Measurement Scales

Definition of Measurement

A typical definition of measurement is the assignment of numbers to responses based on a set of guidelines.

Measurement Levels (Scales of measurement)

Measurement Levels 1. Nominal 2. Ordinal 3. Interval 4. Ratio

NOMINAL SCALE
 Numbers are no more than labels (names, descriptors)  Numbers are used to identify different categories of responses

EXAMPLES (Nominal)
What is your gender? 1. Male 2. Female

EXAMPLES (Nominal)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Which one of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most? Television Radio Newspapers Magazines internet

Nominal

Nominal ±numbers accompanying the response categories in these questions have none of the three properties. Permissible mathematical operation with nominal scaled responses- counting the number of responses falling within each category. MODE: appropriate central tendency for nominal scaled responses.

 Designations as to race, religion,  Brand last purchased  Answers that involve yes-no, agreedisagree or any other instance in which lables can not be differentiated except qualitatively

Ordinal Measurement
 More powerful than nominal  In addition to serving as labels ,also possess the property of rank order

Ordinal Example

How long do you spend reading newspapers on a typical weekday? 1. Less than 5 minutes 2. 5minutes to less than minutes 3. 15 minutes to less than 30minutes 4. 30 minutes or more -contd

Interval
An interval scale has all the properties of an ordinal scale, and the differences between scale values can be meaningfully interpreted.

Example (interval)

How likely are you to buy a new automobile within the next six months? please check the most appropriate category)

The values assigned to this set of responses run from 1 through 6 (these numbers could be in reverse order) Strictly they are ordinal. Considered interval under the assumption that respondents will treat the differences between adjacent response categories as being equal, especially since the categories are physically separated by equal distances.

Ratio Scale

A ratio scale possesses all the properties of an interval scale, and the ratios of numbers on these scales have meaningful interpretations.

RATIO-SCALED QUESTION