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Health Screening

Outline
Definition of health
Definition of screening
Aims of screening

What is health?
Health is a state of complete
physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity.

What is screening ?
Screening is the testing of apparently
healthy populations to identify
undiagnosed diseases or people at
high risk of developing disease.

Aim of health screening


Detect early disease before it
becomes symptomatic
Assess risk of future medical
problems
Encourage healthy life style

Example of screening tests

Example of screening tests


WHO

WHAT

SCREENING
TEST

FREQUENCY

Women aged
25-69 years,
who have had
sexual
intercourse

Cervical
cancer

Pap smear

Once every
three years

Women aged
50-69 years

Breast
cancer

Mammogram

Once every 2
years

Prenatal
screening of
congenital /
genetic
disorder

e.g. Downs
syndrome,
spinal bifida

Blood test,
ultrasound

Second
trimester for
high risk
mothers

Newborns aged
0-4 weeks old

Hearing loss

audiometry

Once

Down syndrome
Down syndrome is a set of physical and
mental traits caused by a gene problem
that happens before birth. Children who
have Down syndrome tend to have certain
features, such as a flat face and a short
neck. They also have some degree of
intellectual disability.
Down syndrome is caused by a problem
with a baby's chromosomes. Normally, a
person has 46 chromosomes. But most
people with Down syndrome have 47
chromosomes. I

Cystic fibrosis
A disease that changes how the body
makes mucus and sweat. It affects how
well e.g. the lungs, digestive system
work.
May have mucus thats too thick or sweat
thats too salty (lost electrolytes). If
heavy mucus clogs the lungs, its hard to
breathe. It can also block the pancreas,
so food cannot be digested well.

Cystic fibrosis

Thalassaemia
Is an inherited blood disorder
characterized by less hemoglobin
and fewer red blood cells in your
body than normal.
Person with thalassaemia major
requires regular blood transfusions
every four-to-six weeks to top-up
haemoglobin in the body.

Where to go for screening


tests

Private clinics
Private hospitals
Private medical laboratories
Government health clinics

Why

Activity

Metric Units: BMI =

Weight (kg)
(Height (m) x Height

(m))
Example:Weight = 68 kg, Height = 165 cm (1.65 m)
Calculation:68 (1.65 x 1.65) = 24.98

Formula:weight (lb) / [height (in)]2x 703


Calculate BMI by dividing weight in pounds (lbs) by height in
inches (in) squared and multiplying by a conversion factor of
703.
Example:Weight = 150 lbs, Height = 55 (65)
Calculation:150 (65 x 65) x 703 = 24.96

To assess abdominal fat for


chronic disease risk and
during weight loss
treatment.
A high waist circumference
or a greater level of
abdominal fat is associated
with an increased risk for
type 2 diabetes, high
cholesterol, high blood

Waist circumferences(cm)

Female : less than or equal to 80 cm


Male
: less than or equal to 90cm

Summary
Screening is the testing of apparently
healthy populations to identify
previously undiagnosed diseases or
people at high risk of developing a
disease.