You are on page 1of 49

Social Interaction and Structure

What is Social Interaction?

Social Interaction refers to the process by which


people act and react in relation to others.

In this process, language, gestures and symbols are


used.

Shaefer cited Herbert Blumer who noted that the distinctive


characteristics of social interaction among people is that
human beings interpret or define each others actions.

Social interaction also refers to the process whereby


people accomplish some aim and is always directed
toward specific other people.

What Framework are Used in


Interaction?

Defining the situation.

A stage deliberation and examination during which we define and interpret the social
context in which we fine ourselves, assess our interest and select specific attitudes or
behaviors accordingly(Thomas as cited by Hess, et al. 1992).

The process by which people interpret and evaluate the


social context to select appropriate attitudes and
behavior.
It is collective
process.
According to Thomas (Thomas and Thomas, as cited by Light, et al.,
1989) if people define situations as real, they are real in their
consequences. The consequences social definition can have great
important for people.

Defining the situation.

A stage deliberation and examination during which we define and interpret the social
context in which we fine ourselves, assess out interest and select specific attitudes or
behaviors accordingly(Thomas as cited by Hess, et al. 1992).

The process by which people interpret and evaluate the


social context to select appropriate attitudes and
behavior.
It is collective
process.
According to Thomas (Thomas and Thomas, as cited by Light, et al.,
1989) if people define situations as real, they are real in their
consequences. The consequences social definition can have great
important for people.

Defining the situation.

A stage deliberation and examination during which we define and interpret the social
context in which we fine ourselves, assess out interest and select specific attitudes or
behaviors accordingly(Thomas as cited by Hess, et al. 1992).

The process by which people interpret and evaluate the


social context to select appropriate attitudes and
behavior.
It is collective
process.
According to Thomas (Thomas and Thomas, as cited by Light, et al.,
1989) if people define situations as real, they are real in their
consequences. The consequences social definition can have great
important for people.

Defining the situation.

A stage deliberation and examination during which we define and interpret the social
context in which we fine ourselves, assess out interest and select specific attitudes or
behaviors accordingly(Thomas as cited by Hess, et al. 1992).

The process by which people interpret and evaluate the


social context to select appropriate attitudes and
behavior.
It is collective
process.
According to Thomas (Thomas and Thomas, as cited by Light, et al.,
1989) if people define situations as real, they are real in their
consequences. The consequences social definition can have great
important for people.

The presentation of the self

The sociologist Erving Goffman emphasized the social ploys all


of us but seldom admit. All of us have an image of how we
want to be seen by others.

Negotiated order
Schaefer(1999) observes that people also reshape reality by
negotiating changes in patterns of social interaction.
The term negotiating refers to the attempt of one to reach
agreement with others concerning some objectives. It does not
involve coercion. Sometimes, it is referred to as bargaining,
compromising, trading off, mediating, exchanging, wheeling
and dealing and collusion.
Negotiating refers to a social structure that derives its existence
from social interactions through which people define and
redefine its character.

Negotiated order
Schaefer(1999) observes that people also reshape reality by
negotiating changes in patterns of social interaction.
The term negotiating refers to the attempt of one to reach
agreement with others concerning some objectives. It does not
involve coercion. Sometimes, it is referred to as bargaining,
compromising, trading off, mediating, exchanging, wheeling
and dealing and collusion.
Negotiating refers to a social structure that derives its existence
from social interactions through which people define and
redefine its character.

Negotiated order
Schaefer(1999) observes that people also reshape reality by
negotiating changes in patterns of social interaction.
The term negotiating refers to the attempt of one to reach
agreement with others concerning some objectives. It does not
involve coercion. Sometimes, it is referred to as bargaining,
compromising, trading off, mediating, exchanging, wheeling
and dealing and collusion.
Negotiating refers to a social structure that derives its existence
from social interactions through which people define and
redefine its character.

Types of Social Interaction

Cooperatio
n
Cooperation refers to collaborative efforts between
people to achieve a common goal.

Conflict is significant in social life. It involves direct


struggle between individuals or groups over commonly
valued resources or goals

Competitio
n

Competition is a form of conflict in which there is


agreement on the means that can be used to purpose an
end.

Negotiation which agree to social exchange, social cooperation, or


competition. In the process of negotiation, two or more competing
part reach a mutually satisfactory agreement.

Coercion

Coercion appears to be one-side, one imposing an action or


behavior on other. Coercion can involve the use of social
sanctions such as ridicule, withholding of love, excommunication,
failure to grant recognition, suspension of benefits, or the
decision not to give the favor asked for.

Elements of Social Interaction

Statuses
Ordinarily,the term status means prestige.
According to Macionis(2004), status is the most important
component of social interaction. Both a bank president
and a bank teller are statuses because they represent
socially defined positions, even the bank president has
more status than a bank teller.

Ascribed status and achieve status


Some statuses are assigned to people without effort on their part.
They are called ascribed status, the social position that is received
as birth or involuntarily assumed later in the life course.

Achieved Status
Achieved status refers to a social position that is
assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant
measure of personal ability and efforts. It is attained
through the personal effort of the individual.

Roles
Every status carries with it socially prescribed roles,that
is,expected behavior,obligations,and privelages(Light and
Keller,1986).
Role is the second major components of social
structure.

Role refers to the collection of cultural defined rights,obligation,and


expectations that accompany a status in the social system.

Roles
Every status carries with it socially prescribed roles,that
is,expected behavior,obligations,and privelages(Light and
Keller,1986).
Role is the second major components of social
structure.

Role refers to the collection of cultural defined rights,obligation,and


expectations that accompany a status in the social system.

Roles
Every status carries with it socially prescribed roles,that
is,expected behavior,obligations,and privelages(Light and
Keller,1986).
Role is the second major components of social
structure.

Role refers to the collection of cultural defined rights,obligation,and


expectations that accompany a status in the social system.

Role strain,role conflict, and role exit.


Role
strain
Some people find it difficult to perform the role expected to them.
Role strain is the problems of individuals in meeting or fulfilling
their roles.
Role strain refers to incompatibility among the roles corresponding to
a single status.

Role strain,role conflict, and role exit.


Role
strain
Some people find it difficult to perform the role expected to them.
Role strain is the problems of individuals in meeting or fulfilling
their roles.
Role strain refers to incompatibility among the roles corresponding to
a single status.

Role strain,role conflict, and role exit.


Role
strain
Some people find it difficult to perform the role expected to them.
Role strain is the problems of individuals in meeting or fulfilling
their roles.
Role strain refers to incompatibility among the roles corresponding to
a single status.

Role conflict
Role conflict occurs when the carrying out of one role
automatically results in the violation of another.

Role exit

Role exit is the process by which people disengage from


social roles that have been central to their lives.

Dramaturgical approach

Sociologist approach believe that much interactions follow familiar,


predictable cultural scripts and how individuals intrepret and play
roles, and of course, the outcome of the play is never certain or
definite.

Symbolic
Interaction
George Herbert Mead postulated that approach to social
interaction rests on three basic premises:
1.People act toward everything they encounter on the basis of
what those people,activities, and situations mean to them.
2.People learn what things mean by observing how other people
respond to them through social interaction.
3.As a result of on-going interaction, sounds (including words),
gesture, facial expression, and body postures (body language)
acquire symbolic meaning shared by people who belong to the
same culture.

Symbolic
Interaction
George Herbert Mead postulated that approach to social
interaction rests on three basic premises:
1.People act toward everything they encounter on the basis of
what those people,activities, and situations mean to them.
2.People learn what things mean by observing how other people
respond to them through social interaction.
3.As a result of on-going interaction, sounds (including words),
gesture, facial expression, and body postures (body language)
acquire symbolic meaning shared by people who belong to the
same culture.

Symbolic
Interaction
George Herbert Mead postulated that approach to social
interaction rests on three basic premises:
1.People act toward everything they encounter on the basis of
what those people,activities, and situations mean to them.
2.People learn what things mean by observing how other people
respond to them through social interaction.
3.As a result of on-going interaction, sounds (including words),
gesture, facial expression, and body postures (body language)
acquire symbolic meaning shared by people who belong to the
same culture.

According to Mead, Everyday acts show that people are


constantly learning symbolic meaning and conversing with
themeselve about these meaning.
Therefore, human interaction is a process of acting on the
basis of meaningful symbols.

According to Mead, Everyday acts show that people are


constantly learning symbolic meaning and conversing with
themeselve about these meaning.
Therefore, human interaction is a process of acting on the
basis of meaningful symbols.

Ethnomethodology
This is specialized approach interaction paradigm.
It was taken from Greek ethno, which means understanding of
cultural surrounding that people share, and methodology which
designates a system of methods or principles.
Ethnomethodology refers to the study of the everyday,common
sense understanding that people have of the world around them.

Ethnomethodology
This is specialized approach interaction paradigm.
It was taken from Greek ethno, which means understanding of
cultural surrounding that people share, and methodology which
designates a system of methods or principles.
Ethnomethodology refers to the study of the everyday,common
sense understanding that people have of the world around them.

Ethnomethodology
This is specialized approach interaction paradigm.
It was taken from Greek ethno, which means understanding of
cultural surrounding that people share, and methodology which
designates a system of methods or principles.
Ethnomethodology refers to the study of the everyday,common
sense understanding that people have of the world around them.

Social
Construction
Networks
This is another elements of social interaction.
It refers to the web of relationships that connects an individual
to many other people, both directly and indirectly.

Social
Construction
Networks
This is another elements of social interaction.
It refers to the web of relationships that connects an individual
to many other people, both directly and indirectly.

Group

Group refers to any number of people with similar norms, values,


and expectation who regularly and conciously interact.

Types of social
interaction

Non-verval Behaviour

By using body language,the study of which is known as kinesics,


which attempts to examine how such things as slight head nods,
yawns, postural shifts, and other bodily movements affect
communication.

Tischler noted that many of our movements relate to an attitude that


our culture has, consciously or unconsciously, taught us to express
manner.

Non-verval
Behaviour
By using body language,the study of which is known as kinesics,
which attempts to examine how such things as slight head nods,
yawns, postural shifts, and other bodily movements affect
communication.

Tischler noted that many of our movements relate to an attitude that


our culture has, consciously or unconsciously, taught us to express
manner.

Unfocused and focused interaction

Unfocused interaction

An interaction that takes place simply because two or more


people to be in each others presence.

Focused interaction

Focused interaction is , therefore, a purposeful


interaction between individuals who have particular
goals in mind.

The
End