Amity Business School

SAMPLING

Amity Business School

- RESEARCH Studies give insights and inferences that are crucial for decision making - Size of sample is quiet small as compared to the total group of units of interest - Sampling is the starting point of inferential process involved in MR studies

Amity Business School

Sampling Vs. Census

Amity Business School

Sample, Sampling, Population or Universe, Sampling frame.

Amity Business School

A university offering a post-graduate program in business wants to conduct a study to determine the criteria prospective students use to evaluate different post graduate business programs. Population ³ALL INDIVIDUALS WITH AN INTEREST IN PURSUING A POST GRADUATE DEGREE IN BUSINESS WITHIN THE NEXT YEAR´

Advantages of sampling
‡ Cost effective ‡ Time effective ACCURACY????

Amity Business School

Amity Business School

TOTAL ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH RESEARCH MAY CONTAIN ONE OR BOTH OF THE FOLLOWING: Sampling Error Non-Sampling Error

Sampling Error

Amity Business School

‡ It is difference between a statistic and parameter ‡ Present only in sample study Statistic: value generated through a sampling procedure. Parameter can only be determined through accurate census of the population.

NON SAMPLING ERRORS

Amity Business School

‡ Any error in research study other than sampling error. ‡ Non sampling errors can arise because of:
» » » » Poor questionnaire construction Ill trained fieldworkers Errors on part of respondents Errors in coding responses

‡ Best way to control non sampling errors is to have adequate control over the entire process of
» Data gathering » coding » analysis

Types of Sampling

Amity Business School

‡ The type of enquiry and the nature of data fundamentally determines the technique or method of selecting a sample
± Non-Probability Sampling Methods: Subjective or Judgment Sampling ± Probability Sampling ± Mixed Sampling

Amity Business School

‡ Non-Probability Sampling Methods:
± Convenience Samples ± Judgment Samples ± Quota Samples ± Snowball samples

Amity Business School

Advantages of Non-probability Samples: ‡ Less expensive ‡ acceptable ‡ Less research time ‡ produces samples quite similar

Dis-advantages of Non probability sampling
‡ cannot calculate Sampling error. ‡ do not know the degree to which the sample is representative of the population ‡ The research results cannot be projected (generalized) to the total population of interest with any degree of confidence.

Amity Business School

Amity Business School

Probability Sampling
Scientific method The different types of probability sampling are
‡ ‡ ‡ where each unit has an equal chance of being selected. Sampling units have different probabilities of being selected Probability of selection of a unit is proportional to the sample size.

Types of Probability sampling
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Simple Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Systematic Random Sampling Cluster Random Sampling Multistage Sampling

Amity Business School

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