BODY FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

Agaton T Panopio Jr MD, MHPEd

Water Content & Distribution

Total Body Water
Young men 55-60% of total body weight Young women 45-50% of total body weight

Total Body Water
Distribution 50% - muscle 20% - skin 20% - other organs 10% - blood

Total Body Water
Body Fluid Compartments Intracellular 40% of total body weight Extracellular 20% of total body weight Transcellular 1.5% of total body weight

Extracellular Fluid
Intravascular 25% of the ECF 8% of total body weight Interstitial 75% of the ECF 15% of total body weight Lymph 2-3% of total body weight

Electrolyte Composition
Cations

Electrolyte Composition
Anions

Fluid Exchange
Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid Starling¶s forces Osmotic pressure in the capillaries and tissues Hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries and tissues

Fluid Exchange
Between Interstitial and Intracellular Compartments Solute movement Passive transport Active transport Transport in bulk

Water Balance
Water Input Solid and semi-solid food Oxidation of food Drinks - 1200 ml - 300 ml - 1000 ml

Water Balance
Water Output Kidneys (Urine) - 1500 ml Skin (insensible loss & sweat) - 500 ml Lungs (Expired air) - 350 ml GIT (Feces) - 150 ml

Water Balance
Control Volume Regulation Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism Atrial Natriuretic Factor Mechanism

Water Balance
Control Osmolar Regulation Anti-Diuretic Hormone Mechanism

Alterations of Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Excessive Intake of Water Excessive ingestion Decreased loss Administration of ADH Excessive Loss of Water Excessive loss Decreased intake

Alterations of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Excessive Intake of Solute Excessive ingestion Excessive Loss of Solute Reduced intake Adrenocortical deficiency Excessive administration of IV fluids without sodium

Alterations of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Isotonic Fluid Loss Hemorrhage Burns Mild losses from the GIT Isotonic Fluid Gain Administration of isotonic IV fluids

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