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Environmental Controls I/IG

Lecture 10
Heat Flow in Glazing
Infiltration
Ventilation

Window Characteristics

S: p. 1585, T.E.15

Super Windows
Composed of
subassemblies
that control
conductive and
radiant heat
exchange.

S: p. 198, F.7.15

Window Characteristics

S: p. 1585, T.E.15

Window Characteristics

S: p. 1585, T.E.15

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient


(SHGC)

Percentage of incident solar


radiation that passes through
the entire window or skylight at
a normal incident angle.
High SHGC desirable for passive
solar
Low SHGC desirable for where
cooling is dominant issue

Window Characteristics

S: p. 1585, T.E.15

Visible Transmittance (VT)


Percentage of the incident
amount of visible light
transmitted through the
glazing
High VT means better
daylighting quantities indoor

Window Characteristics

S: p. 1585, T.E.15

Spectrally Selective Glazing


Spectrally selective coatings reduce
SHGC with little reduction in VT
Low- coatings: reflect radiant
energy back towards source
LSG: light to solar gain ratio
High LSG is better for day-lighting
in hot climates

Window Characteristics

S: p. 1585, T.E.15

Air Leakage
Rate of outdoor air infiltration between the
window and its frame.
Example A: 3x5 window at 0.65 cfm/lf.
Inf. = (3+5+3+5) x 0.65= 10.4 cfm
Example B: 3x5 window at 0.98 cfm/sf.
Inf. = (3x5) x 0.98= 14.7 cfm
Note: use the larger value of the two results

Heat Flow in Glazing


Conductive Heat Flow through glazing:

Q= U x A x T
Q: heat flow (Btuh)
U: transmission coefficient (Btu/h-F-ft2)
A: area (ft2) [including frame]
T: temperature difference (Ti-To)

Solar Heat Gain Factors

S: p. 1504, T.C.3

Heat Flow in Glazing


Radiant Heat Flow through glazing:

Q= SHGC x A x SHGF
Q:
heat flow (Btuh)
SHGC:
solar heat gain
coefficient for window and frame
A:
area (ft2) [including frame]
SHGF:
solar heat gain factor
(Btu/h-ft2)

Infiltration
Unintentional introduction of
untreated air into the occupied
space(s) of the building
Heat lost or gained becomes part
of the building system load

Infiltration
Calculated by two means:
1.
2.

Air Change per Hour (ACH)


Crack Method

Air Change per Hour Method


Volume of infiltration:

V= (ACH)(volume, ft3)
60 min/hr
V:
total air flow volume (cfm)
ACH:
Air changes per hour
volume: space volume (ft3)

Air Change per Hour Method


Volume of infiltration:

V= (ACH)(volume, ft3)
60 min/hr
V:
total air flow volume (cfm)
ACH:
Air changes per hour
volume: space volume (ft3)

Air Change per Hour Method


Determine Construction
Type

S: p. 1601, T.E.27A

Air Change per Hour Method


Determine Winter & Summer
Conditions

S: p. 1601,

Crack Length Method


Calculate crack length of windows on
the windward side only.
Calculate crack length of doors on the
windward side only.

Crack Length Method


Determine
window and
door fit
and
Find k

S: p. 1604, T.E.28C

Crack Length Method


1.

Determine wind
velocity.

2.

Find velocity head


factor.

3.

Determine
infiltration rate

4.

Calculate total
infiltration

S: p. 1603, T.E.28A&B

Crack Length Method


Find winter
infiltration
for average
fitting
windows
k=2.0

S: p. 1603, T.E.28C

Crack Length Method


Wind velocity=15 mph
Velocity head factor=0.11
Infiltration rate= 0.5cfm/lf
Calculate total infiltration
Infiltration =
Rate x Crack length

S: p. 1604, T.E.28A&B

Ventilation
Intentional introduction of treated
fresh air into the occupied space(s) of
the building
Outside air is introduced via the
building ventilation ductwork system
Residential buildings generally rely on
infiltration
Non-residential buildings use
ventilation

Ventilation
Ventilation is determined according to:
ASHRAE Standard 62-2001

(S: p. 1597, T.E.25)

Estimates the number of people/1000 sf of


usage type
Prescribes minimum ventilation/person for
usage type

ASHRAE 62-2001
Example:
(1) Determine the ventilation rate for 2,000
sf office space.
(2) Determine total ventilation volume.
S: p. 1598, T.E.25

ASHRAE 62-2001
Example:
(1) Determine the ventilation rate for 2,000 sf
space.

office

17 cfm/person

S: p. 1598, T.E.25

ASHRAE 62-2001
Example:
(2) Determine total ventilation volume.
=2000 sf x (5 persons/1000sf) x (17 cfm/person)
=170 cfm
S: p. 1598, T.E.25