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eleventh edition

organizational

behavior

Chapter
Chapter66

Basic Motivation
Concepts
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H

2005
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All rights
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reserved.

E D I T I O N

W W W . P R E N H AL L . C O M / R O B B I N S

PowerPoint
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Presentation
Presentation
by
by Charlie
Charlie Cook
Cook

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING

After
After studying
studying this
this chapter,
chapter,
you
you should
should be
be able
able to:
to:
1. Outline the motivation process.
2. Describe Maslows need hierarchy.
3. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y.
4. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors.
5. List the characteristics that high achievers
prefer in a job.
6. Summarize the types of goals that increase
performance.

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63

O B J E C T I V E S (contd)
LEARNING

After
After studying
studying this
this chapter,
chapter,
you
you should
should be
be able
able to:
to:
7.

Explain the job characteristics model.

8.

State the impact of underrewarding


employees.

9.

Clarify key relationships in expectancy theory.

10. Explain how the contemporary theories of


motivation complement each other.

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64

Maslow's theory
ERG theory
Theory X and Y
David McClellands Theory of Needs
Herzberg's Two factor theory( Hygiene/Motivators
Contemporary theories
Goal setting theory
Equity Theory
Expectancy theory
Reinforcement
Cognitive evaluation Theory
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65

Defining
Defining Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
The willingness to exert high level of effort
towards organizational goals, conditioned by the
efforts ability to satisfy some individual need.

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66

Defining
Defining Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
The processes that account for an
individuals intensity, direction, and
persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.

Key
KeyElements
Elements
1.
1. Intensity:
Intensity:how
howhard
hardaaperson
persontries
tries
2.
2.
3.
3.

Direction:
Direction:toward
towardbeneficial
beneficialgoal
goal
Persistence:
Persistence:how
howlong
longaaperson
persontries
tries

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67

Defining
Defining Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Is Also,
A condition initiated by Physiological or
Psychological deficiency and this imbalance
leads to creation of a need.
Needs form the basis of Drive

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68

Inner
Inner drives
drives and
and External
External motivators
motivators
Employee need:
1.Earn money
2.Afford luxuries
3.Growth in career
4.Develop skills
5.Get recognized

Employer
Employerprovides:
provides:
Pay
Pay
Facilities
Facilities
Security
Security
Training
Training
Opportunities
Opportunities
Promotion
Promotion
Work
Workenvironment
environment
Clarity
Clarityrules
rules

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69

Hierarchy
Hierarchy of
of Needs
Needs Theory
Theory (Maslow)
(Maslow)
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five
needsphysiological, safety,
social, esteem, and selfactualization; as each need is
substantially satisfied, the
next need becomes
dominant.
Self-Actualization
The drive to become what one is capable of
becoming.
Achieving ones potential and self-fulfillment.

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610

Maslows
Maslows Hierarchy
Hierarchy of
of Needs
Needs
Lower-Order Needs
Needs that are satisfied
externally; physiological
and safety needs.

Source: Motivation and Personality , 2nd ed,, by A.H. Maslow, 1970.


Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Higher-Order Needs
Needs that are satisfied
internally; social, esteem,
and self-actualization
needs.

E X H I B I T 61
E X H I B I T 61
611

ERG
ERG Theory
Theory (Clayton
(Clayton Alderfer)
Alderfer)
ERG Theory
There are three groups of core needs:
existence, relatedness, and growth.

Core
CoreNeeds
Needs
Existence:
Existence:provision
provisionof
of
basic
material
basic material
requirements.
requirements.
Relatedness:
Relatedness:desire
desirefor
for
relationships.
relationships.
Growth:
Growth:desire
desirefor
for
personal
development.
personal development.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Concepts:
Concepts:
More
Morethan
thanone
oneneed
needcan
can
be
beoperative
operativeatatthe
thesame
same
time.
time.
IfIfaahigher-level
higher-levelneed
need
cannot
be
fulfilled,
cannot be fulfilled,the
the
desire
desireto
tosatisfy
satisfyaalowerlowerlevel
need
increases.
level need increases.
612

Theory
Theory XX and
and Theory
Theory YY (Douglas
(Douglas McGregor)
McGregor)
Theory X
Assumes that employees
dislike work, lack ambition,
avoid responsibility, and must
be directed and coerced to
perform.

Theory Y
Assumes that employees
like work, seek
responsibility, are capable of
making decisions, and
exercise self-direction and
self-control when committed
to a goal.
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613

Two-Factor
Two-Factor Theory
Theory (Frederick
(Frederick Herzberg)
Herzberg)
Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory
Intrinsic factors are related to job
satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are
associated with dissatisfaction.
Hygiene Factors
Factorssuch as company
policy and administration,
supervision, and salarythat,
when adequate in a job,
placate workers. When factors
are adequate, people will not
be dissatisfied.
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614

Hygiene Factors (extrinsic Factors)


Factors associated with conditions surrounding the job

Motivator Factors(intrinsic Factors)


Factors associated with work itself

Comparison
ComparisonofofSatisfiers
Satisfiers
and
andDissatisfiers
Dissatisfiers
Factors characterizing
events on the job that led to
extreme job dissatisfaction
or No dissatisfaction

Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from One More Time:
How Do You Motivate Employees? by Frederick Herzberg, SeptemberOctober 1987. Copyright
1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College: All rights reserved.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Factors characterizing
events on the job that
led to extreme job
satisfaction or no
satisfaction

E X H I B I T 62
E X H I B I T 62
615

Contrasting
ContrastingViews
Viewsof
of Satisfaction
Satisfaction and
and Dissatisfaction
Dissatisfaction

E X H I B I T 63
E X H I B I T 63
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616

David
David McClellands
McClellands Theory
Theory of
of Needs
Needs
Need for Achievement

Need for Affiliation

The drive to excel, to


achieve in relation to a set
of standards, to strive to
succeed.

The desire for


friendly and close
personal
relationships.

Need for Power


The need to make others
behave in a way that
they would not have
behaved otherwise.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

nPow

nAch

nAff

617

Matching
Matching High
High Achievers
Achievers and
and Jobs
Jobs

E X H I B I T 64
E X H I B I T 64
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618

Cognitive
Cognitive Evaluation
Evaluation Theory
Theory
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior
that had been previously only intrinsically
rewarding tends to decrease the overall
level of motivation.
The theory may only be relevant to
jobs that are neither extremely
dull nor extremely interesting.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

619

E X H I B I T 65
E X H I B I T 65
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

620

Goal-Setting
Goal-Setting Theory
Theory (Edwin
(Edwin Locke)
Locke)
Goal-Setting Theory
The theory that specific and difficult goals,
with feedback, lead to higher performance.
Factors influencing the goals
performance relationship:
Goal commitment, adequate
self-efficacy, and task
characteristics
Self-Efficacy
The individuals belief that he
or she is capable of performing
a Prentice
task.
2005
Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

621

Goal-Setting
Goal-Setting Theory
Theory (Edwin
(Edwin Locke)
Locke)
MBO programs: putting Goal-Setting Theory
into practice

MBO : participative goal setting ;which


emphasizes on converting organizational objectives
into specific objectives of the departments and
individual members

Self-Efficacy theory (The individuals belief


that he or she is capable of performing a
task.) and Goal-Setting Theory compliment
each
other
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Prentice Hall
Inc. All rights reserved.

622

Reinforcement
Reinforcement Theory
Theory
The assumption that behavior is a function of its
consequences.

Concepts:
Concepts:
Behavior
Behavioris
isenvironmentally
environmentallycaused.
caused.
Behavior
Behaviorcan
canbe
bemodified
modified(reinforced)
(reinforced)by
by
providing
providing(controlling)
(controlling)consequences.
consequences.
Reinforced
Reinforcedbehavior
behaviortends
tendsto
tobe
berepeated.
repeated.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

623

Equity
Equity Theory
Theory
Equity Theory( Role that inequity plays in
motivation)
Individuals compare their job inputs and
outcomes with those of others and then
respond to eliminate any inequities.
Motivation
Motivationis
is
influenced
influencedby
by::
Others
Othersreward
reward
as
aswell
wellas
asones
ones
own
ownreward
reward
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Referent
Referent
Comparisons:
Comparisons:
Self-inside
Self-inside
Self-outside
Self-outside
Other-inside
Other-inside
Other-outside
Other-outside
624

Equity
Equity Theory
Theory (contd)
(contd)

E X H I B I T 67
E X H I B I T 67
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625

Equity
Equity Theory
Theory (contd)
(contd)

Choices
Choicesfor
fordealing
dealingwith
withinequity:
inequity:
1.
1. Change
Changeinputs
inputs(slack
(slackoff)
off)
2.
2.
3.
3.

Change
Changeoutcomes
outcomes(increase
(increaseoutput)
output)
Distort/change
Distort/changeperceptions
perceptionsof
ofself
self

4.
4.
5.
5.

Distort/change
Distort/changeperceptions
perceptionsof
ofothers
others
Choose
Chooseaadifferent
differentreferent
referentperson
person

6.
6. Leave
Leavethe
thefield
field(quit
(quitthe
thejob)
job)

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626

Equity
Equity Theory
Theory (contd)
(contd)
Propositions
Propositionsrelating
relatingto
toinequitable
inequitablepay:
pay:
1.1. Overrewarded
Overrewardedhourly
hourlyemployees
employeesproduce
produce
more
morethan
thanequitably
equitablyrewarded
rewardedemployees.
employees.
2.2. Overrewarded
Overrewardedpiece-work
piece-workemployees
employees
produce
produceless,
less,but
butdo
dohigher
higherquality
qualitypiece
piece
work.
work.
3.3. Underrewarded
Underrewardedhourly
hourlyemployees
employeesproduce
produce
lower
lowerquality
qualitywork.
work.
4.4. Underrewarded
Underrewardedemployees
employeesproduce
producelarger
larger
quantities
quantitiesof
oflower-quality
lower-qualitypiece
piecework
workthan
than
equitably
equitablyrewarded
rewardedemployees
employees
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627

Equity
Equity Theory
Theory (contd)
(contd)
From
From stand
stand point
point of
of Organizational
Organizational justice
justice
Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of the
amount and allocation of
rewards among
individuals.
Procedural Justice
The perceived fairness
of the process to
determine the
distribution of
rewards.
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628

Expectancy
Expectancy Theory
Theory
Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain
way depends on the strength of an expectation
that the act will be followed by a given
outcome and on the attractiveness of that
outcome to the individual.

E X H I B I T 68
E X H I B I T 68
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629

Expectancy
Expectancy Theory
Theory Relationships
Relationships
EffortPerformance Relationship
The probability that exerting a given amount of
effort will lead to performance.

PerformanceReward Relationship
The belief that performing at a particular level
will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.

RewardsPersonal Goals Relationship


The degree to which organizational rewards
satisfy an individuals goals or needs and the
attractiveness of potential rewards for the
individual.

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630

Performance
Performance Dimensions
Dimensions

Source: Adapted from M. Blumberg and C.D. Pringle, The Missing Opportunity in
Organizational Research: Some Implications for a Theory of Work Performance,
Academy of Management Review, October 1982, p. 565.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 69
E X H I B I T 69
631

Integrating
Integrating
Contemporary
Contemporary
Theories
Theoriesof
of
Motivation
Motivation

E X H I B I T 610
E X H I B I T 610
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