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Power Plant

Heat Rate and


Efficiency

Objectives

Understand Power Plant Efficiency and Heat


Rate

Understand the cost associated with Heat Rate


Deviation

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

What is Heat Rate?


Heat rate is the common measure of system
efficiency in a steam power plant.
The energy input to a system, typically in
Btu/kWh, divided by the electricity generated, in
kW. Mathematically:

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

Introduction

BTU/kWh

Miles/gallon

What is Efficiency?
Efficiency is a ratio of the useful energy output
by the system to the energy input to the system.
Mathematically:

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

Plant Heat Rate


How much money would you predict, is lost per
year from a leaky valve, pipe or flange?

$xxxx.xx/year

LETS FIND
OUT!!!!

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

Plant Heat Rate


Plant heat rate is a measure of the
combined performance of the boiler or gas
turbine cycle, the steam turbine cycle, and any
other associated auxiliaries.
To get input energy we must be able to calculate
the chemical energy of the fuel. Mathematically:
Chemical Energy of Fuel=
Total Fuel Used (scf/hr)*Higher Heating Value (HHV)(BTU/scf)

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

Plant Heat Rate


The power generated is simply the gross or net
generation in kW.
By substituting from the previous
equations we get:

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

Plant Heat Rate


Practice Problem:
Calculate plant heat rate for the following
conditions:
Fuel Flow = 3,430,000 scf/hr
HHV = 1,035 BTU/scf
Total plant output = 480 MW (Net)

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

Plant Heat Rate

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

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Heat Rate Deviation


Annual Fuel Cost =
Heat Rate Deviation (HRD) * Fuel Cost (FC) *
Capacity Factor (CF) * (Gross Capacity (GC)
Auxiliary Loads (AL)) * Time (Number of Hours in a
Year)
Annual Fuel Cost simplified=
HRD*FC*CF*(GC-AL)*Time

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

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Heat Rate Deviation


Practice Problem:
Fuel Cost = $8.50/MMBTU
Gross Capacity = 525MW
Auxiliary Loads = 15MW
Capacity Factor = 0.25
Time
= 8,760 hours

Cost= $9,493.65
Power Plant Heat Rate &
Efficiency

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Heat Rate Deviation


What does that number mean?
$9,439.65
This is the cost per year for a 1
BTU/kW-hr increase in Heat Rate.

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

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Heat Rate Deviation


Previously we calculated a plant heat rate of
7395 BTU/kW-hr.
If we could improve the plants efficiency by
1/2% how much would we save?
1/2% X 7395 = 36.98 or lets just say 37
BTU/kW-hr.
37 BTU/kW-hr X $9,493.65 = $351,265.05

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

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Heat Rate Deviation


That is the fuel savings in one year if the plant
was able to increase the efficiency by 1/2%.

Efficienc
y % (1100)

1/2% increase =
savings of
$351,265

Fuel savings/year ($)


Power Plant Heat Rate &
Efficiency

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Plant Costs
So how much money is this leak costing you?
Average steam leaks at power plants cause a loss
in heat rate of about 75 BTU/kW-hr.

$712,023.75/yea
r
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Efficiency

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Heat Rate Deviation


Will it cost this much to repair these leaks?

Educating ALL plant personnel on


this issue is critical for cost savings!

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

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Questions

Power Plant Heat Rate &


Efficiency

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