m is not an integer

Premise 1:
If n is an odd number then (n+1) is an
even number
Premise 2:
(n + 1) in not an even number
Conclusion: n is not an odd number

PREMISE 1: If x = 9, then 15 - x = 6
PREMISE 2: 15 - x 6
CONCLUSION: x 9

DEDUKSI
Deduksi ialah satu proses membuat
kesimpulan khusus berdasarkan pernyataan
umum.
CONTOH
Pernyataan umum: am an = am+n
Kesimpulan khusus: 33 35 = 38

CONTOH
Suatu set yang mengandungi k unsur
mempunyai 2k subset. Cari bilangan
subset bagi set P ={ 0, 1, 5, 6}
Bilangan subset bagi set P = 24
= 16

ARUHAN
Satu proses membuat kesimpulan secara
UMUM berdasarkan kes-kes KHUSUS
Contoh bukan matematik:
Ali suka melukis (kes khusus)
Ahmad suka melukis (kes khusus)
Aminah suka melukis (kes khusus)
Ah Chong suka melukis (kes khusus)
Ananda suka melukis (kes khusus)
Kesimpulan umum:
Semua orang yang namanya bermula dengan
huruf A suka melukis.

CONTOH MATEMATIK
Diberi 5, 8, 11, 14, boleh ditulis sebagai

5 = 5 + 3(0)
8 = 5 + 3(1)
11 = 5 + 3(2)
14 = 5 + 3(3)

abaikan

Tak sama wakilkan


dengan huruf

Yang sama salin semula

kesimpulan umum:
5 + 3n, n = 0, 1, 2, 3..

LANGKAH
PENYELESAIAN
1. menulis kesimpulan umum secara aruhan.

2. nilai sebelum tanda = just ABAIkan sahaja.

3. Lihat nilai selepas =.. Yang SAMA just SALIN semula


dan yang x SAMA, akan diwakilkan dengan sebarang
HURUF kemudian tanda (,) dan tulis = 1, 2, 3...

4. Contoh : 3 + 2(n), n = 1, 2, 3....

CONTOH
Buat kesimpulan secara aruhan bagi
sama71,
wakilkan
huruf
senarai no 8, 23,Tak
44,
dengan
yang
mengikut
pola berikut:
8 = 3 (2)2 4
abaikan
23= 3 (3)2 4
44= 3 (4)2 4
71 = 3 (5)2 4
Yang sama salin semula

Kesimpulan:
3n2 4, n = 2, 3, 4, 5, .