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Membentuk Strategi,

Framing dan perancangan awal


Creating Strategy ,Framing and
Planning

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Matlamat
Goals

The Objectives That Drive A


Negotiation Strategy
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Matlamat
Goals
The Objectives That Drive A Negotiation Strategy

Penentuan matlamat merupakan langkah pertama dalam proses


perundingan

Setting goals are the


first step in the
negotiation process

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Matlamat
Goals
The Objectives That Drive A Negotiation Strategy

Matlamat yang dibentuk mempunyai kesan langsung dan


tidak langsung terhadap strategi para perunding
The goals set have direct and indirect effects on the
negotiators strategy
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Kesan Langsung
Direct Effect

(1)
Impian bukanlah
matlamat
Wishes are not
goals

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Kesan Langsung
Direct Effect

(2)
Matlamat kita sentiasa
berkait dengan
matlamat
orang/perunding lawan
Our goals are often
linked to the other
partys goals
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Kesan Langsung
Direct Effect

(3)
Matlamat (apa yang
boleh dicapai) ada
hadnya
There are limits to what
our goals can be

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Kesan Langsung
Direct Effect

(4)
Matlamat yang
efektif mestilah
konkrit/spesifik
Effective goals must be
concrete/specific
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Kesan Tidak Langsung


Indirect Effect

(1)
Membentuk
hubungan yang baik
intangible
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Forging an ongoing
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relationship

Strategi, Taktik atau


Perancangan?
Strategy, Tactics or Planning?

1
Strategi:
Perancangan
yang
menyeluruh
untuk
menapai
matlamat
dalam
perundingan
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Strategy: The
overall plan to
achieve ones
goals in a
negotiation

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Strategi, Taktik atau


Perancangan?
Strategy, Tactics or Planning?
2
Taktik: Tindakan jangka
pendek dan bersesuaian
yang digubal untuk
mencapai strategi yang
lebih luas
Taktik adalah lebih
rendah sifatnya
berbanding strategi
Taktik terhasil daripada
strategi

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Strategi, Taktik atau


Perancangan?
Strategy, Tactics or Planning?

2
Tactics: Short-term, adaptive moves designed to
enact or pursue broad strategies
Tactics are subordinate to strategy
Tactics are driven by strategy

Cokmar=mace

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Strategi, Taktik atau


Perancangan?
Strategy, Tactics or Planning?

3
Perancangan:
Komponen tindakan
dalam proses
strategi; ch.
bagaimana
melaksanakan suatu
strategi?
Planning: The action
component of the strategy
process; i.e. how will I
implement the strategy?

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Opsyen yang Strategik


Strategic Options

Menurut Dual
Concerns Model,
pilihan strategi
adalah berdasarkan
kepada dua
keprihatinan atau
concern.
According to the Dual
Concerns Model, the
choice of strategy is based

Professor Dr. Dean


Pruitt
Creator of
the Dual Concerns
Model

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Opsyen yang Strategik


Strategic Options
Concern 1
How much concern do I have
in achieving the outcomes at
stake in the negotiation?
Setakatmana keperihatinan saya
terhadap apa yang akan saya perolehi
dalam suatu perundingan?

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Opsyen yang Strategik


Strategic Options
Concern 2

How much concern


do I have for the
current and future
quality of the
relationship with the
other party?
Setakatmana keperihatinan
saya terhadap kualiti
perhubungan saya dengan
orang lain pada masa kini
dan masa akan datang?
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The Dual Concerns Model

Professor Dr. Dean


Pruitt
Creator of
the Dual Concerns
Model

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Avoidance = Dont Negotiate


Competition = I Win, You Lose
Avoidance = Win-Win
Accommodation = I Lose You Win
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Framing

Menjelaskan Isu- Proses memframe suatu


Permasalahan
Defining the Issues-The Process of Framing the
Problem
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Framing
Framing adalah berhubung
dengan penumpuan,
pembentukan dan
pengendalian persekitaran
kita.
Framing is about focusing,
shaping and organizing the
world around us

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Framing
Memandangkan manusia
mempunyai perbezaan
dari segi latar belakang,
pengalaman, ekspektasi
dan keinginan, maka cara
mereka mem-frame orang
lain, kejadian dan proses
adalah
berbeza.
Because juga
people
have different backgrounds,
experiences, expectations, and needs, they frame
people, events and processes differently

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Mengapa Frame Penting?


Why Frames are Critical

Perunding yang
memahami framing
akan memahami
bagaimana
mengawal proses
perundingan.
Negotiators who
understand framing may
understand how to have
more control over the
negotiation process.
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Mengapa Frame Penting?


Why Frames are Critical?

Frame mungkin
boleh berubah
semasa aktiviti
perundingan.

Frames may be
malleable and, if so,
can be shaped or
reshaped during
negotiation
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Mengapa Frame Penting?


Why Frames are Critical

Frame sentiasa
berubah semasa
aktiviti
perundingan.

Frames shift and


change as the
negotiation evolves
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Asas-Asas
Framing
Sources Of framing

1
Substantif
Pen-frame-an hanya
berdasarkan kpd
konflik
Substantive
What the conflict is about

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Asas-Asas Framing
Sources Of framing
2
Outcome/Hasil
Berdasarkan kepada
kehendak mereka ke
arah pencapaian
suatu hasil yang
spesifik kenaikan
gaji

Outcome
The predispositions the
parties have to achieving a
specific result
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Asas-Asas Framing
Sources Of framing
3
Aspirasi
Berdasarkan kpd
kehendak mereka ke
arah mencapai suatu
kepentingan/interest
yang lebih luas
kepuasan kedua
belah pihak

Aspiration
Predispositions the parties
have towards satisfying a
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Asas-Asas Framing
Sources Of framing
4
Proses Pengurusan
Konflik
Berdasarkan kpd cara
bagaimana kedua-dua
pihak menyelesaikan
konflik yang sedang
dihadapi

Win-win
mini-lose
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win-lose

Conflict Management Process


How the parties will go about
resolving their dispute

lose-win

mini-win29

Asas-Asas Framing
Sources Of framing
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Identiti

Berdasarkan kepada
identiti perunding
atau kumpulan
berkenaan

Identity
How the parties define who
they are
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Asas-Asas Framing
Sources Of framing
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Ciri Perunding

Bagaimana perunding
melihat ciri perunding
lain.

Negotiators Traits
How one party defines the
other party

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Asas-Asas Framing
Sources Of framing

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Risiko untung-rugi

Bagaimana perunding
melihat risiko yang
terlibat dalam
perundingan tersebut.
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Risk of lose-gain
How the parties view the
risks associated with
particular outcomes
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Kepentingan, Kebenaran &


Kuasa
Interest, Right & Power
Dalam menjelaskan permasalahan,
perunding juga menggunakan
frames di bawah:

Another approach to frames suggests parties use one of these


three frames

8a
Kepentingan

Pentingkan keperluan,
kehendak dan keinginan
Interest
.

Concerned about needs,


desires or wants

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Kepentingan, Hak & Kuasa


Interest, Right & Power

Dalam menjelaskan
permasalahan,
perunding juga
menggunakan
frames di bawah:

8b
Hak

Another approach to frames


suggests parties use one of
these three frames

Pentingkan hak
kebenaran
Rights
.Concerned about
who is right
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Kepentingan, Hak & Kuasa


Interest, Right & Power

Dalam menjelaskan
permasalahan,
perunding juga
menggunakan
frames di bawah:

Another approach to frames suggests parties


use one of these three frames

8c
Kuasa

Menyelesaikan suatu
perundingan
berdasarkan kuasa
.
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Power

Resolving a negotiation on
the basis of power

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Perkara Penting mengenai


Frames
Insights about Frames

1
Perunding boleh
menggunakan lebih
dari satu frame

Negotiators can use


more than one frame

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Perkara Penting mengenai


Frames
Insights about Frames

2
Perbezaan
frames di
antara
kumpulan
perunding
merupakan
salah satu
punca konflik

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Mismatches in
frames between
parties are sources
of conflict

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Perkara Penting mengenai


Frames
Insights about Frames

3
Beberapa jenis
frame akan
membawa bentuk
penyelesaian
yang berbeza

Particular types of
frames may lead to
particular types of
agreements
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Perkara Penting mengenai


Frames
Insights about Frames

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Frame yang spesifik
digunakan dalam
beberapa kes/isu
tertentu sahaja

Specific frames may be


likely to be used with
certain types of issues

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Perkara Penting mengenai


Frames
Insights About Frames
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Perbezaan nilai di
antara perunding
menyebabkan
penggunaan
frame yang
berbeza
Value differences
between parties may
lead the parties to adopt
different frames
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Planning

Persediaan untuk melaksanakan strategi


Getting Ready to Implement the
Strategy
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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(1)
Memperjelaskanka
n isu
Defining the issue

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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(2)
Mengumpul isu yang
relevan dan
menentukan
Bargaining Mix
Bargaining mix
adalah senarai
isu yang
berkenaan
Assembling the Issues and
Defining the Bargaining
Mix
The bargaining mix
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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(3)
Memperjelaskan Minat
Anda
Apa sebenarnya
yang anda
perlukan dalam
perundingan itu?

Defining your
interests
Why you want
what you want
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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(4)
Mengetahui Had
dan Anternatif
anda

Know Your Limits


and Alternatives

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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(5)
Tentukan Targets dan Openings

Target is outcome realistically expected


Opening is the best that can be achieved

________________________________________
Opening
Kawasan Tawar-menawar
Target
[Bargaining Range]

Set Targets and


Openings
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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(6)
Perhatikan
individu/kumpulan/
faktor lain yang
mungkin terlibat
the field analysis
of negotiation

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Look for other


factors or
constituents, that
may be involved
using the field
analysis of
negotiation

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2-16a

A Field Analysis of Negotiation


D

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C
A

A: The direct actors (who is


on the field on our side?

C: Indirect actors (who is on


the sidelines?

C
D

B: The opposition actors (who


is on the field on their side?

D: Interested observers (who


is in the stands?

E: Environmental factors
(what is going on in the broad
environment of the game
outside the stadium, but
shaping and defining what
happens in the stadium?

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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process

(7)
Kaji Pihak Lawan Anda buat kajian

Know your opponents do research

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Proses
Perancangan
Planning Process
(8)
Apa strategi yang
hendak
digunakan?

What
strategy to
use?

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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process

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(9)
Bagaimana untuk
menyampaikan isu
dengan jelas dan
menyangkal
pernyataan pihak
lawan?
How can I present
my case clearly and
refute the
other
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Proses Perancangan
Planning Process
(10)
Apa keperluan
protokol yang
diperlukan?
Agenda,
location, time
period, other
parties, what if
negotiations
fail?, keeping
track of what
is agreed to.
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What protocol needs


to be followed in
this negotiation?

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