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# Power Plant

Efficiency

Objectives

Rate

Deviation

Efficiency

## What is Heat Rate?

Heat rate is the common measure of system
efficiency in a steam power plant.
The energy input to a system, typically in
Btu/kWh, divided by the electricity generated, in
kW. Mathematically:

## Power Plant Heat Rate &

Efficiency

Introduction

BTU/kWh

Miles/gallon

What is Efficiency?
Efficiency is a ratio of the useful energy output
by the system to the energy input to the system.
Mathematically:

Efficiency

## Plant Heat Rate

How much money would you predict, is lost per
year from a leaky valve, pipe or flange?

\$xxxx.xx/year

LETS FIND
OUT!!!!

Efficiency

## Plant Heat Rate

Plant heat rate is a measure of the
combined performance of the boiler or gas
turbine cycle, the steam turbine cycle, and any
other associated auxiliaries.
To get input energy we must be able to calculate
the chemical energy of the fuel. Mathematically:
Chemical Energy of Fuel=
Total Fuel Used (scf/hr)*Higher Heating Value (HHV)(BTU/scf)

Efficiency

## Plant Heat Rate

The power generated is simply the gross or net
generation in kW.
By substituting from the previous
equations we get:

Efficiency

## Plant Heat Rate

Practice Problem:
Calculate plant heat rate for the following
conditions:
Fuel Flow = 3,430,000 scf/hr
HHV = 1,035 BTU/scf
Total plant output = 480 MW (Net)

Efficiency

Efficiency

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## Heat Rate Deviation

Annual Fuel Cost =
Heat Rate Deviation (HRD) * Fuel Cost (FC) *
Capacity Factor (CF) * (Gross Capacity (GC)
Auxiliary Loads (AL)) * Time (Number of Hours in a
Year)
Annual Fuel Cost simplified=
HRD*FC*CF*(GC-AL)*Time

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## Heat Rate Deviation

Practice Problem:
Fuel Cost = \$8.50/MMBTU
Gross Capacity = 525MW
Capacity Factor = 0.25
Time
= 8,760 hours

Cost= \$9,493.65
Power Plant Heat Rate &
Efficiency

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## Heat Rate Deviation

What does that number mean?
\$9,439.65
This is the cost per year for a 1
BTU/kW-hr increase in Heat Rate.

Efficiency

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## Heat Rate Deviation

Previously we calculated a plant heat rate of
7395 BTU/kW-hr.
If we could improve the plants efficiency by
1/2% how much would we save?
1/2% X 7395 = 36.98 or lets just say 37
BTU/kW-hr.
37 BTU/kW-hr X \$9,493.65 = \$351,265.05

Efficiency

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## Heat Rate Deviation

That is the fuel savings in one year if the plant
was able to increase the efficiency by 1/2%.

Efficienc
y % (1100)

1/2% increase =
savings of
\$351,265

## Fuel savings/year (\$)

Power Plant Heat Rate &
Efficiency

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Plant Costs
So how much money is this leak costing you?
Average steam leaks at power plants cause a loss
in heat rate of about 75 BTU/kW-hr.

\$712,023.75/yea
r
Power Plant Heat Rate &
Efficiency

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## Heat Rate Deviation

Will it cost this much to repair these leaks?

## Educating ALL plant personnel on

this issue is critical for cost savings!

Efficiency

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Questions

Efficiency

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