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VALUES AND ETHICAL

LESSONS FROM
MAHABHARATA
Presented by:
- Sonam
- Ruchita

Flow of Presentation

Introduction to:

Values

Ethics

Ethical Behaviour

Indian Ethos

The Mahabharata

Strategies from Mahabharata

Ethics and Mahabharata

Ethical Approaches and Principles -- Mahabharata Incidences

Conclusion

Values

Values( set of preferences) are said to be the cause and Ethics
effect. If one operates in a given instance, from a Value emotion
within, the outward action will tend to be Ethical.

Ethics  The word ‘ethics’ is defined as “moral principle that govern or influence a person’s behavior”.  The conduct of human beings is influenced either by the emotions of life or the actions people perform in different situations.  Ethics is thus a benchmark of human behavior. .  The coordination of action and emotions generates ethics.

diversity and rights of individuals and groups of people. professional and academic relationships and in all other activities. . and research.  This definition is not a denial of the existence of other ethical duties with respect to practice. professional service delivery.Ethical Behaviour  Ethical behavior is characterized by honesty.  Ethical behavior respects the dignity. fairness and equity in interpersonal.

1. 2. the Bhagwadgita. the Ramayana. Mahabharata.Indian Ethos  Indian ethos is drawn from the Vedas. .The essential infinitude and divinity of all souls.  Right from the Vedic age it has been discovered two basic universal truths of life.The essential oneness and solidarity of universe and all life. and Upanishad's.

THE MAHABHARATA .

870 elephants.Kauravas Resources Logistics = 11 Akshouhini Key Human Resources(Players) : Bhishma  Drona  Karna  Shalya  Kripacharya  Ashwatthama Duryodhan [1 Akshouhini = 21. 21.610 horses and 109. 65.350 foot-soldiers (in a ratio of 1:1:3:5) ]  .870 chariots.

Pandavas Resources Logistics :.7 Akshouhini Key Human Resources (Players) : Arjuna  Bhima  Dhrshtadyumna  Abhimanyu  Ghatotkach  Shikhandi  Satyaki .

except from old relations from far off places like Gandhara(Shakuni). Sindhu(Jayadrath) and Kambodia(Camboja . But not many powerful allies.Bhagadutt) . The greatest empire of the time.Allies Kauravas : Centralized power system.

 The Rakshasas through marriage of Bhima and Hidimba.  Matsya through marriage of Abhimanyu and Uttara.  Magadh through marriage of Shadeva and Vijaya.  Panchala through Marriage with Darupadi.  Dwarka through marriage with Arjuna and Subhadra.  Chedi through marriage of Nakula and Karenmayi. No power of their own.  The Nagas through marriage of Arjuna and Uloopi. But powerful allies all over India.Pandavas : No wealth. .  Kasi through marriage of Bhima and Balandhara.  Kekaya through marriage of Yudhisthira and Devika.

. Karna. Drona. One Head of Army at a time. Shalya and Ashwatthama. who has supreme authority of 11 akshouhini of army Bhishma.Leadership Kauravas : Centralized leadership.

 Sahadeva(King of Magadha).Pandavas : Distributed leadership.  Satyaki (Only warrior from Dwarka).  Krishna – Arjuna’s charioteer and counselor.  Dhrshtaketu (King of Chedi).  Shikhandi (Prince of Pancala).  Arjuna –Supreme Commander.  Dhrshtadymna – Commander in Chief. Seven commanders for the seven divisions. (1 man command 1 akshouhini each). .  Drupad (King of Pancala).  Virat (King of Matsya).

 Bhishma : For his Vow to protect the throne Hastinapur.  Karna : To prove his mantle against Arjuna. Karna and Shalya. Friendship for Duryodhana. They didn’t gel well with each other. Karna and Shakuni. .Team Spirit Kauravas : No team spirit. They all fought their individual wars.  Drona and Kripa : They owed allegiance to the throne. Was originally a Pandava ally. Shalya and Bhishma. Bhisma and Shakuni.  Shalya : Simply cheated by Duryodhana to be there. Bhishma and Karna.

 Pandavas : One team. It was their “common” war. father-in-laws. brother-in-laws. they all had huge respect for Krishna and Yudhisthira. . One Goal.  More than that they all were part of the decision-making process.  As men. Most of them were close relatives – cousins.  While as warriors they were in complete awe of Bhima and Arjuna.

Will capture them only.  Shalya (Nakula-Shadeva’s maternal uncle) : Loved the Pandavas and covertly helped them by humiliating Karna  Karna (brother to the Pandavas) : Promised not to kill any of the other Pandavas save Arjuna.Individual Motives Kauravas : Except for Duryodhana nobody wanted the War. Will kill a thousand soldiers each day.  Drona (students) – Wont kill the Pandavas.  Bhishma (grand childern) – Wont kill the pandavas. All the 4 main generals had strong ties with the Pandavas.  A Team of Traitors .

which just became one with the teams’ agenda.  Nakula –Karna’s sons.Pandavas : Common goal. Their own agenda.  Shikhandi : Bhisma.  Bhima – Duryodhana and his brothers.  Arjuna – Karna. .  Dhratsadyumna : Drona.  Satayaki – Bhurisravas.  Sahadeva – Shakuni and his sons. But the individuals had their individual targets.

. In reality he made a covert deal with them. Yuyutsu. he played a Master game. He knew well of the lack of cohesiveness among the Kauravas. Went over to the Enemy side to seek blessings from Elders. son of Dhrtarashtra crossed over to the Pandavas. wherein all of them agreed to help him and unfolded the secrets of defeating them.  While coming back. This exposed the weakness of the Kauravas for all to see. He made an offer to all the assembled people to change sides if they wanted to. he took a calculated risk. Yudhisthira : Low-key strategist.Right Managers Krishna : The Greatest Crisis Manager the world has seen.  On the first day of the War.

 No women in the decision making process. Dhratarashtra. Nobody listened . : Patriarchal structure. Duhsasana. Duryodhana. Karna. Vidur. Shakuni. retreated to the Inner Chambers. Kripa. Drona.  Gandhari to her.Women Empowerment  Kauravas  Bhishma.

 Kunti was the authority supreme for the Pandavas. “Whatever my mother says is Dharma to me” : Yudhisthira.  She had a big role in all the decision making.  Even the younger Pandavas : Ghatotkach.Pandavas : Matriarchal Structure. . So the female influence was huge. Without her the Pandavas would have most probably reclined to the forests. Abhimnanyu and Iravan were brought up by their mothers.  Draupadi was a companion in whatever the Pandavas did.

DECISION MAKING AND JUDGEMENT  Duryodhan and Arjun asked Lord Krishna for Support  One could have his Army and the other could have him as his charioteer  Duryodhan took the army and Arjun chose Krishna .

GETTING YOUR WORK DONE  Dronacharya realized that Eklavya was a superior archer to Arjun  Dronacharya asked for Eklavya’s right thumb as Guru Dakshina .

position.For power.Other’s achievements & success Egotism . prestige and money Envy .About one’s own accomplishments .IMPEDIMENTS TO SOUND MENTAL HEALTH Greed .

ETHICS AND MAHABHARATA  The Mahabharata. and drama.  While the Mahabharata is a religious text. such as wealth and power. mean nothing without a strong moral compass to guide you. an epic Indian poem detailing the struggle between two rival families for control of the throne.  An enormous cast of characters populates the lines of the story. it teaches important lessons about business ethics. . and thrills abound. stands as one of the great treasures of world literature.  Throughout all of the adventures. an underlying theme runs through the tale.  Earthly achievements. pathos.

.  Abiding by the Golden Rule leads to win-win situations.THE GOLDEN RULE  The thread of dharma runs continuously throughout the rich tapestry of the Mahabharata. for which every businessperson strives.  "Dharma" means that you should not do things to another person that you would not want done to yourself.

they pay a heavy price. .AVOIDING ZERO-SUM GAMES  At the end of Mahabharata. the intense battle waged by the two sides leaves the kingdom over which they fought ravaged and desolate.  Modern-day companies should take note. firms should try to collaborate with each other.  Even though the side of right and goodness wins.  Instead of competing. including the environmental and societal ramifications of their actions. Businesses can become so focused on competition that they lose sight of everything else.

begins teaching his pupils how to behave responsibly in the face of temptation and controlling the urge to exploit others.INTEGRITY AND EDUCATION  Before the two sides set off for battle. .  Only when his students passed the tests Dronacharya gave them would he educate them in the art of war. one of the warring parties learns the art of war at the best military training school in India. Dronacharya.  The head of the school.

While having a strong work ethic brings riches. Rather.ETHICS IN WORK  The Mahabharata warns against focusing solely on the rewards of doing your duty.  Business executives can take this message to heart. ethics at work bring meaning and significance to profit-making efforts.  Companies should not aim just to make money. Arjuna must fight for the good of others.  Lord Krishna exhorts the warrior Arjuna not to fight for his own benefits and not to satisfy feelings of greed or desire. . Being good corporate citizens equals being good citizens.

Utilitarian • The whole moral of Mahabharata states that “Victory of good over evil” against which heavy cost was paid in form of loss of great lives. . 2. 4. mean nothing without a strong moral compass to guide you. 4. Common Good • Concept of ‘bahujan hitaya bahujan sukhaya’ has remained the touchstone of decision making in righteous public policy in India since the times of the Mahabharata. such as wealth and power.ETHICAL APPROACHES MAHABHARATA INCIDENCES 1. Virtue • Earthly achievements. Rights and Duties • The famous quote said by Krishna “MaFaleshu Kadachana” (do your duty and do not think about its rewards) 3. Justice and Fairness • The intent of Lord Krishna was to defeat the forces of evil and to establish the Rule of Law or ‘Dharma’ where the righteous would not only defend themselves but also triumph over evil.

• Bhishma did not fight a warrior like Shikhandi . Honesty • Yudhishtir’s partial truth manipulated to convey the message of Ashwathama’s death. 6. Legality • Every step took by Krishna were wrong in some or the other way when it came to ethics but then it was already said the means are never important 7. Dronacharya. Respectfulnes s • Draupadi’s chirharan in front of whole assembly where Krishna protected her dignity. • Only when his students passed the tests Dronacharya gave them would he educate them in the art of war. 5. begins teaching his pupils how to behave responsibly in the face of temptation and controlling the urge to exploit others. 2. by saying he was invulnerable as long as he held a weapon.PRINCIPLE S OF ETHICS MAHABHARATA INCIDENCES 1. Values • The head of the school. 3. Transparency • Drona too indirectly gave away his secret.

counsel in crisis . invigorate.CONCLUDING STRATEGIES Here goes the strategy you could apply to your startup and win against all odds in your way:  Prepare before hand and turn your weakness in to your Strength  Make powerful Allies  Share your responsibilities  Teamwork succeeds where individual efforts fails  The Right Managers : To inspire. .

Accept different Cooperate. The right team is made by selecting right individuals. get the right man for the right job and you make great symphony. . take risks and exploit weaknesses of the enemy  Know Ground realities.  The best man for the job is not the one with the best capabilities but one with the greatest commitment  Hire Right Manager who can inspire.  Empower Women. balance the equation ideologies.

THANK YOU…!! .