You are on page 1of 9

Good Ladle Preheating

Practices
PT JAKARTA CAKRATUNGGAL STEEL
MILLS
17 February 2015
Utai Srimhai

Steel Making Processes

PREHEAT SCHEDULE
A rate of 110o C (200o F) per hour
should be maintained
The optimum soak temperature is 1100o
C or 2000o F
After holding for 4 hours on soak, the
ladle can be used
The ladle MUST be used after 8 hrs soak

Utai Srimhai

Target versus Actual Preheat Curves


1000 - 1100
C
1800 - 2000
F
~ 760
C
~
1400
F
~ 400
C
~ 750
F

oxidation
hydration

:
t
e

0
1
1

0
0
2

4 hr. minimum soak

/
)
F

8 hr. maximum
to avoid carbon
oxidation

rg
a
T . ....possible hydration
hr and carbon oxidation
at rates < 80 C (180
F) / hr.

1-2
hours
Utai Srimhai

10 hours

(8-12 hrs.)

14 -20
hrs.
total

Why is the initial preheat so


important?
Resin-bonded doloma refractories
typically does not contain antioxidants to protect the carbon

Utai Srimhai

Good initial preheat

Poor initial preheat

Decarburized zone
(5 - 10 mm)

Decarburized zone
(25 - 50 mm)

Why is the initial preheat so


important (Cont.)?
The longer the initial preheat beyond
about 20 hours, the larger the
decarburized zone
This decarburized zone will densify
and spall or peel off later in the life of
the ladle (10 -15 heats)
The thicker the decarburized zone,
the thicker and more severe the
spall!
Utai Srimhai

Solutions to limiting oxidation of


carbon-bonded doloma brick
Use the recommended preheat times
Put one or two heats on the ladle to seal the
porosity and develop a coating on the brick
Use the ladle as often as possible
Limit the number of ladles in service
Keep the ladles covered
Maintain preheaters properly to avoid
excessive oxidation

Utai Srimhai

POOR PREHEAT PRACTICE:


Allows thermal shock spalling
Can lead to pinch spalling from too
rapid expansion
Often decarburizes resin-bonded brick,
causing later spalling
May sinter fired brick, causing open
joints

Utai Srimhai

TERIMA KASIH
Thank You
for your attention!

Utai Srimhai