You are on page 1of 57

Linguistic Humor, and

Language Play

by Don L. F. Nilsen
and Alleen Pace Nilsen


Funniness of a Text
A text is funny if and only if the text is
compatible (fully or in part) with two
distinct scripts, and the two distinct
scripts are in some way opposite.
(Ruch [2008] 25)


Victor Raskins Joke

Is the doctor at home? the patient asked in
his bronchial whisper.
No, the doctors young and pretty wife
whispered in reply. Come right in.
Script opposition: Non-Sex vs. Sex
(Ruch [2008] 25)

Allusion is the noun form of the
English verb to allude.
Allude comes from Latin ad- plus
ludere meaning to play.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 23)



The expression By Jiminy used to be a
swear word. In fact it was a double
swearword, because it was swearing by the
constellation Gemini which represented
the twins (Castor and Pollux).
People could say either Jiminy Cricket or
Jiminy Christmas.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 23)

But Jiminy Cricket also has the initials J.

C., so this particular swear word takes on
more serious consequences.
Remember that Jiminy Cricket was
Pinocchios conscience.
What better conscience could one have than
one with the initials J. C.?
(Nilsen & Nilsen 23-24)


Comedian Michael Davis juggled with
the ax that George Washington had
used to chop down the cherry tree.
However, I did have to replace the
handle. ..
and the head.

On the George Burns and Gracie Allen

television show, Gracie often got her
allusions wrong.
GEORGE: If you keep saying funny things,
people are going to laugh at you.
GRACIE: Thats OK. Look at Joan of Arc.
People laughed at her, but she went ahead
and built it anyway.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 24)


Antithesis occurs when opposite concepts are connected so as

to make a surprising kind of sense as in a MasterCard
advertisement showing a picture of a tall man looking at a shirt.
The caption reads, You found a 50 long. But youre $17

The World Book Encyclopedia ran a summertime advertising

campaign under the slogan, Schools are closedMinds are

The Hoover Company advertised its irons with The iron with
the bottom that makes it tops.


Shortly after Gerald Ford assumed the U.S.

Presidency, he amused an audience at Ohio
State University by saying:
So much has happened in the few months
since you were kind enough to invite me to
speak here today. I was then Americas first
instant Vice-President and then I became
Americas first instant President.
The Marine Corps Band is so confused they
dont know whether to play Hail to the Chief
or Youve Come a Long Way Baby.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 178)



Chiasmus is when words are repeated in inverted order:

Mae West said, Its not the men in my life that counts; its the life in
my men.

A bumper sticker reads, Aging is a matter of mind: If you dont mind,

it doesnt matter.

Another bumper sticker reads, Marijuana is not a question of Hi,

how are you but of How high are you?

A one-liner that is popular around tax time reads, The IRS: Weve got
what it takes to take what youve got.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)



Eponyms are created when the name of a
real or mythical person is used in reference
to something other than the individual.
In 1992 the term Frankenfood started being
used for genetically altered tomatoes or
other foods.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)



During the first Gulf War, American soldiers said they

were taking Johnny Weissmuller showers because the
cold water made them scream like Tarzan.
When Ross Perot was running for president, John
Chancellor described Perot as holding the Daddy
Warbucks theory of presidential qualifications.
When a report stated that over 500 out of the 700
shooting incidents in which Los Angeles police were
involved between 1987 and 1994 were potentially lifethreatening mistakes, a union leader observed that
officers had succumbed to the John Wayne syndrome.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)



Sometimes the eponymy is based on first names as in

the noun Lazy Susan, the verb to peter out, or the
exclamations Great Scott! and By George!
Sometimes the words rhyme as with even Steven, flap
jack, and ready for Freddie.
Sometimes there is alliteration as in gloomy Gus,
dumb Dora, and nervous Nellie, or assonance as in
alibi Ike, fancy Dan, sneaky Pete, long johns, and
screaming Meemie.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)



Joe is a simple generic name as in Joe SixPack, which is a refinement of the Good Old
Joe concept, seen earlier in Joe Blow and
Joe Schmo, and in the more specific G.I. Joe
(from General Issue) for a soldier.
Other examples include Joe (or J.) Random
Hacker for a computer whiz, Holy Joe for an
army chaplain, Joe College for a student, and
even Joe Camel for the controversial cartoon
character that sold Camel cigarettes.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)


Metonymy occurs when something is named for a
quality that is in some way associated with the item.
In the days of CB radios, people often chose
handles that were descriptive of their physical
characteristics or their hobbies
Today with e-mail and the Internet some people
choose nicknames that are metonymous.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)



Jeff Gordon, a professor of geography at Bowling Green State

University in Ohio, collects interesting names of antique shops.
He has over 300, including these:

Another Fine Mess

As You Were
The Collected Works
Fourscore and More
A Touch of Glass
Den of Antiquity
Owners names can be seen in Suzantiques, Shairs Wares,
Youngs Oldies, and Fines Finds.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)


The Watergate Hotel is where the break-in of the

National Democratic headquarters occurred.
Todays dictionaries give more room to the
metonymous meaning of Watergate than to the
literal meaning of a gate controlling the flow of
Gate has now become a suffix meaning scandal
as in Irangate, Contragate, Iraqgate, Pearlygate,
Rubbergate, Murphygate, Gennifergate, Nannygate,
Monicagate, ad infinitum.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)



Diseases are sometimes given metonymous

names. For example, the Pickwickian
Syndrome gets its name from Charles
Dickens The Pickwick Papers in which Joe
the Fat Boy constantly falls asleep.
The disease is a condition in which blood
veins going to the brain are squeezed so that
people fall asleep in the midst of activities.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)



Ondines Curse describes a condition in

which sleeping people cease breathing and
die without awakening. It is named for a
mythological water nymph who cursed her
mortal lover when he betrayed her.
Legionnaires disease is named for 29 victims
who died after attending a 1976 American
Legion convention in a hotel with a
contaminated air-conditioning system.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)



The literal meaning of Nonsense is that it doesnt
make sense; however nonsense verse and other
nonsense is carefully put together so that it has a
strong rhythmic quality that serves to highlight
logical infelicities and nonce words.
Nonce means only once. Nonsense words are
coined for a particular use as in Lewis Carrolls
Jabberwocky poem where he created frabjous and
galumphing, new words which caught on so that
most people at least recognize them today.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)



Nonsense can also be found in the logic of

some seemingly serious pieces as in Charles
Dickens story for children The Magic
Fishbone, in which he makes fun of large
Victorian families by describing Princess
Alicias family:
They had nineteen children and were always
having more. Seventeen of these children
took care of the baby, and Alicia, the eldest,
took care of them all. Their ages varied from
seven years to seven months.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180)


Oxymoron comes from two Greek words oxys
meaning sharp and moros meaning foolish or
This paradox or contradiction can be seen in such
expressions as Icy-Hot (an arthritis medicine), Cool
Fire (a line of shoes), and Soft Brick (a floor
An article in People Magazine (March 3, 1986) about
Warren S. Blumenfeld, who brought oxymorons to
the attention of the general public, contains fourteen
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180-181)


It was a new tradition---the First Annual Florida Snowmobiles

As he gazed across the crowded room, he saw her sitting on the
real vinyl banquette.
She was a relative stranger, but he was attracted by her seductive
Sophisticated good ole boy that he was, he adopted an air of
studied indifference as he mused upon the planned serendipity of
their meeting.
What if she is a closet exhibitionist? he wondered.
What if she thinks my minor surgery is old news?
Still she was his only choice.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 180-181)


In truth, is it possible to desegrate schools

with all deliberate speed?
Can there ever be a civil war, or friendly fire?
In Vietnam could the United States launch a
peace offensive?
Some people go so far as to wear a button
that says, Anarchists Unite!
(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)



Even before infants have mastered language, they respond to

toys as if they were human, and in the earliest nursery rhymes
and stories, animals, dolls, choo-choo trains, and teapots
come to life.

This kind of personification is a kind of fun that we never

outgrow as shown by this paragraph from an often reprinted
lament to old age:

As soon as I wake, Will Power helps me get out of bed. Then I

go see John. Then Charley Horse comes along, and as soon as
he leaves, Arthur Ritis shows up and for the rest of the day we
go from joint to joint. After such a busy day, Im tired and glad
to go back to bed---with Ben Gay. What a life!
(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)


Richard Lederer in the introduction to his Get
Thee to a Punnery said that puns are a
three-ring circus of words: words clowning,
words teetering on tightropes, words
swinging from tent-tops, words thrusting
their heads into the mouths of lions.
Tony Tanner said that a pun is like an
adulterous bed in which two meanings that
should be separated are coupled together.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)


Debra Fried defined puns as the weird

accidents, amazing flukes and lucky hits
that the one-armed bandit of language
dishes up.
This last example is a case of onceremoved personification, since a onearmed bandit is itself a personified
reference to a gambling machine.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)


Synecdoche is a specific kind of metonymy in which
a part of something is used to represent the whole
We refer to the movies as the big screen or to
television as the tube.
In a popular joke about the Lone Ranger show, Tonto
uses synecdoche when he responds to the Lone
Rangers announcement that We are being followed
by Indians, with What you mean we, Paleface?
(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)


Football kicker Lou Grossa was called The

Toe, while the outspoken baseball player and
coach Leo Durocher was called The Lip.
Actress Betty Grable was called The Million
Dollar Legs, while Jimmy Durante was called
The Schnoz.
In a Brant Parker Wizard of ID cartoon, a girl
brings a boy home and introduces him with,
FatherThis is Marvin! Hes asked for my
hand. The father replies, Marv.Its the
whole package or nothing.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 181)


Intentional Faulty Parallelism is called
Chuckles the Clown on the Mary Tyler Moore
show said,

A little song
A little dance
A little Seltzer down your pants!

(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)



Naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch wrote that

the most serious charge that can be brought
against New England is not Puritanism, but
Henry Clay declared that he would rather be
right than President.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)
Here are some more examples of Zeugma:



!When William F. Buckley Jr. was campaigning for mayor

of New York City in 1965 and railed against the
restrictions being put on New York City police, he
complained that they couldnt use clubs or gas or dogs
and then concluded with, I suppose they will have to
use poison ivy.
Sid Caesar said that tequila is our national drink
because it kindles the spirits of our hearts.
Then he added, And it keeps our cigarette lighters
A Wall Street Journal cartoon by D. Cresci pictured a
bank robber informing the teller, You wont get hurt if
you hand over all the money, keep quiet, and validate
this parking ticket.
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179-180)


!!Here are some more examples:

You were never lovelier, and I think its a shame.

One swallow does not a summer make, but Humpty Dumpty

makes a great fall.

Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow you may be


Theres no fool like an old fool; you just cant beat experience.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away; an onion a day keeps

everyone away.

Rome wasnt built in a day; the pizza parlors alone took several
(Nilsen & Nilsen 179)



HUMOR QUEST (Mary Kay Morrison):



Related PowerPoints
Animal Language Play
Bilingual Humor


Adams, Bruce. Tiny Revolutions in Russia: Twentieth Century Soviet and
Russian History in Anecdotes. New York, NY: Routledge Curzon, 2005.
Andor, Jozsef. On the Cohesion and Coherence of Animal Jokes: A
Frame-Semantic Analysis of Narrative Structure, in Textual Secrets:
The Message of the Medium. Budapest: Etvs Lornd University,
English Department: Proceedings of the 21st PALA Conference, 2003,
Antonopoulou, Eleni. Humor Theory and Translation Research: Proper
Names in Humorous Discourse, HUMOR: International Journal of
Humor Research 17.3 (2004): 219-255.
Antonopoulou, Eleni, and Maria Sifianou. Conversational Dynamics of
Humour: The Telephone Game in Greek. Journal of Pragmatics 35.5
(2004): 741-769.
Archakis, Argiris, and Villy Tsakona. Analyzing Conversational Data in
GTVH Terms: A New Approach to the Issue of Identity Construction via
Humor. HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 18.1 (2005):


Asimakoulas, Dimitris, and Jeroen Vandaele. Review of

Humor Research Series. in Vandaele (2002), 424-441.
Attardo, Salvatore. Humorous Texts: A Semantic and
Pragmatic Analysis. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter,
Attardo, Salvatore. Cognitive Linguistics and Humor.
HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 19.3
(2006): 241-362.
Attardo, Salvatore. Humorous Texts: A Semantic and
Pragmatic Analysis. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter,
Attardo, Salvatore. The Pragmatics of Humor. Special
Issue of Journal of Pragmatics 9 (2003): 1287-1449.


Attardo, Salvatore. A Primer for the Linguistics of Humor in

Raskin (2008) 101-156.
Attardo, Salvatore, Christian F. Hempelmann, and Sara Di Maio.
Script Oppositions and Logical Mechanisms: Modeling
Incongruities and their Resolutions. HUMOR: International
Journal of Humor Research 15.1 (2002): 1-44.
Attardo, Salvatore, Jodi Eisterhold, Jennifer Hay, and Isabella
Poggi. Multimodal Markers of Irony and Sarcasm. HUMOR:
International Journal of Humor Research 16.2 (2003): 243-260.
Bateson, Gregory. "The Theory of Play and Fantasy." Steps to an
Ecology of Mind. Ed. G. Bateson. San Francisco, CA: Chandler,
1972, 177-193.
Beeman, William O. Humor in Key Terms in Language and Culture
Ed. Alessandro Duranti, New York: Blackwell, 2001, 98-101.



Bell, Nancy. Exploring L2 Language Play as an Aid to SLL: A

Case Study of Humour in NS-NNS Interaction. Applied
Linguistics 26.2 (2005): 192-218.
Bell, Nancy. Interactional Adjustments in Humorous Intercultural
Communication. Intercultural Pragmatics 3.1 (2006): 1-28.
Bell, Nancy. Safe Territory? Bilingual Womens Humorous
Narratives. Research on Language and Social Interaction 40.23 (2007): 199-225.
Bell, Nancy. How Native and Non-Native English Speakers Adapt
to Humor in Intercultural Interaction. HUMOR: International
Journal of Humor Research 20.1 (2007): 27-48.
Bell, Nancy. Humor Comprehension: Lessons Learned from
Cross-Cultural Interaction. HUMOR: International Journal of
Humor Research 20.4 (2007): 367-387.



Bhalla, Jag. Im Not Hanging Noodles oOn Your Ears (and Other Intriguing
Idioms from around the World Washington, D.C.: National Geographic,
Binstead, Kim, and Graeme Ritchie. Towards a Model of Story Puns.
HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 14.3 (2001): 275-292.
Brzozowska, Dorota. British and Polish Celebrity Jokes. Stylistika 10
(2001): 219-226.
Bucaria, Chiara. Lexical and Syntactic Ambiguity as a Source of Humor:
The Case of Newspaper Headlines. HUMOR: International Journal of
Humor Research 17.3 (2004): 279-309.
Bucaria, Chiara. Top 10 Signs Your Humour has been Subtitled: The Case
of The Late Show with David Letterman. in Popa and Attardo (2007):
Carrell, Amy Thomas. Audience/Community, Situation, and Language: A
Linguistic/Rhetorical Theory of Verbal Humor. Unpublished Ph.D.
Dissertation. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 1993.



Carrell, Amy Thomas. Joke Competence and Humor Competence.

HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 10.2 (1997):
Chafe, Wallace L. The Importance of Not Being Earnest: The Feeling
Behind Laughter and Humor. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2007.
Charland, Maurice. Norms and Laughter in Rhetorical Culture.
Quarterly Journal of Speech 80.3 (1994): 339-342.
Chiaro, Delia. The Language of Jokes: Analysing Verbal Play. New
York, NY: Routledge, 1992.
Christie, James F. "Play and Early Literacy Development: Summary
and Discussion."Play and Early Literacy Development. Ed.
Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press, 1991, 233-246.



Christie, James F. "Psychological Research on Play: Connections

with Early Literacy Development." Play and Early Literacy
Development. Ed. Christie, James F. New York: SUNY Press,
1991, 27-46.
Collins, Christopher. Reading the Written Image: Verbal Play,
Intrepretation, and the Roots of Iconophobia. University Park,
PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.
Cook, Guy. Language Play, Language Learning. New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 2000.
Coulson, Seana. Whats so Funny? Cognitive Semantics and
Jokes. Cognitive Psychopathology/Psicopatologia Cognitiva
2.3 (2005): 67-78.
Coulson, Seana. Whats So Funny? Conceptual Blending in
Humorous Examples. in The Poetics of Cognition: Studies of
Cognitive Linguistics and the Verbal Arts. Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press, 2001.


Crystal, David. Language Play. London, England: Penguin, 1998.

Davies, Catherine Evans. How English-Learners Joke with Native
Speakers: An Interactional Sociolinguistic Perspective on
Humor as Collaborative Discourse across Cultures. Journal of
Pragmatics 35 (2003): 1361-1385.
Davies, Christie. The Mirth of Nations. New Brunswick, NJ:
Transaction, 2002.
Davis, Jessica Milner. Understanding Humor in Japan. Detroit, MI:
Wayne State University Press, 2006.
Dixon, Wallace E., and Cecilia Shore. "Language Style Dimensions
and Symbolic Play." Journal of Play Theory and Research 1.4
(1993): 259-270.



Dore, Margherita. The Feasibility of Dubbing the Verbal Function

of Humour: A Contrastive Analysis of the English Original and
the Italian Dubbed Version of The Simpsons, First Season.
Manchester, England: University of Manchester, Unpublished MA
Thesis, 2002.
Ellis, Yvette. Identifying a French-Specific Laughter Particle.
Journal of French Language Studies 12 (2002): 263-277.
Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark. Language
Awareness. New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009.
Espy, Willard. An Almanac of Words at Play. New York, NY: Potter,
Espy, Willard. Another Almanac of Words at Play. New York, NY:
Potter, 1980.



Espy, Willard. The Life and Works of Mr. Anonymous.

New York, NY: Hawthorne, 1977.
Farb, Peter. Word Play: What Happens When People
Talk. New York: Bantam, 1973.
Gee, James Paul. Introduction to Discourse Analysis.
New York, NY: Routledge, 1999.
Gee, James Paul, et. al. Language, Class , and Identity:
Teenagers Fashioning Themselves through
Language. Linguistics and Education 12.2 (2001):
Gee, James Paul. Social Languages and Literacies.
London, England: Palmer Press, 1991.


Gee, James Paul. What Video Games Have to Teach Us about

Learning and Literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2003.
Geller, Linda Gibson. Word Play and Language Learning for
Children. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1985.
Goddard, Cliff. Lift Your Game Martina!: Deadpan Jocular Irony
and the Ethnopragmatics of Australian English. in
Ethnopragmatics: Understanding Discourse in Cultural Context.
New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2006, 65-98.
Graham, E. E., M. J. Papa, and G. P. Brooks. Functions of Humor
in Conversation: Concepualization and Measurement. Western
Journal of Communication 56 (1992): 161-183.
Gruchala, Pawel. The Application of the General Theory of Verbal
Humor (GTVH) to the Analysis of Polish Translations of Mark
Twains Novels. Krakow, Poland: Jagiellonian University,
Unpublished MA Thesis, 2005.



Gnther, Ulrike K. Whats in a Laugh: Humour, Jokes and

Laughter in the Conversational Corpus of the BNC. Freiburg,
Germany: University of Freiburg, Unpublished Ph.D.
Dissertation, 2003.
Hauptman, Don. Cruel and Unusual Puns. New York, NY:
Dell/Laurel, 1991.
Hay, Jennifer. The Pragmatics of Humor Support. HUMOR:
International Journal of Humor Research 14.1 (2001): 55-82.
Hempelmann, Christian F. Paronomasic Puns: Target
Recoverability toward Automatic Generation. Lafayette, IN:
Purdue University, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 2003.
Hempelmann, Christian F. Script Opposition and Logical
Mechanism in Punning. HUMOR: International Journal of
Humor Research 17.4 (2004): 381-392.



Kirshenblatt, Gimblett, Barbara, ed. Speech Play. Philadelphia: Univ

of Penna Press, 1976.
Koponen, Maarit. Wordplay in Donald Duck Comics and their
Finnish Translations. Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki,
Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, 2004.
Laurian, Anne-Marie, and Don L. F. Nilsen, eds. Humour et
Traduction/Humour and Translation Special issue of Meta:
Journal des Traducteurs/Translators Journal 35.1 (1989).
Lederer, Richard. Anguished English. New York, Dell, 1989.
Lederer, Richard. The Play of Words: Fun and Games for Language
Lovers. NY: Pocket Books, 1990.



Liao, Chao-Chih. Taiwanese Perceptions of Humor: A Sociolinguistic

Perspective. New York, NY: Crane Publisher, 2001.
Lincoln, Kenneth. Indin Humor: Bicultural Play in Native America. New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Lippman, Louis G., and M. L. Dunn. Contextual Connections within Puns:
Effects on Perceived Humor and Memory. Journal of General
Psychology 127 (2000): 185-197.
Lippman, Louis G., and Sarah Tragesser. Puns and Near Puns in Fables.
Journal of General Psychology 132.3 (2005): 243-254.
Lippman, Louis G., K. Bennington, and I. L. Sucharski. Contextual
Connections to Puns in Tom Swifties. Journal of General Psychology
129 (2002): 202-208.
Lippman, Louis G., I. L. Sucharski, and K. Bennington. Contextual
Connections to Puns in Fables: Perceived Humor. Journal of General
Psychology 128 (2001): 157-169.



Liu, Dililn. Idioms: Description, Comprehension, Acquisition, and

Pedagogy. New York, NY: Routledge, 2008.
Lucas, Teresa. Language Awareness and Comprehension
through Puns among ESL Learners. Language Awareness 14.4
(2005): 221-238.
Morreall, John. "Sarcasm, Irony, Wordplay, and Humor in the
Hebrew Bible: A Response to Hershey Friedman." HUMOR:
International Journal of Humor Research. 14.3 (2001): 293-302.
Mller, Ralph. The Pointe in German Research. HUMOR:
International Journal of Humor Research 16.2 (2003): 225-242.
Nardini, Gloria. When Husbands Die: Joke Telling in an Italian
Ladies Club in Chicago. Pragmatics 10.1 (2000): 87-97.



Nelms, Jodi. A Descriptive Analysis of the Uses and Functions of

Sarcasm in the Classroom discourse of Higher Education.
Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Unpublished Ph.D.
Dissertation, 2001.
Nijholt, Anton. Conversational Agents and the Construction of
Humorous Acts. in Conversational Informatics: An Engineering
Approach Ed. Toyoaki Nishida. Chichester: Wiley, 2007, 21-48.
Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th
Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.
Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Vocabulary Plus--High
Schook and Up: A Source Based Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn
and Bacon, 2004.
Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Vocabulary Plus--K-8: A
Source Based Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2004.



Nilsen, Don L. F., and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Language

Play: An Introduction to Linguistics. Rowley, MA:
Newbury House, 1978.
Norrick, Neal R. On the Conversational Performance of
Narrative Jokes. HUMOR: International Journal of
Humor Research 14 (2001): 255-274.
Novak, William, and Moshe Waldoks, eds. The Big Book
of Jewish Humor. New York, NY: Harper and Row,
Oring, Elliott. Jokes and Their Relations. Lexington, KY:
University Press of Kentucky, 1992.
Pepicello, William J. Pragmatics of Humorous
Language. International Journal of the Society of
Language 65 (1987): 27-35.


Popa, Diana, and Salvatore Attardo, eds. New

Approaches to the Linguistics of Humor.
Galati: Dunarea de Jos University Press, 2007.
Rahman, Jacquelyn. An ay for an ah: Language
of Survival in African American Narrative
Comedy. American Speech 82.1 (2007): 6596.
Raskin, Victor, ed. A Primer of Humor Research.
New York, NY Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.
Raskin, Victor. Semantic Mechanisms of Humor.
Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1985.


Raskin, Victor. Theory of Humor and Practice of Humor

Research: Editors Notes Raskin (2008) 1-16.
Ritchie, Graeme. The Linguistic Analysis of Jokes.
London, England: Routledge, 2004.
Romero, Eric J., Carlos J. Alsua, Kim T. Hinrichs, and
Terry R. Pearson. Regional Humor Differences in the
United States: Implications for Management.
HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research
20.2 (2007): 189-201.
Rosten, Leo. The Joys of Yiddish. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 1968.
Ruch, Willibald. Psychology of Humor in Raskin (2008)


Ryan, M. L. "From Verbal Play to Verbal Art: Grice's Maxims and the
Strategies of Everyday Conversation." Journal of the Linguistic
Association of the Southwest 4 (1981): 30-44.
Schegloff, Emanuel A. Getting Serious: Joke Serious, No!
Journal of Pragmatics 33.12 (2001): 1947-1955.
Sherzer, Joel. Speech Play and Verbal Art. Austin, TX: University of
Texas Press, 2002.
Spalding, Henry D. Encyclopedia of Jewish Humor: From Biblical
Times to the Modern Age. New York, NY: Jonathan David, 1969.
Spalding, Henry D. Johs of Jewish Humor. New York, NY: Jonathan
David, 1985.



Stock, Oliviero, and Carlo Strapparava. HAHAcronym:

Humorous Agents for Humorous Acronyms.
HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research
16.3 (2003): 297-314.
Yus Ramos, Francisco. Humor and the Search for
Relevance. The Pragmatics of Humor, Special
Issue of Journal of Pragmatics 35.9 (2003): 12951331.
Vandaele, Jeroen, ed. Huour and Translation Special
Issue of The Translator 8.2, 2002.
Vettin, Julia, and Dietmar Todt. Laughter in
Conversation: Features of Occurrence and Acoustic
Structure. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28.2
(2004): 93-115.