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HINDUISM

Hinduism
Has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious

beliefs, and "a way of life.


Considered as the Oldest religion in the world
Has no ecclesiastical order, no single founder, and no single scripture
World's third largest religion, with over 1 billion followers or 15% of the

global population, known as Hindus.


The majority of Hindus reside in India, Nepal, Mauritius and Bali (Indonesia).
Hindu was derived from the Indo-Aryan Sanskrit word Sindhu.

Hinduism
Hinduism originated around the Indus Valley near the River Indus in modern
day Pakistan.
Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are
represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him.
The main Hindu texts are the Vedas and their supplements (books based on
the Vedas). Veda is a Sanskrit word meaning 'knowledge'.
Hindus celebrate many holy days, but the Festival of Lights, Diwali is the
best known.

Hindu Belief System


ATMAN
- means 'eternal self'. The atman refers to the real self beyond ego or false self. It is
often referred to as 'spirit or 'soul' and indicates our true self or essence which
underlies our existence.

KARMA
- literally means "deed" or "act", and more broadly names the universal principle of
cause and effect, action and reaction, which Hindus believe governs all consciousness.

Hindu Belief System


DHARMA

- means 'duty', 'virtue', 'morality', even 'religion' and it refers to the power which
upholds the universe and society. It maintains society, it makes the grass grow, the sun
shine, and makes us moral people or rather gives humans the opportunity to act virtuously.

MOKSHA

- end of the death and rebirth cycle and is classed as the fourth and ultimate artha
(goal).

The Hindu Caste System

The Hindu Caste System


is the bane of Hindu society for centuries
Is the division of society based on occupation
and family lineage

The four main castes recognized by traditional Hindu


society based primarily on hereditary occupation.
Brahmins
- They are the priestly class, perform rites and rituals for
themselves and for others and obliged to observe the
sacraments.
Kshatriyas
- They are the warrior class, who are commanded to
protect the people, bestow gifts to the Brahmins, offer
sacrifices to gods and ancestors, and dispense justice.

Vaisyas

-They are the merchant and peasant classes, who are


expected to tend cattle, offer sacrifices, trade, lend
money and cultivate the land. They had to perform and
participate in certain Vedic rituals but they were not
allowed to marry women of higher castes.
Shudras- they are the labor class, whose only duty is to
serve the other three castes. They were not required to
observe any Vedic rituals and study the Vedas or even
hear the sacred chants. They are not allowed to eat food
in the company of higher castes or marry their women.

Chandalas- the lowest of the Shudras and also called


the impure ones. They are treated as untouchables
because of their gory religious practices, penchant for
sacrifices, magical rites and unclean habits.
-In ancient times they were not allowed to enter a
village or city during day time or walk in the same street
where men of other castes walked. So they lived mostly
on the fringes of society, unknown and uncared for, and
mostly working in the graveyards and cremation grounds
or as hunters, butchers and professional cleaners of
human waste.

Factors how the Caste System was


enforced
Heredity- based on birth, people inherited caste from
their parents and passed it on to their children.
Caste Rules- it is enforced strictly through the fear of
political and religious authority.
Marriage- the caste system prohibited marriages
outside ones caste to avoid inter mixture of the castes.
But marriages between a higher caste men and lower
caste women were less objectionable than marriages
between shudra males and higher caste females and
marriages between men of upper castes and shudra
women.

Preferential treatment- People born in the three upper


castes were given initiation into the study of the Vedas
and twice born while Shudras were not. The laws were
discriminatory in matters of rewards an punishments.
Royal Support- the caste system was preserved and
enforced mostly through royal support. The relationship
between the priestly class and the warrior class was one
of convenience.

KARMA .

Karma
Karma is a concept in Hinduism which
explains causality through a system where
beneficial effects are derive from past
beneficial actions and harmful effects from
past harmful actions, creating a system of
actions and reactions throughout a Atman's
reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth.
The causality is said to be applicable not
only to the material world but also to our
thoughts, words, actions and actions that

Origin
The earliest appearance of the word karman is found in the
Rigveda. The term karman also appears significantly in the
Atharva Veda.
According to the Shatapatha Brahmana, "a man is born to
the world he has made" and one is placed in a balance in
the other world for an estimate of one's good and evil
deed. It also declares that as a man is 'constituted' by his
desires, he is born in the other world with reference to
these.
The concept of karma first appears strongly in the
Bhagavad Gita.

Definition
"Karma" literally means "deed" or "act", and
more broadly names the universal principle
of cause and effect, action and reaction,
which
Hindus
believe
governs
all
consciousness.
Karma is not fate, for we act with what can
be described as a conditioned free will
creating our own destinies. Karma refers to
the totality of our action and their
concomitant reactions in this and previous

Human beings are said to produce karma in four


ways:

Through thoughts
Through right attitude words
Through actions that we perform ourselves
Through actions others perform under our instruction

Hindu scriptures divide karma into three kinds:


Sanchita is the accumulated karma. It would be impossible to
experience and endure all karmas in one lifetime.
Prarabdha Fruit-bearing karma is the portion of accumulated karma
that has "ripened" and appears as a particular problem in the present
life.
Kriyamana is everything that we produce in the current life. All
kriyamana karmas flow in to sanchita karma and consequently shape

our future. Only in human life we can change our future destiny.
After death we lose Kriya Shakti (ability to act) and do (kriyamana)
karma until we are born again in another human body.

KARMA .

Karma
Karma is a concept in Hinduism which
explains causality through a system where
beneficial effects are derive from past
beneficial actions and harmful effects from
past harmful actions, creating a system of
actions and reactions throughout a Atman's
reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth.
The causality is said to be applicable not
only to the material world but also to our
thoughts, words, actions and actions that

Origin
The earliest appearance of the word karman is found in the
Rigveda. The term karman also appears significantly in the
Atharva Veda.
According to the Shatapatha Brahmana, "a man is born to
the world he has made" and one is placed in a balance in
the other world for an estimate of one's good and evil
deed. It also declares that as a man is 'constituted' by his
desires, he is born in the other world with reference to
these.
The concept of karma first appears strongly in the
Bhagavad Gita.

Definition
"Karma" literally means "deed" or "act", and
more broadly names the universal principle
of cause and effect, action and reaction,
which
Hindus
believe
governs
all
consciousness.
Karma is not fate, for we act with what can
be described as a conditioned free will
creating our own destinies. Karma refers to
the totality of our action and their
concomitant reactions in this and previous

Human beings are said to produce karma in four


ways:

Through thoughts
Through right attitude words
Through actions that we perform ourselves
Through actions others perform under our instruction

Hindu scriptures divide karma into three kinds:


Sanchita is the accumulated karma. It would be impossible to
experience and endure all karmas in one lifetime.
Prarabdha Fruit-bearing karma is the portion of accumulated karma
that has "ripened" and appears as a particular problem in the present
life.
Kriyamana is everything that we produce in the current life. All
kriyamana karmas flow in to sanchita karma and consequently shape

our future. Only in human life we can change our future destiny.
After death we lose Kriya Shakti (ability to act) and do (kriyamana)
karma until we are born again in another human body.