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How do our goods get

to the shops?

Understanding global ocean trade


and its impact on the world.

How does your


bedroom contain
things from all over
the world?
How do teenagers in
Los Angeles wear Ugg
boots made in
Australia, or students
in London receive
iPods from China for
their birthdays, or
kids in Rotterdam eat
Ecuadorian bananas
for lunch?

The answer is
global ocean
trade

So how does that work?


Container shipping is the main way to transport
goods around the world it enables global trade.

The
answer
is
Everything from door handles
and
strawberries,
global trade

to make-up and computers, have seen the inside


of a container. Without container shipping
connecting the world we would not have the
variety of goods we have today!

Growth Dynamics: Indias Port


Sector

Growth dynamics of cargo traffic (2000-2011)


Overall annual growth (major & non-major) 9.2%
Major ports (7.3%) & Non major ports (13.7%)
As a consequence share of non major ports in cargo handled rose
from 24% in 2000-01 to 36% in 2010-11
Capacity utilisation around 90% at Major ports
Highest annual growth in container traffic (15%)
Containerisation at about 2/3rd of general cargo compared to global
levels 80% plus.
Container traffic has grown, but is uneven in pace, demand centred
in North West Hinterland (60%)
Indian ports have low draft, makes access of large bulk vessels
problematic. Entails higher unit shipping cost for low value items.
Leads to higher turnaround time & small parcel size.

World Top 10 Cargo Ports


Port

2008 (Million Tonnes)

2009 (Million Tonnes)

1.Shanghai (PRC)

582.0

590.0

2Zhoushan/Ningbo (PRC)

520.1

570.0

3.Singapore

515.4

472.3

4.Rotterdam

421.1

387.0

5.Tianjin (PRC)

355.9

380.0

6.Guangzhou (PRC)

344.3

375.0

7.Qingdao (PRC)

300.3

315.5

8.Qinhuangdao (PRC)

252.2

243.8

9..Hongkong (PRC)

259.4

243.0

10..Busan (S.Korea))

241.7

226.2

India (total)

744.0 (2008-09)

884.5 (2010-11)

Major Ports

530.8 (2008-09)

569.9 (2010-11)

72.2 (2008-09)

81.9 (2010-11)

Kandla

Source:For S.No.s 1-10, Port of Rotterdam ,Statistics,2010

World Top 10 Container Ports


Port

2008 (Million TEUs)

2009 (Million TEUs)

1. Singapore

29.92

25.87

2.Shanghai (PRC)

27.98

25.00

3.Hong Kong (PRC)

24.49

20.90

4.Shenzen (PRC)

21.40

18.25

5.Busan (S.Korea)

13.45

11.98

6.Guangzhou (PRC)

11.00

11.19

7.Dubai Ports (UAE)

11.83

11.12

8.Zhoushan / Ningbo (PRC)

11.23

10.50

9.Qingdao (PRC)

10.32

10.26

10.Rotterdam (Netherlands)

10.78

9.74

Major Ports

6.59 (2008-09)

7.54 (2010-11)

JNPT

3.95(2008-09)

4.27 (2010-11)

India

Source:For S.No.s 1-10, Port of Rotterdam Authority, May 2010.

Efficiency of Container Terminals at Major


Ports:2009-10
Performance Indicators of select
container terminals
Port/Termi
nal
Moves/Hr
25
Tuticorin

TEU/Mtr.
1187

TEU per
Employee
3008

Dwell
Time
(Days)
2.6

TRT (Day)
0.8

Chennai

27

1286

2797

2.0

1.1

JNPCT
JNPT NSICT
JNPT GTICT

15

1142

829

2.0

2.0

24

2553

3563

2.5

1.6

30

2462

3265

2.9

1.1

Cochin

16

536

579

6.4

1.4

What is container
shipping?
Container shipping is different from conventional
shipping because it uses containers of various
sizes 20 foot (6.09 m), 40 foot (12.18 m) , 45
foot (13.7 m), 48 foot (14.6 m), and 53 foot
(16.15 m) to load, transport, and unload goods.
Container shipping is a highly efficient method of
transporting goods. The container has made it
possible for large ships to be designed to
transport huge quantities of material, increasing
global trade dramatically.
Container ports are specially designed to load and
unload the containers quickly and efficiently. This
makes the import and export of goods affordable
for manufacturers and traders.
Before the invention of container shipping, goods
were unpacked and loaded onto the ships at the
port, taking up much more time, manpower and
money.

What can container


ships carry?

A standard container can hold


24,914 tin cans

Facts about containers

Container capacity is measured in twenty-foot


equivalent units (TEU). This is the size of the
standard 20-foot long (6.09 m) container.
Another standard size is the forty-foot (12.18 m)
container (i.e. two TEUs). A forty-foot
equivalent unit (FEU) can be loaded with about
20 tons of cargo.

Different containers
for different cargoes
In addition to standard containers, there are also
specialized types of equipment:
Open tops are used for easy load of cargo such
as logs, machinery and odd sized goods.
Flat racks can be used for boats, vehicles,
machinery or industrial equipment.
Open sides may be used for vegetables such as
onions and potatoes.
Tank containers transport many types of
liquids such as chemicals, wine and vegetable
oil.

How can container ships keep


food fresh?
Have you ever wondered how you can eat lamb
from New Zealand or sea food from Norway?

Special reefer containers exist that can


control temperatures, allowing everything
from meat, fruit and vegetables, to dairy
products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals to
travel across the world.
Reefers can keep goods frozen at
temperatures as low as -60C. However, they
can also preserve goods at warmer
temperatures if that is necessary.

How do the boxes


fit on the ship?

The containers are stacked on the ship with up


to 8 containers stacked on top of each other on
deck. Below the deck a ship can stack up to 11
containers on top of each other.
To make sure that the containers stay in
place during the voyage, twist locks are used
to connect the containers. A twist lock is a
device used for connecting two containers at
the corner posts through an interlocking
mechanism.

What are the advantages


of container shipping?
It allows us to meet the needs of the worlds
growing population by importing and exporting
goods.

It provides consumers with more choice.

It lets us experience goods from entirely


different cultures.

It helps modern industries such as


electronics and clothing to flourish.
It connects countries, peoples and markets.
It boosts economies and increases employment.
To give you an example: China has become one of
the main suppliers to the world and handles more
containers than any other nation.

Why dont we just transport goods


by airplane isnt that faster?
Transporting goods by
container ship is also
better for the
environment.

Container shipping is
the most efficient way
to transport large
volumes of goods
across the world.
While airplanes are
faster, container ships
can carry more goods
in one trip. It would
take hundreds of
airplanes to carry all
the goods that can fit
on just one large
container ship.

It is estimated that on
average a container ship
emits around 40 times
less CO2 than a large
freight aircraft and three
times less than a heavy
truck.

Transporting goods in
large volumes makes
it cheaper - we call
this economies of
scale.

Container shipping is also


estimated to be two and
a half times more energy
efficient than rail and 7
times more so than road.

Few people know very much about container


shipping, but the scale of the industry is huge
and involves the whole world. The ships
themselves are also massive in size.

Big, impressive facts that you


might not know
The worlds biggest container ships are about
1,300 feet long - thats nearly 400 meters or the
distance around an Olympic running track.
Many container ships can comfortably carry more
than 8,000 containers.
Container ships have the capacity to carry
several warehouses-worth of goods.

How did container


shipping start?
For as long as people have been sailing the oceans they have been trading with
other countries. The great empires of the world, from the Egyptians to the British
Empire, were all built on ocean trade.

As far back as 1792, boxes similar to modern containers emerged in England


and these were transported with horse and wagon and later moved via rail.

The U.S. government used containers during the Second World War.

Modern container shipping begun in 1956, when Malcolm McLean, a trucking


entrepreneur from North Carolina, U.S., bought a steamship company with the
idea of transporting entire truck trailers with their cargo still inside.

Various companies in the U.S. began to adopt containerisation. In 1966, the


vessel Fairland owned by Sea-Land sailed from the U.S. to Rotterdam in the
Netherlands with 256 containers. This was the first international voyage of a
container ship.

During the 1970s container shipping expanded dramatically and ports were
established in every continent in the world. This was the beginning of the
expansion that made container shipping the backbone of global trade.

The journey
our belongings
make
You probably do not realise the incredible journey your
clothes have been on even the t-shirt you wear has
been on a global adventure.

The cotton is grown


in Africa
loaded into containers
and transported to
factories in China, where
it is spun, woven and
made into a variety of
t-shirts.

containers full of t-shirts are then


shipped to Europe and the U.S., where
they are placed in shops for consumers to
buy.

So, that is the story of how your


favorite things are transported to
the shops.
If you want to find out more
please visit
www.worldshipping.org

The next time you buy something,


take a look at the label to see
where it is produced and imagine
the incredible journey it has made
around the world.