You are on page 1of 49

UNIT=6

FUEL INJECTION
SYSTEMS

Topic Under This Units


Introduction.
Requirements of a diesel injection system.
Classification of injection system.
Diesel injection systems(jerk pump

injectors).
Nozzles of different types.
Electronic fuel infection system.
Cooling system.
Role of thermostats & radiator.

INTRODUCTION:
The

fuel-injection system is the most vital


component in the working of CI engine.
The engine performance, power o/p , economy etc
is greatly dependent on the effectiveness of the
fuel-injection system.
Basically the purpose of carburetion & fuel-injection
is the same i.e. preparation of the combustible
charge. But in case of carburetion fuel is atomized
by processes relying on the air speed greater than
fuel speed at the fuel nozzle , whereas in fuelinjection the fuel speed at the point of delivery is
greater than the air speed to atomize the fuel.

Requirements of a diesel injection


system
The functional requirements of an injection system are
listed below;
1. Introduction of the fuel into the combustion
chamber should take place within a precisely
defined period of the cycle.
2. The metering of amount of fuel injected per cycle
should done very accurately.
3. The quantities of fuel metered should vary to meet
the changing load & speed requirements.
4. The injection rate should be such that it results in
the desired heat-release pattern.
5. The injected fuel must be broken into very fine
droplets.

6. Proper spray pattern to ensure

rapid mixing of fuel & air.


7. Beginning & end of injection
should be sharp.
8. Timing the injection of the fuel
correctly in cycle so that
maximum power is obtained,
ensuring economy & clean
burning.
9. Uniform distribution of fuel

For accomplishing these requirements the


following functional elements are required in
a fuel injection system;
1. PUMPING ELEMENT:

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

To move the fuel from the fuel tank to cylinder & piping
etc.
METERING ELEMENTS: To measure & supply the fuel at
the rate demanded by load & speed.
METERING CONTROL: To adjust the rate of metering
elements for changes in load & speed of the engine.
DISTRIBUTING ELEMENTS: To divide the metered fuel
equally among the cylinder.
TIMING CONTROLS: To adjust the start & the stop of
injection.
MIXING ELEMENT:
To atomizes & distribute the fuel
within the combustion chamber.

CLASSIFICATION OF INJECTION
SYSTEMS
Diesel injection systems can be divided into
two basic types. They are :

Air injection system


Solid injection
system

1. Air injection system


In this method fuel is forced into the cylinder by

means of compressed air to a very high pressure.


The rate of fuel admission can be controlled by
varying the pressure of air .
The fuel is metered & pumped to the fuel valve by
a camshaft driven fuel pump. The fuel valve is
opened by means of a mechanical linkage operated
by the camshaft which controls the timing of
injection . The fuel valve is also connected to a
high pressure air line fed by a multi stage
compressor which supplies air at a pressure of
about 60 to 70 bar.

ADVANTAGES;
It provides better atomization & distribution of fuel.
Heavy & viscous fuels, which are cheaper can also be

injected.
DISADVANTAGES;
This method is not used now a day due to following reasons:
It requires a high pressure multi stage compression.
A separate mechanical linkage is required to time the

operation of fuel valve.


The fuel valve sealing requires considerable skill.
Due to the compression & the linkage the bulk of the
engine increases . This also results in reduced B.P due
to power loss in operating the compression & linkage.

In case of sticking of the fuel valve , the system


becomes quite dangerous due to the presence of high
pressure air.

2. Solid injection system


In this method fuel is injected directly into the
combustion
chamber
without
primary
atomization is termed as solid injection. it is
also termed as mechanical injection.
Solid injection system can be classified into four
types:

1. Individual pump & injector.


2. Unit injector system.
3. Common rail system.
4. Distributor system.

Type of fuel injection


1. Individual pump &

injector:
. In this system , each

cylinder is provided with


one pump & one injector.
. Also in this system a
separate metering &
compression pump is
provided for each
cylinder.
. The pump may be
placed close to cylinder
as shown in fig(a) or

May be arranged in a

cluster as shown in fig(b).


In high pressure pump ,

plunger is actuated by a
cam & produces the fuel
pressure necessary to
open the injector valve at
the correct time .
The amount of fuel

injected depends on the


effective stroke of the
plunger.

2. Unit injector system:


The

unit injector
system is one in
which the pump &
injector
are
combined in one
housing.
Each cylinder is
provided with one
of
these
unit
injectors.
Fuel is brought up
to the injector by a
low pressure pump
at proper time, a
rocker
arm
actuates
the
plunger & thus
injects the fuel into
the cylinder.

3. Commmon rail system:

In common rail system a high pressure

fuel pump delivers fuel to an


accumulator, whose pressure is kept
constant with the help of a pressure
regulating valve.
A common rail or a pipe starts from the

accumulator & leads to the different


distributing elements for each cylinder.

For each cylinder there is a separate metering

& timing element which is connected to an


automatic injector injecting fuel into the
cylinder.
In the common rail system the supply

pressure of the fuel is independent of speed &


hence is not affected by the fuel pump.
The amount of fuel entering the cylinder is

regulated by varying the length of the push


rod stroke.

4. Distributor system:

In this system the pump which

pressurizes the fuel also meters & times


it .
The fuel pump after metering the

required amount of fuel supplies it to


rotating distributor at the correct time
for supply to each cylinder.

The number of injection strokes per cycle for

the pump is equal to the number of cylinders.


Since there is only one metering element , a

uniform distribution is automatically ensured .


Not only that , the cost of the fuel injection

system also reduces to a valve less than two


third of that for individual pump system.

JERK PUMP INJECTOR:

WORKING OF JERK PUMP INJECTOR:


It consists of a reciprocating plunger inside

a barrel. The plunger is driven by a


camshaft. The working principle of jerk
pump is as follow:
Near

the port A, fuel is always available under


relatively low pressure. while the axial movement
of the plunger is through camchaft,its rotational
movement is by mean of rack D. port B is the
orifice through which fuel is delivered to the
injector. At this stage it is closed by means of a
spring loaded check valve.
When the plunger is below port A, the fuel gets
filled in the barrel above it. As the plunger rises &
closes the port A the fuel will flow out through port
C. this is because it has to overcome the spring
force of the check valve in order to flow through
port B. hence it takes the easier way out via port

At this stage rack rotates the plunger & as a result

port C also closes. The only escape route for the fuel
is pass the check valve through orifice B to the
injector. This is the beginning of injection & also the
effective stroke of the plunger.
The injection continues till the helix on the plunger
uncovers port C. now the fuel will take the easy way
out through C & the check valve will close the orifice
B. the fuel injection stops & the effective stroke
ends.
(e) & (f) the plunger is rotated to the position shown.
The same sequence of events occur. But in this case
port C is uncovered sooner. Hence the effective
stroke is shortened.

NOZZLE :
Nozzle is a part of an injector through

which the fuel is sprayed into the


combustion chamber.
Various types of nozzles

C I engine are:
A. Single hole nozzle.
B. multi-hole nozzle.
C. Pintle nozzle.
D.Pintaux nozzle.

used in

A. SINGLE HOLE NOZZLE:


Single hole nozzle are used in open

combustion chamber. At the center of


the nozzle body there is a single hole
which is closed by the nozzle valve.
The size of the hole is usually larger
than 0.2mm.
The hole may be drilled centrally or at
an angle to the centre line of the
nozzle.
Main disadvantages of the Single hole
nozzle are:
i. Single hole nozzle has tendency to
dribble.
ii. The
spray angle is very narrow.
This does not facilitate good mixing
unless higher air velocities are
provided.

B. Multi-hole Nozzle:
In

order to mix the fuel properly even


with the slow air movement available
with many open combustion
chamber ,a Multi-hole nozzle.

The number of holes varies from 4

& 18 and the size from 1.5mm to


0.35mm.
Advantages;
i. Gives good atomization.
ii. Distribute fuel property even
with lower air motion available
in open combustion chamber.
. Disadvantages;
i.
Dribbling b/w injection.
ii. Very high injection.
iii. Close tolerance in manufacture
& hence costly.

C. PINTLE NOZZLE:
In order to avoid the weak injection &

dribbling the spindle is provided with a


projection called pintle , which protrudes
through the mouth of the nozzle body. It
either cylindrical or conical in shape.
The size & shape of the pintle can be
varied according to the requirement.
Advantages:
i. It is self cleaning type.
ii. It prevent the carbon deposition on the
nozzle hole.
iii. It result in good atomization.
iv. It avoid weak injection & dribbling.
. Disadvantages:
i. Distribution & penetration poor. Hence
not suitable for open combustion
chamber.

D. PINTAUX NOZZLE:
It is a type of pintle nozzle

which has an auxiliary hole


drilled in the nozzle body
If the fuel is injected in a
direction upstream the
direction of air, the delay
period is reduced due to
increased heat transfer b/w
air & fuel. This results in good
cold starting performance.
Disadvantages:
i. The tendency of the
auxiliary hole to choke.
ii. The injection characteristics
are even poorer then multi
hole nozzle.

ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION


SYSTEM(EFL):
Modern gasoline injection system use engine sensors,

a computer and solenoid operated fuel injectors to


meter & inject the right amount of fuel into the engine
cylinder. These system is called as electronic fuel
injection system(EFL) use electrical & electronic
devices to monitor & control engine operation.
An electronic control unit (ECU) or computer receives
electrical signals in the form of current or voltage from
various sensors. It then uses the stored data to
operate the injectors , ignition system & other engine
related devices. As a result, less unburned fuel leaves
the engine as emissions & the vehicle gives better
milage.

Under full load, the ECU will sense a wide open

throttle, high intake manifold pressure,& high inlet


air flow. The ECU will then increase the injector pulse
width to enrich the mixture which will enable the
engine to produce higher power.
Under low load & idling conditions, the ECU will
shorten the pulse width by which the injectors are
kept in the closed position over a longer period of
time. Because of this, air-fuel mixture will become
leaner & will result in better fuel economy.
EFI system has a cold start injector too. This is an
extra injector that sprays fuel into the center of the
engine intake manifold when the engine is cold. It
server the same purpose as the carburetor choke.
The cold start injector ensures easy engine start up
in very cold weather.

Typical sensors used in EFI

system are as follows:


I. Exhaust gas (or) oxygen
sensor.
II. Engine temperature sensor.
III. Air flow sensor.
IV. Air inlet temperature sensor.
V. Throttle position sensor.
VI. Manifold pressure sensor.
VII.Camshaft position sensor.
VIII.Knock sensor.

Merits of EFI system:


1) Formation of ice on the throttle plate is eliminated.
2) Better atomization & vapourization will make the engine
3)

4)
5)
6)

less knock.
Manifold wetting is eliminated due to the fuel being
injected into or close to cylinder & need not flow through
the manifold.
Atomization of fuel is independent of cracking speed &
therefore starting will be easier.
Distribution of fuel being independent of vapourization
less volatile fuel can be used.
Position of the injection unit is not so critical & thereby
the height of the engine can be less.

Demerit of EFI system:


1) High maintenance cost.
2) Difficulty in servicing.
3) Possibility of malfunction of some sensors.

COOLING SYSTEMS
In order to cool the engine a cooling

medium is required. This can be either air


or a liquid.
There two types of cooling system for
cooling the I C engine, these are:

Water or indirect cooling


system.
Air cooling system.

1. WATER OR INDIRECT COOLING


SYSTEM
In this system mainly water is used and made

to circulate through the jackets provided


around the cylinder, cylinder-head, valve ports
and seats where it extracts most of the heat.
Water-cooling can be carried out by any one of
the following five methods:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Direct or non-return system


Thermosyphon system
Forced circulation cooling system
Evaporative cooling system
Pressure cooling system

A. DIRECT OR NON-RETURN SYSTEM


This system is useful for large installations

where plenty of water is available. The


water from a storage tank is directly
supplied through an inlet valve to the
engine cooling water jacket. The hot water
is not cooled for reuse but simply
discharged.

B. THERMOSYPHON SYSTEM

THERMOSYPHON SYSTEM
The

basic principle of thermosyphon can be


explained with respect to figure. Heat is supplied to
the fluid in the tank A. Because of the relatively
lower density, the hot fluid travels up, its place
being taken up by comparatively cold fluid from the
tank B through the pipe p2.

The hot fluid flows through the pipe p1 to the


tank B where it gets cooled. Thus the fluid
circulated through the system in the form of
convection currents.

For engine application, tank A represents the


cylinder jackets while tank B represents a radiator
and water acts the circulating fluid.

C. FORCED CIRCULATION COOLING SYSTEM


In Forced cooling system a pump is used to

cause positive circulation of water in the water


jacket. usually the pump is belt driven from the
engine.

The water or coolant is circulated through

jackets around the parts of the engine to be


cooled and kept in motion by a centrifugal
pump which is driven by the engine.
The water is passed through the radiator
where it is cooled by air drawn through the
radiator by a fan .
A thermostat is used to control the water
temperature required for cooling. This
system mainly consists of four components,
viz., a radiator, fan, water pump and a
thermostat.

D. EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM


This system is used in stationary engines.

In this , engine will be cooled because of


the evaporation of the water in the cylinder
jackets into steam.

This method of cooling utilizes the high

latent heat of vaporization of water by


allowing it to evaporate in the cylinder
jackets.
The cooling circuit is such that coolant is
always liquid but the steam formed is
flashed off in the separate vessel. The
makeup water so formed is sent back for
cooling.
This system is used for cooling of many
types of industrial engines

E. PRESSURE COOLING SYSTEM


In pressure cooling system moderate

pressures, say upto 2 bar, are commonly


used.

As shown in the figure a cap is fitted on the radiator

with two-valves, a safety valve which is loaded by a


compression spring and a vacuum valve.
When the coolant is cold both the valves are shut, but
as the engine warms up the coolant temperature rises
until it reaches a certain value corresponding to the
desired pressure then the safety valve opens; but if the
coolant temperature falls during the engine operation
the valve will close again until the temperature again
rises to the equivalent pressure value.
When the engine is switched off and the coolant cools
down vacuum begins to form in the cooling system, but
when the internal pressure falls below atmospheric the
vacuum valve is opened by the higher outside pressure
and the cooling system then attains atmospheric
pressure.

2. AIR COOLING SYSTEM:


Air cooling is usually used for small engines

and for engines whose application gives


extreme importance to weight such as
aircraft engines. Other area for air-cooled
engines are industrial and agricultural
engines where there can be a strong
objection to use of water as coolant.
For air cooling the cylinder head heat
transfer area is increased by fining & air is
passed over these fins to affect cooling.

Two types of fins used to cover the cylinder.


The length of fins & the spacing b/w them is quite

important for efficient cooling .


Larger inter-spacing b/w the fins offers larger area for
cooling air but the heating of the air is less, so more
cooling air is required.
Smaller interspacing b/w the fins results in smaller flow
area for cooling air & hence air is heated more & input to
the cooling air is less.
However, the pressure drop required for flow is more. If
the distance b/w two fins is quite small the laminar layer
of the opposite area come in contact with each other &
the efficiency of the fins is reduced very much.
Therefore ,a spacing less than 2.5mm is not used.
The height of the fins controls the distance b/w the two
cylinders and hence, the size of the engine. Usually the fin
height varies from 15 to 25mm.

The function of the radiator is

ROLE OF RADIATORS:

to reject coolant heat to the


outside air.(by conduction &
forced convection & not by
radiation)
The
cooling effect in a
radiator
is
achieved
by
dispersing the heated coolant
into fine stream through the
radiator core so that relatively
small quantities of coolant are
brought in contact with large
metal surface areas which in
turn are cooled by a stream of
air.
It should be noted that it is
easier o transfer heat from
water to the metal surfaces

at the bottom of the


radiator core.
Two types of radiators in
common use are :
Down-flow type & cross
flow type.
In down-flow type ,water
flow from top to bottom
,but in cross flow type the
hot coolant is supplied to
top of the supply tank, it
flows across the radiator
and is taken out from the
bottom of the collector
tank. A separate header
tank is usually provide at
the upper end of the
collector tank to prevent
aeration.

ROLE OF THERMOSTATS:
Too

low a cylinder barrel temperature, may result in severe corrosion damage


due to condensation of acids on barrel walls .

To

avoid such a situation it is customary to use a thermostat to stop flow of


coolant below preset cylinder barrel temp .

Most

modern cooling system embody a thermostatic device which prevents the


water in the engine jacket from circulating through the radiate for cooling until
its temp has reached to valve suitable for efficient engine operation.

The

thermostat bypass valve is filled b/w engine & the radiator top.

The

thermostat valve is operated by a small elements filled with wax.

As

the temp increases, the wax melts and valve is opened to allow coolant to
go to the radiator. Under normal operating temp the valve remains open.

When

the temp falls ,the valve is closed bypassing the water and thus, cooling
is automatically ceased.

QUESTIONS;
1.

What are the functional elements required for accomplishing


the objectives of diesel engine fuel injection system? Also
mention the location of these elements with the help of
symbolic representation explain
i) Individual pump and
injector type. ii) Common rail type.

2.

Explain the following with simple sketches i) Thermostat ii)


Radiator

3.

Discuss five important requirements of an ideal diesel


injection system.

4.

Draw a sketch of Pintaux nozzle and discuss its merits.

5.

How are injection systems Classified ? Describe them briefly.


What are the limitations of air injection system?

6.

With a neat sketch explain the Jerk pump injection system.

7.

With a neat sketch explain :i) Forced circulation-cooling


system. ii) Evaporative cooling system.

8.

Describe with suitable sketches common rail system and


distributor injection.

9.

What is the function of a radiator? Explain the construction of


a typical radiator system of fuel.

THANK
U