You are on page 1of 57

MUSIC OF THE MEDIEVAL

PERIOD

( 700 1400)

- Medieval period is also known as the

Middle Ages or Dark Ages that started


with the fall of the Roman Empire. During
this time, the Christian church influence
Europes culture and political affairs.

-Monophonic plainchant was named after

Pope Gregory I, who made this approved


music of the Catholic church. Pope
Gregorys action made monophonic
plainchants popular.

- Although plainchant music was

originally transmitted orally, scholars


agreed to put it in notation to assist
dissemination of chants across
Europe.

GREGORIAN CHANT

Also known as Plainchant or Plainsong


A form of medieval church music that
involves chanting.
Plainchant doesnt used any instrumental
accompaniment but instead it uses words that
are sung.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
GREGORIAN CHANT

Monophonic Music consisting of a single


melodic line without chordal accompaniment.
Free meter There is no time signature.
Free from musical time.
Modal is a series of musical notes in a
defined order with specific intervals between
each pitch.

Usually based on Latin liturgy


Use of Nueme Notation system of writing
music based on notation.

* SECULAR MUSIC non- religious music.


Secular music were performed across Europe by a
group of musicians called TROUBADOURS.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TROUBADOUR MUSIC

Usually monophonic
Sometimes with improvised accompaniment
Tells of chivalry and courtly love
Originated in France

MODES OR CHURCH MODE


IONIAN Constructed from the first note of a major
scale. ( C )
Pattern of Ionian W-W-H-W-W-W-H.
( CDEFGABC)
DORIAN Constructed from the second note of a
major scale. ( D )
Pattern of Dorian W-H-W-W-W-H-W
( DEFGABCD)
PHRYGIAN Constructed from the third note of a
major scale. ( E )
Pattern of Phrygian H-W-W-W-H-W-W
( EFGABCDE)

LYDIAN Constructed from the fourth note of a


major scale. ( F )
Pattern of Lydian W-W-W-H-W-W-H
( FGABCDEF )
MIXOLYDIAN Constructed from the fifth note of
a major scale. ( G )
Pattern of Mixolydian W-W-H-W-W-H-W
( GABCDEFG)
AEOLIAN Constructed from the six note of
major scale. ( A )
Pattern of Aeolian W-H-W-W-H-W-W
( ABCDEFGA)

LOCRIAN Constructed from the seventh note of


a major scale. ( B )
Pattern of Locrian H-W-W-H-W-W-W.
( BCDEFGAB )

FAMOUS COMPOSER OF THE MEDIEVAL


PERIOD
Adam de la Halle ( 1237 1288 )

He was also known as Adam le Bossu a Frenchborn trouvere, poet and musician. His musical
works include chansons and Juex-partris ( Poetic
debates) in the style of trouvere, polyphonic rondel
and motets in the style of early liturgical
polyphony.
His works include:
1. Le Jeu de Robin et de Marion
2. La Chanson du rio de Sicile

MUSIC OF THE
RENAISSANCE PERIOD
( 1450 1600 )

* Renaissance comes from the word

Renaitre which means Rebirth, a


secular rebirth for men delighted with
life.
* The influence of the Roman Catholic
started to decline as the new music
genre arose. Though sacred music was
still of great importance, secular music
became more prominent in the
renaissance period. This era was also
known as the Acapella Choral Music

One of the most important events during the


Renaissance was the invention of printing
and paper in 1450 and also music was an
important part in the lives of the upper and
middle classes.

* Lute was the prominent instrument of the


renaissance era.

CHARACTERISTICS OF
RENAISSANCE MUSIC

Mostly polyphonic having two or more voices


or parts, each with independent melody.

Imitation of voices is common

Use of word painting and music

Melodic lines move in a flowing manner

VOCAL MUSIC OF THE RENAISSANCE


PERIOD

* Mass is a form of sacred musical composition that sets


text of the Eucharistic liturgy into music.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MASS
* Polyphonic
* Maybe sung in acapella or with orchestral
accompaniment.
* Text may be syllabic ( one note set to each syllable),
nuematic ( a few notes set to one syllable), or melismatic
( many notes to one syllable)

FIVE MAIN SECTIONS OF MASS


Kyrie

( Lord Have Mercy)


Gloria ( Glory to God in the Highest)
Credo ( I Believe in One God)
Sanctus and Benedictus ( Holy, holy
and Blessed is He)
Agnus Dei ( Lamb of God)

Madrigal a secular vocal polyphonic music

composition which originated from Italy


- it is written and expressed in a poetic text and sung
during courtly social gatherings. It is the most
important secular form during the Renassaince
Period.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MADRIGAL
-Polyphonic
-Sung in Acapella
-Frequently in 3-6 voices

FAMOUS COMPOSERS OF THE


RENAISSANCE PERIOD
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina ( 1525 Febuary 2,
1594)
Greatestest master of Roman Catholic Church during the
Renaissance period.
Majority of his compositions are sacred music.
He was committed to sacred music and has a keen interest
in satisfying the desires of the church leaders in sixteenth
century.

* He was an organist and choir master at both


Sistine Chapel and St. Peters which may have
influenced his distinctively pure and restrained
style in musical composition.

THOMAS MORLEY ( 1557 1602 )

Morley was born in Norwich, East England.


* He was a singer in the local cathedral from his boyhood,
and he became master of choristers there in 1583.
* Morley was the famous composer of secular music in his
time. Most of his composition show a variety of color, form
and technique.

BAROQUE PERIOD
( 1600 1750 )

The word Baroque is derived from


Portuguese word Barroco which means
a Pearl with irregular shape. Some of
the great composers of this time where
Friedrich Handel, Johann Sebastian Bach
and Antonio Vivaldi.
During this time, the arts highlighted
grandiose and elaborate ornamentation.
These were clearly seen in the musical
compositions by baroque composers.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BAROQUE
MUSIC

Melodies sound elaborate and ornamental


Melodies are not easy to sing or remember
Primarily contrapuntal
Dynamic contrast
Harpsichord and Organ are the keyboard
instruments that are used

HARPSICHORD

CLAVICHORD

MUSIC GENRES OF BAROQUE


MUSIC

Concerto a form of orchestral music that


employs a solo instrument accompanied by an
orchestra
Concerto Grosso a form of orchestral music
during the baroque period where in the music
is between a small group of solo instrument
called concertino and the whole orchestra
called tutti.
Oratorio a large scale musical composition for
orchestra and voices that incorporates
narrative on religious themes.

Chorale a musical composition that


resemble a harmonized version of hymnal
tunes of the protestant church during the
baroque era.
Fugue - is acontrapuntal compositionin
two or morevoices, built on a subject
(theme) that is introduced at the beginning
in imitation and recurs frequently in the
course of the composition.

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH

Born: March 21 1685, Germany Died: July 28,


1750

J. S. Bach came from a family of musicians. He


was taught to play violin by his father who was
then the town musician in Eisanach.
Bach was a religious man. His personal and deep
faith is shown in his sacred musical works. He
was also known for his compositions for organ,
orchestra and oratorio.

WORKS OF SEBASTIAN BACH


Concerto
Masses

Grosso

Cantatas
Fugues
Works

for Clavichord and Harpsichord

ANTONIO LUCIO VIVALDI

Born: Venice, March 4, 1678 Died: July 28, 1741

Antonio Vivaldi, nicknamed Il Prete Rosso The


Red Priest because of his red hair.
He was a Italian Baroque composer, Catholic
priest and a Virtuoso violinist.
Vivaldi is know mainly for composing
instrumental concertos especially for the violin as
well as choral works over forty operas.
Vivaldi is well known for giving the string a major
role in his composition.

His famous piece is the four seasons. This


composition is a series of four violin concerti
depicting each of the season Spring , Summer,
Autumn and Winter.

GEORGE FRIEDRICH HANDEL

Born: Germany, February 23, 1685


Died: London, April 14, 1759

* George Handel was the second son from the


marriage of a pastor. Despite of his fathers
opposition, George secretly taught himself to play
the harpsichord.
Handel is remembered for his operas and oratorios.
Handel became Englands favorite composer.
* Handel lost both of his eyesight in 1753 when he
conducted his oratorio, Samson.

the Messiah is Handels most famous creation


and the very well known Hallelujah chorus is
part of Handels Messiah.

CLASSICAL PERIOD
(1750 1820)
Also called as Age of Reason
The cultural life was dominated by aristocracy, as
a patrons of musicians.
Significant changes in musical form and styles
were made.
Instrumental music was patronized primarily by
nobility.
The term classical denotes conformity with the
principles and characteristics of ancient Greece
and Roman literature and art which were formal,
elegant, simple, freed and dignified. The same
characteristics may also be describe the melodies
of classical music.

Harmony and texture is homophonic in general.


The dynamics of loud and soft were clearly
shown through the extensive use of crescendo
and diminuendo.

WOLFGANG AMADUES MOZART


( 1756 1791)

WOLFGANG AMADUES MOZART ( 1756 1791)

Wolfgang Amadues Mozart is a child prodigy and


the most amazing genius in musical history.
At age 5, he was already playing the violin and
harpsichord.
6, he was recognized as an exceptional pianist.
7, he was already composing excellent music.
13, he had written sonatas, concertos, symphonies,
religious works and operas.
He experimented in all kinds of music and
composed over 700 works.
He composed wonderful concertos, symphonies
and operas such as the Marriage of Figaro, Don
Giovani and the Magic Flute

Other known works are Eine Kleine Natchmusic,


Symphony No. 40 in G major and Sonata No.11 in
A major.
Sonata a multi movement work for solo
instrument. Sonata came from the word Sonare
Which means to make sound.
Movements of Sonata
Ist Movenment: Allegro fast movement
2nd Movement: Slow
3rd Movement: Minuet: it is in three-four time and
in a moderate fast tempo.

SONATA ALLEGRO FORM


3 DISTINCT SECTIONS OF SONATA ALLEGRO FORM
1.

EXPOSITION the first part of a composition in sonata


form that introduces the theme.

2.

DEVELOPMENT it is the middle part of Sonata


Allegro Form wherein themes are being develop.

3.

RECAPITULATION Repeats the theme as they first


emerge in the opening exposition

FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN ( 1732


1809)
One of the most prominent
composers of the classical period.
His life is describe as rags toriches story.
His music reflects his character
and personality: mainly calm,
balanced, serious but with touch
of humour.
He was able to compose over 100
symphonies
He was named, father of
symphony
Most of his symphonies have
nicknames such as Surprise
Symphony, The Clock, The
Military

Symphony a multi movement work for


orchestra, the symphony is derived from the word
Sinfonia w/c means a Harmonious sounding
together.

4 Movements of Symphony
1st Movement: Fast: Sonata Allegro Form
2nd Movement: Slow , gentle, Lyrical ABA
3rd Movement: Medium/Fast: uses a dance form
( Minuet and Scherzo)
4th Movement: Fast: typically Rondo or Sonata
form

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN ( 1770


-1827)
Ludwig Van Beethoven was born in Bonn, germany to
a family of musicians and studied music at an early
age.
He was the composer who bridge the late classical era
and Early Romantic era.
His famous compositions include 32 piano sonatas, 21
sets of variations, 9 symphonies, concertos for piano,
16 string quartets and choral music
His works include the Missa Solemnis and Opera
Fidelio.
His known symphonies are : Symphony no. 3 (Eroica),
No.5, No.6 (Pastoral), No.9 (Choral).
He began to go deaf in 1796 but this did not become a
hindrance. Some of his famous compositions were
made when he was deaf

CHARACTERISTICS OF BEETHOVENS WORK

His music veered toward larger orchestras


Sound was centered on the violas and lower
registers of the violins and cellos to give his music
a darker mood.
He develop musical themes and motifs extensively
by means of modulation
He used more brass instrument and dynamics.

Concerto is a multi-movement work designed for


an instrumental soloist and orchestra. It is a
classical form of music intended primarily to
emphasize the individuality of the solo instrument
and to exhibit the virtuosity and interpretative
abilities of the performer.

3 Movements of Concerto

1st Movement: Fast: Sonata Allegro Form with the


exposition of the orchestra and then by the soloist.
2nd Movement: Slow: has more ornamentation
3rd Movement: Fast: Finale: usually in a form of
Rondo, resembling the last movement of the
symphony and a short cadenza is used.

MUSIC OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD

(1820-1910)

Romantic period is described as the cultural


movement that stressed emotion, imagination,
individualism and freedom of expression.
Nationalism was also incorporated in the music of
the Romantic period. An example of a composition
that shows nationalism is the Polonaise of
Frederic Chopin, which is a dance composition for
piano and still famous in Poland today.
Ludwig Van Beethoven bridged the music from
Classical to Romantic era.
Piano music of the Romantic period is in free
form such as fantasy, rhapsody, ballade and
nocturne.

ROMANTIC PERIOD CHARACTERISTICS


A freedom in composing with a strong importance on
expressing an emotion and also fantasy, imagination
and a sense of adventure were explored.
Emphasis on lyrical melodies. Rich, often chromatic
harmonies.
Denser textures with bold dramatic contrasts,
exploring a wider range of rich variety of types of
piece, ranging from song, short piano pieces with
spectacular, dramatic, and dynamic climaxes.
Shape was brought to work through the use of
recurring themes, such as, nature, religion and
nationalism.
The pieces of the time also had great technical
difficulty. This was due to the fact that many of the
composers of the time were musicians themselves,
mainly pianists.

NICCOLO PAGANINI
He was born in October 27,1782 in Genoa, Italy in a
family of six children. His musical skills started
with playing the mandolin at the age of five.
He eventually transferred his training to the violin
at the age if seven with different violin professors
in Italy. His violin teachers could not keep up with
the progress of his violin skills that he kept on
transferring from one violin teacher to another.
Paganini became the most famous violin virtuoso
in the world.

SOME WORKS OF NICCOLO PAGANINI


La Campanella
24 Caprices for solo Violin, Op.1
Concerto No. 1 in Eb, Op.6
15 Quartets for Guitar and Strings Trio
The Carnival in Venice

FREDERIC CHOPIN
Frederic Chopin was also known as the Poet of the
Piano. He was born on March 1, 1810 in Zelazowa,
Poland.
Frederic Chopin began to play piano at age 4. He
composed Polonaise at the age of 7. He studied piano
at Warsaw Conservatory under Wilhelm Wurfel and
most of his music was influenced by folk music.
He wrote almost exclusively for piano and made
extensive use of piano pedal in most of his
compositions.
In 1831, Chopin arrived in Paris and met legendary
composers such as Franz list, Felix Mendelssohn and
Robert Schumann.

In later part of Chopins life, his health began to


decline and he was diagnosed with pulmonary
tuberculosis. Chopin died on October 17, 1849
Chopins music is characterized by its beautiful tone,
rhythmic flexibility, grace and elegance and
recognized worldwide for its beauty.

CHOPIN IS FAMOUS FOR THE FOLLOWING


BALLADE a verse form or narrative that is set to
music.
ETUDE a piece composed for the development of a
specific technique.
MAZURKA a Polish dance in triple time signature
NOCTURNE - an instrumental composition of a
pensive, dreamy mood for the piano
POLONAISE a slow Polish dance in triple time that
consist of a march or procession
PRELUDE a short piece of music that can be used as
preface and introduction to another work or may stand
on its own

WALTZ a German dance in triple meter


IMPROMPTU a short free-form musical composition
usually for a solo instrument like the piano
SCHERZO a musical movement of playful character
typically in ABA form.