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Introduction to Statistics
Introduction to Statistics
Historical Notes  The earliest statistical recordings include:  Ancient Babylonians recorded their crop yields on
Historical Notes  The earliest statistical recordings include:  Ancient Babylonians recorded their crop yields on

Historical Notes

The earliest statistical recordings include:

Ancient Babylonians recorded their crop yields on clay tablets. Ancient Egyptian pharaohs recorded their wealth on stone walls.

Historical Notes  The earliest statistical recordings include:  Ancient Babylonians recorded their crop yields on
History of Statistics  1663 – Scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics with the publication of
History of Statistics  1663 – Scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics with the publication of

History of Statistics

1663 Scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt.

17 th century Its mathematical foundation were laid with the development of probability theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat.

18 th century the term “STATISTICS” designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by state.

19 th century the meaning of “STATISTICS” broadened, including the discipline concerning with the collection, summary and analysis of data.

Today Statistics is widely employed in government, business, natural and social sciences.

History of Statistics  1663 – Scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics with the publication of
Natures of Statistics  The origin of modern statistics can be traced to two areas of
Natures of Statistics  The origin of modern statistics can be traced to two areas of

Natures of Statistics

The origin of modern statistics can be traced to two areas of interest, which on the surface, have very little in common:

Government (political science) and games of chance.

Natures of Statistics  The origin of modern statistics can be traced to two areas of
Definition of Statistics  Statistics is used in everyday life, which people do not realize. 
Definition of Statistics  Statistics is used in everyday life, which people do not realize. 

Definition of Statistics

Statistics is used in everyday life, which people do not realize.

The science of classification and manipulation of data in order to draw inferences.

Statistics is derived from the Latin word "status" meaning state. Two basic meanings of the word Statistics:

1. It refers to actual numbers derived from the data. 2. It refers as method of analysis.

Definition of Statistics  Statistics is used in everyday life, which people do not realize. 
as statistics of Definition of Statistics  Statistics is a collection of quantitative data, such crimes,
as statistics of Definition of Statistics  Statistics is a collection of quantitative data, such crimes,

as statistics of

Definition of Statistics

Statistics is a collection of quantitative data, such

crimes, statistics of enrolment, statistics of unemployment. Statistics is also the study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret numerical information from data.

as statistics of Definition of Statistics  Statistics is a collection of quantitative data, such crimes,
to determine the Importance of Statistics  In Business – help businessmen to plan and forecast
to determine
to
determine

the

Importance of Statistics

In Business help businessmen to plan and forecast productions according to their customers. With statistics, the quality of products can be checked efficiently.

In

Economics

use

of

statistical

methods

relationship between supply and demand, imports and exports,

inflation rate and the per capital income.

In Banking banks uses statistical approaches based on probability

to

day.

estimate the number of depositors and their claims for a certain

to determine the Importance of Statistics  In Business – help businessmen to plan and forecast
Importance of Statistics  In Engineering The engineer samples a product quality – characteristics along with
Importance of Statistics  In Engineering The engineer samples a product quality – characteristics along with

Importance of Statistics

In

Engineering

The engineer samples a product quality

characteristics along with various controlled process variable to assist

in locating important variable related to product quality.

In Manufacturing Newly manufactures fuses are sampled before shipping to decide whether to ship or hold individual lots.

In Medicine The research physician experiments to determine the effect of various drugs and controlled environmental conditions on human in order to infer the appropriate method of treatment of a particular disease.

Importance of Statistics  In Engineering The engineer samples a product quality – characteristics along with
Two Kinds of Statistics  Descriptive Statistics – Deals with the methods of organizing, summarizing and
Two Kinds of Statistics  Descriptive Statistics – Deals with the methods of organizing, summarizing and

Two Kinds of Statistics

Descriptive Statistics – Deals with the methods of organizing, summarizing and presenting a mass of data so as to yield meaningful information.

Inferential Statistics – Deals with making generalizations about a body of data where only part of it is examined. This comprises those methods concerned with the analysis of a subset of data leading to predictions or inferences about the entire set of data.

Two Kinds of Statistics  Descriptive Statistics – Deals with the methods of organizing, summarizing and
Examples of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics  A bowler wants to and his bowling average for
Examples of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics  A bowler wants to and his bowling average for

Examples of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

A bowler wants to and his bowling average for the past 12 games. A manager would like to predict based on previous years‘ sales, the sales performance of a company for the next five years. A politician would like to estimate, based on an opinion poll, his chance for winning in the upcoming senatorial election. A teacher wishes to determine the percentage of students who passed the examination. A basketball player wants to estimate his chance of winning the most valuable player award based on his current season averages and the averages of his opponents.

Examples of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics  A bowler wants to and his bowling average for
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Population – It is the set of all individuals

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Population – It is the set of all individuals
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Population – It is the set of all individuals

Population – It is the set of all individuals or entities under consideration or study. It may be a finite or infinite collection of objects, events, or individuals, with specified class or characteristics under consideration.

Individuals – people or objects included in the study.

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Population – It is the set of all individuals
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Variable – characteristic of interest measurable on each and

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Variable – characteristic of interest measurable on each and
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Variable – characteristic of interest measurable on each and

Variable – characteristic of interest measurable on each and every individual in the universe denoted by any capital letter in the English alphabet

Types of Variable:

Qualitative variable consists of categories or attributes which have non-numerical characteristics.

Quantitative variable consists of numbers representing counts or measurements

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Variable – characteristic of interest measurable on each and
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms Classification of Quantitative Variable:  Discrete quantitative variable results from

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms Classification of Quantitative Variable:  Discrete quantitative variable results from
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms Classification of Quantitative Variable:  Discrete quantitative variable results from

Classification of Quantitative Variable:

Discrete quantitative variable results from either a finite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values

Continuous quantitative variable results from infinitely many possible values that can be associated with points on a continuous scale

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms Classification of Quantitative Variable:  Discrete quantitative variable results from
Identify each statement as having discrete or continuous data.  Among 500,000 microcomputer chips made by

Identify each statement as having discrete or continuous data.

Identify each statement as having discrete or continuous data.  Among 500,000 microcomputer chips made by
Identify each statement as having discrete or continuous data.  Among 500,000 microcomputer chips made by

Among 500,000 microcomputer chips made by Motorola, 2 are found to be defective. Yesterday’s records for Motorola’s marketing department show that 25 employees were absent.

Radar on EDSA indicated that the driver was going 150 kph when ticketed for speeding.

The amount of time that a taxi driver spends yielding to individual pedestrians each year is 2.367 seconds.

Among 200 consumers surveyed, 186 recognize the Ligo Sardines brand name.

Upon completion of a diet and exercise program, Tony weighed 12.37 lbs. less than when he started the program.

Identify each statement as having discrete or continuous data.  Among 500,000 microcomputer chips made by
Identify the population, variable of interest, and type of variable:  Example1. The researcher would like

Identify the population, variable of interest, and type of variable:

Identify the population, variable of interest, and type of variable:  Example1. The researcher would like
Identify the population, variable of interest, and type of variable:  Example1. The researcher would like

Example1. The researcher would like to determine the average height of BTM students at DLSU-Dasmariñas.

Example 2. The librarian would like to determine the books commonly borrowed by DLSU-D students

Example 3. The researcher would like to know the time (in minutes) it will take a student to finish a quiz in statistics.

Example 4. The dean of a certain college would like to determine the average weekly allowance of BS Computer Science students.

Identify the population, variable of interest, and type of variable:  Example1. The researcher would like
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Sample – part of the population or a sub-collection

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Sample – part of the population or a sub-collection
Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Sample – part of the population or a sub-collection

Sample – part of the population or a sub-collection of elements drawn from the population

Parameter – numerical measurement describing some characteristics of a population. Statistic – numerical measurement describing some characteristics of a sample. Survey – conducted to gather opinions or feedbacks about a variety of topics Census survey – conducted by gathering information from the entire population Sampling survey – conducted by gathering information only from part of the population

Definition of Some Basic Statistical Terms  Sample – part of the population or a sub-collection
Levels of Measurement  Level 1. Nominal is characterized by data that consists of names, labels,

Levels of Measurement

Levels of Measurement  Level 1. Nominal is characterized by data that consists of names, labels,

Level 1. Nominal is characterized by data that consists of names, labels, or categories only.

Ex.

name

religion

civil status address

sex degree program

Levels of Measurement  Level 1. Nominal is characterized by data that consists of names, labels,
Levels of Measurement  Level 2. Ordinal involves data that may arranged in some order, but
Levels of Measurement  Level 2. Ordinal involves data that may arranged in some order, but

Levels of Measurement

Level 2. Ordinal involves data that may arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.

Ex. 1. military rank

2. job position

3. year level

Levels of Measurement  Level 2. Ordinal involves data that may arranged in some order, but
Levels of Measurement  Level 3. Interval is like the ordinal level, with the additional property

Levels of Measurement

Levels of Measurement  Level 3. Interval is like the ordinal level, with the additional property

Level 3. Interval is like the ordinal level, with the additional property that meaningful amounts of differences between data can be determined. However, there is no inherent (natural) zero starting point.

Ex.

1.

IQ score

2. temperature (in 0 C)

Levels of Measurement  Level 3. Interval is like the ordinal level, with the additional property
Levels of Measurement  Level 4. Ratio – the interval level modified to include the inherent

Levels of Measurement

Levels of Measurement  Level 4. Ratio – the interval level modified to include the inherent

Level 4. Ratio – the interval level modified to include the inherent zero starting point. For values at this level, differences and ratios are meaningful.

Ex.

1. height

2. area

3. weekly allowance

Levels of Measurement  Level 4. Ratio – the interval level modified to include the inherent

Characteristics of 4 levels of measurements.

Characteristics of 4 levels of measurements. are Type Level names have an inherent order from more
are Type Level names have an inherent order from more to less or higher to lower
are
Type
Level
names
have an inherent order
from more to less
or higher to lower
are numbers with
equal intervals
between them
are numbers that
have a theoretical
zero point
Nominal
X
Categorical/
Qualitative
Ordinal
X
X
Interval
X
X
X
Numerical/
Quantitative
Ratio
X
X
X
X
Characteristics of 4 levels of measurements. are Type Level names have an inherent order from more