Formulae, Equations and Amounts Energetics and Enthalpy changes Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Bonding

Organic Chemistry The Alkanes The Alkenes

Isotopes
All atoms of an element have the same atomic number.

Make up of an Atom

Every atom is made up of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. An element is a substance which cannot Isotopes have the same chemical properties but different physical be broken into chemically simpler properties such as being radioactive. substances. In the periodic table an atom looks like For example Hydrogen has 3 isotopes, this :
27 is the mass number which is the total number of nucleons 13 is the atomic number, the number of protons

However some have different numbers of neutrons. These have no charge but affect the weight of the element.

All but the first one are very unstable and undergo radioactive decay

Ionic Equations Representing Chemical Reactions
Chemists use a simple method to show what is happening in chemical reactions. These must have the same number of each element on each side. Some reactions involve ions in solution. These are often shown as ionic equations where only the ions involved in the reaction are shown. The molecular equation would be:

The ionic Equation would be :

The total mass of the product is equal to the total mass of reactants.

Bond Basics
There are two main types of bond :

State Symbols
Every equation must include state symbols for each chemical. ‡Solid s

Ionic Bonds
Atoms lose or gain electrons so they have a full outer shell

Covalent Bonds
Atoms share electrons so both have a full outer shell.

l g aq

‡Liquid ‡Gas ‡Solution

Metal ² Non Metal

Metal - Metal

The Mole Relative Atomic Mass
Chemists use a relative scale to weigh atoms. The RAM is defined as the average mass of its isotopes compared with the mass of one atom of carbon-12. Lots of atoms are made up of several different isotopes. The average mass is the actual RAM, although this is usually very close to the major isotope. The mole is used to compare ratios of atoms. A mole of any substance is the amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12. One mole of any substance contains the Avogadro constant (6.02 x 1023) of particles.

Moles =

Mass . Molar mass

Formula Mass
For a compound find the sum of the RAM·s of all the atoms in the chemical formula. E.g. Mr of CO2 = 12 + (16x2) = 44 In covalent compounds it is usually called the relative molecular mass. The molar mass is the relative molecular or formula mass in grams per mole.

How many atoms of zinc are there in 16.35g? 16.35 ÷ 65.4 = 0.25 moles 0.25 x 6.02 x1023 = 1.505 x1023 Using moles you can work out the amounts of reactants needed for a reaction. E.g. to make one mole of MgO you need: 2Mg + O2 2MgO 2 mol + 1 mol 2 mol 2 x 24.3 + 32 2 x 40.3

Empirical Formula Reactions with Gases
It is easier to measure the volume of gases than weigh them. This is easy because One mole of any gas occupies 24dm3 at 298K and 1atm. This can be worked out using results from an experiment. E.g. Analysis of Aluminium Chloride shows it contains 5.8g of Al and 22.9g of Cl.

Al
Mass from analysis (g) Molar Mass (mol-1) Moles of atoms Ratio of moles

Cl 22.9 35.5 0.645 3

5.8 27 0.215 1

What volume of CO2 is produced by burning 6g of C? C + O2 CO2 1 mol + 1 mol 1mol 6 ÷ 12 = 0.5 moles 0.5 x 24 = 12dm3

So the Empirical Formula is AlCl3. However the molecular formula could also be Al2Cl6. The only way to find the molecular formula is if you know the RAM.

Concentration Moles in Solution
When moles occur in a solution they are often in different concentrations. This is measured in Moles per cubic decimetre (mol.dm-3) The concentration, or molarity of a solution can be worked out using:

Moles of Solute volume of solution
Other units of concentrations: Percentage by mass
Mass of solute / mass of solution

x 100

How many grams of NaCl are needed to make Percentage by volume 500cm3 of 0.150 solution? Volume of one component / total volume -1 Mr (NaCl) = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 g mol Parts per million 3) 0.15 x 58.5 = 8.8g (for 1dm The formula for working out the number of 3) 4.4g (for 500cm moles in a solution is therefore:

Moles =

vc . 1000

Yield of reactions
In reality very few reactions actually produce the calculated amount of product. This is because: 
  

Atom Economy
This is the idea that the important part of a reaction is not the overall yield but the amount of products when compared with the amount of reactants. Therefore Atom Economy =

The reactants may not be pure The reaction may not finish Product might be left on the apparatus Human error may have an affect

6.4g of copper oxide is reacted with excess sulphuric acid and 14.7g copper sulfate crystals are produced.
Mr (CuO) = 63.5 + 16 = 79.5 g Mr (CuSO4.5H20) = 63.5+32.1+4x16+5x18 = 249.6 g mol-1 So 79.5g of CuO should produce 249.6g crystals. Moles of copper oxide : 6.4/79.5 = 0.08mol Yield 100% would make 0.08x249.6 = 20.0g Percentage Yield = 14.7/20 x 100 = 73.5% mol-1

Mass of atoms in desired product x 100 Mass of atoms in reactants
We use the relative formula masses of each atom. It can be used to create more effective ways of creating drugs and chemicals with less waste and therefore providing a commercial

Energy and Energetics Measuring enthalpy changes Heat capacities and Calorimeters Important Enthalpy changes Using enthalpy changes Bond enthalpies Using Bond Enthalpies

Energetics
This is the study of energy transfers between reacting chemicals and their surroundings. The study of the heat transfers during reactions is also called thermochemistry.

Exothermic Energy Changes
The energy released in the bond formation of the products is greater than the energy needed to break the bonds of the reactants. This is normally combustion reactions and neutralisations reactions.

Endothermic Energy Changes
The energy required to break the bond in the reactants is greater than that needed in the bond formation of the products. This is often seen in thermal decomposition reactions and photosynthesis.

Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
Many reactions need energy to happen, others give off energy. This is determined by what is happening to the chemical bonds.

Bond breaking requires energy while bond making releases energy

Amount of energy transferred Enthalpy
Another term for the heat of reaction is the enthalpy change of reaction. Chemists define the energy content of a system held at constant pressure as its enthalpy (H). This is impossible to measure but chemists can work out the change in enthalpy.

The reaction in which these enthalpy changes happen is called the system. Everything else is referred to as the surroundings. For exothermic reactions the enthalpy of reaction is Some systems have physical boundaries between its surroundings, this is called a closed system. Sometimes negative, the energy content of the system decreases. this prevents energy leaving or entering the system, in which case it is isolated. However most remain open to energy transfers. If we can measure the amount of energy leaving/ entering the system then using the idea that Energy cannot be created of destroyed we know what has happened in the reaction.

For endothermic reactions the enthalpy of reaction is positive, the energy content of the system has increased.

Heat Capacities
The heat capacity of an object is the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by 1K. Its unit is JK-1. This however only applies to a single object.

Example: 25cm3 of 1M HCl was mixed with 25cm3 of 1M NaOH in a coffee cup calorimeter. Both were at 22.5°C and the temperature rose to 29.3°C. Find the enthalpy change per mole of HCl assuming: ‡ It has the SHC of 4.2Jg-1K-1 ‡ Their densities are 1gcm-3

The specific heat capacity is the amount of energy in Joules needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram Energy Transferred = mass x SHC x T E = 50 x 4.2 x 6.7 = 1407J of a particular substance by one Kelvin. This also allows us to use the equation that tells us the energy transferred is equal to the mass of the object times the specific heat capacity times the temperature change. Moles = vc 1000 = 1 x 25 = 0.025mol 1000 = 1 4 0 7 = 5 6 . 3 k J m o l -1 0.025

H = energy moles

Standard Enthalpy changes
There are several different types of Enthalpy change which can be measured and calculated. However we need to keep the conditions constant for them all to remain relative. This means the reaction must be under standard conditions (298K and 1atm). It would be presented like this: You MUST have the ± s i g n

Things that affect the enthalpy change of Combustion:
‡ ‡ Number of bond to be broken This depends on the size of the molecule Type of bonds involved Shows how the chemical make up affects a fuel.

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