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An Investigation of the Influence of

Lighting
Conditions
on
the
Measurements
using
Machine
Vision

BY:
SUDHEESH KUMAR C P
KUMAR
ASST.PROFESSOR
SCHOLAR

VARUN
PG

CO NTENTS
CONCEPT OF

MACHINE VISION
EXPERIMENTAL WORK
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
RESULTS
INFERENCE
REFERENCES

WHAT IS MACHINE VISION ?

Machine vision has been


defined by the Machine
Vision Association of the
Society
of
Manufacturing
Engineers and the Automated
Imaging Association as The
use of devices for optical,
noncontact
sensing
to
automatically receive and
interpret an image of a
real scene in order to
obtain information and/or
control
machines
or
process.
3

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MACHINE VISION


4

APPLICATIONS
Inspecting

of the surfaces of
bathtubs for scratches.
Verifying that welds are strong
enough.
Checking paper in the production
process for flaws.
Finding irregularities on flat glass.
Reading license plates of cars.
Recognising and identifying
persons.
5

ADVANTAGES
The

Quality of the product is


increased.

Machine

vision can lead to


significant cost reductions.

Time

for inspection can be


significantly reduced.
6

TERMS USED

Pixel: smallest element of an image that can be individually


processed.

Grey scale: brightness of a pixel.

Thresholding: process of assigning white to each pixel in the image


with grey scale above a particular value , while all pixels below this
value become black . That value is called threshold(T).

Image consisting of black & white is called binary image.

Blob :connected region in binary image .

Blob analysis: method of analyzing a image that has undergone


binarization processing ,it identifies segmented object a/c to
geometric parameters .

OBJECTIVES
To

design and develop a machine vision system

for detection & measurement of roundness of


hole on a work piece.

To

investigate the influence of lighting conditions

on the measurement .

To

compare the results with CMM.

MOTIVATION

Roundness of hole can be measured using many


metrological tools such as RMM,CMM,GO-NO gauges
etc. which are of contact type .

This instruments consumes significant amount of time


for tool- work setup

This instrument cannot measure diameter of holes


smaller than the dimension of their probe/tool.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The proposed vision system comprises of two main


parts, hardware and software.

The hardware is used to capture images of work piece


to be measured.

The software is used to analyse the captured images


and perform the measurement and inspection
processes.

A mobile camera is used for the surface image


grabbing of the milled holes on the aluminium work
piece.

CALIBRATION OF CAMERA

The calibration of the


camera was done by
capturing the image of a
square work piece of
dimension 50X50 mm
and by measuring the
pixels corresponding to
it. Thus determining a
spatial
calibration
factor(mm/pixels).

SCF=Actual
dimension(mm)/dime
nsion in pixels
=0.056mm/pixels

IMAGES UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHTING


CONDITION

WHITE

GREEN

BLUE

YELLOW

INSPECTION ALGORITHM

Image processing involves changing the nature of an


image in order to enhance the image .

To make the decision associated with the image more


reliable.

To segment the image or to separate the features of


importance from those that are not important.

It is used to improve its pictorial information for


human interpretation, and render it more suitable for
autonomous machine perception.

STEPS IN INSPECTION ALGORITHM


1.

Single thresholding technique:

A greyscale image is converted into a binary (black and


white) image by first choosing a grey level T in the
original image, and then turning every pixel black or
white according to whether its grey value is greater
than or less than T .

A pixel becomes {white if its grey level is > T


Black if its grey level is < T}

Thresholding is a vital part of image segmentation,


where we wish to isolate objects from the background.

IMAGES AFTER THRESHOLDING

WHITE

GREEN

YELLOW

BLUE

2.Bottom Hat Filtering:


It performs a morphological filtering on a grayscale or binary
image to enhance the contrast of an image .
3. Edge detection and Hough transform:
An

edge contains some of the most useful informations in


an image.
Edge

detection can be used to measure the size of object


in an image, to isolate particular objects from their
background, to recognize or classify objects.
Canny

edge detection method which


performance and is resistant to noise[2].
The

has

better

Hough transform method is used to detect the


roundness of hole . This approach is used, because of its
robustness in the presence of noise, obstruction and varying
illumination[10].

IMAGES AFTER BOTTOM HAT FILTERING

WHITE

GREEN

YELLO
W

BLUE

IMAGES AFTER EDGE DETECTION &


HOUGH TRANSFORM

WHITE

GREEN

YELLOW

BLUE

RESULTS
&
DISCUSSIONS

EVALUATION CRITERIA
Diameter

of holes(in mm) =
(shape
calibration factor *
diameter in pixels)

of accuracy
=
100-[{{diameter (CMM)
diameter(machine vision)}
/diameter (CMM)}*100]

DIAMETERS OF HOLES UNDER WHITE &


YELLOW ILLUMINATION
Sl.No
(hole
s)

White
(pixels)

White
(mm)

Yellow
(pixels)

Yellow
(mm)

CMM
(mm)

210.2

11.35

216

11.66

12.0503

213.4

11.52

210.2

11.35

12.0438

211.4

11.42

211.8

11.44

12.0704

208.4

11.25

213.2

11.51

12.0496

216

11.66

213.6

11.53

12.1432

211.6

11.43

214.2

11.56

12.0489

209.4

11.3

216.6

11.7

12.1391

213.4

11.52

215.2

11.62

12.1349

Accuracy of the proposed system


Sl.No(holes)

White (%)

Yellow(%)

94.19

96.43

95.65

94.24

94.61

94.7

93.36

95.52

95.71

94.95

94.85

95.94

93.08

96.29

94.93

95.75

INFERENCE

The accuracy of the proposed system has been


calculated, the accuracy of the proposed system
varies from 93 to 97%.

The measured values under yellow illumination has


slightly better accuracy.

It is understood that different materials absorb or


reflect various wavelengths of light differently, and
the presence of ambient light can have an impact on
the quality of measurement.

FUTURE WORKS
Conducting

experiments on different
materials(cast iron, mild steel ,brass).
Validating results of the proposed system
with machine vision system.

REFERENCES
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systems, applications, andtools, Image Vis. Comput. 21 (2003) 171188.


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Image Processing,IJCSI.vol.9,issue5,No1,(2012)269-276.
[3] Yih-Chih Chiou, Wei-Chen Li, Flaw detection of cylindrical surfaces in PU-packing by using
machine vision technique, Measurement 42 (2009) 9891000.
[4] T.-H. Sun, C.-C. Tseng, M.-S. Chen, Electric contacts inspection using machine vision, Image Vis.
Comput. 28 (2010) 890901.
[5] H. Ng, Automatic thresholding for defect detection, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27 (2006) 16441649.
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LabVIEW, in: International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks,
2011, pp. 118122.
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Handbook of Machine Vision, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Weinheim, 2006, pp. 3571.
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using machine vision, Procedia Technology 15 ( 2014 ) 808 817.
[9] Basavaprasad B, Ravi M, A study on the importance of image processing and its applications(2014),
IJRET, eISSN: 2319-1163.
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Image Processing 44, 87-116 (1988) .