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Proteins
Made of:
CHON - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,
and Nitrogen

Monomer - Amino Acid


20 different types
Different side
chains (R-groups)
Extryptophan
8 essential (we
need to eat them in
foods)
12 nonessential
(our bodies make
them)

Polymer peptides
Once the polypeptide is made it twists and
folds into a protein.
Shape dictates what a protein does.
Held together by hydrogen bonds called
peptide bonds.

Amino Acids have 4 parts around a central


C.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Carboxyl Group
COOH
Hydrogen atom
Amino Group
NH2

R Group - is what
makes each
Amino
acid
different.

2
H
H
N

C
OH

Looks like:
Amino Acid

Protein

Functions:

Enzymes

Activation Energy- The energy needed to get a


reaction started

Lowering Activation Energy


Catalyst - a substance that speeds up the rate of
chemical reactions
Rate = the time it takes for something to happen

Enzymes proteins that act as biological catalysts.


Speed up reactions that take place in a cell by
lowering the activation energy that the
reaction needs to get started.

Activatio
n Energy
WITH an
enzyme

Activation
energy
without an
enzyme

Products

How Enzymes Work


Enzymes are very specific.
Enzyme Specificity - Each enzyme binds to a
specific substrate(the reactants)

Enzymes are named for


the substrate they bind with
by changing the end of the
substrate name to - ase
lactase is the enzyme
for lactose
sucrase is the enzyme
for sucrose
peroxidase is the
enzyme that breaks
down peroxide in the
body

The place where the enzyme and substrate bind is


called the active site
The substrate fits into the active site like a key fits
into a lock
When an enzyme binds to a substrate it forms an
enzyme-substrate complex.
Once the reaction is completed, the products are
released
Substrate

Products

Active Site
Enzyme

EnzymeSubstrate
Complex

Enzymes can be reused over and over because they


are not changed or used up during reactions.

Dehydration Synthesis Water is lost during a


reaction. Dehydration synthesis reactions are
sometimes called condensation reactions because
water is a byproduct of the reaction.
Dehydration synthesis reactions build molecules.

Hydrolysis water is used to split reactants into 2 or


more products.