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Carbon Footprint

First: Units/Conversion/Consumption

Let us see a typical energy


consumption on Eon Website
Appreciate typical values
Understand KWh with the following
slides:

What is a Watt?!?!?
Not the same as energy
Power is the capacity of an object to
do work.
The units for power are the Watt (W)
Power is the rate of change of energy
with respect to time so 1 W = 1 Js-1
Energy = Power x time
Power = Energy / time

The kilowatt-hour
A unit of energy (kWh)
1 kWh = 3.6 MJ
1 kWh = work done at a rate of 1000 W
for 1 hour
1 W 1 J s -1

1kW 1000J s -1
1 kW h 1000 60 60 J
1 kW h 3,600,000 3.6 MJ

The kilowatt-hour
Can be expressed as kWh/day or kWh/yr
Assume a generator has an average power
output of 1 MW (or 1,000KW)
In one hour
In one day
In one Year

E 1,000 1 kW h
E 1,000 kW h
E 1,000 24 kW h/day
E 24,000 kW h/day
E 1,000 24 365 kW h/yr
E 8,760,000 kW h/yr

The kilowatt-hour
A light bulb is rated at 100 W
If the light bulb is switched on for
one hour it uses 0.1 kWh of energy
If the light bulb is switched on for two
hours it uses 0.2 kWh of energy
If the light bulb is switched on for
three hours it uses 0.3 kWh of
energy.

Units/Conversion/Consumpti
on
Look at Energy bill
and Understand gas conversion to KWh
Note In the UK gas meters will record
consumption either in cubic feet (ft3) or
cubic meters (m3).

Example:
An efficient semi detached house!

Note that 114 and 72 Units seen


above refer to 100 cubic feet.

Convert Ft3 or M3 Gas consumption to


KWh
Record the number of units used use 100 for sake of a simple example
Convert from imperial to metric (if need be)
multiply number of units used by 2.83 (Note: UK gas meters will record imperial
consumption in cubic feet (ft3) or commonly 100ft3 (hence why *2.83 not
*0.00283)
[1 cubit foot = 0.0283 cubic metre]

Multiply by volume correction factor


generally default value of 1.02264
used to take account of temperature and atmospheric conditions.

Multiply by calorific value (CV)


measurement of the amount of energy contained in the gas.
CV is usually quoted in Megajoules per cubic metre (MJ/m3), commonly between
37.5 MJ/m3 and 43.0 MJ/m3. (PTO for further typical values)
This is continually measured by Transco for each Local Distribution Zone and passed
to your gas supplier daily. FYI See further details here:
http://www.transco.co.uk/services/cvalue/cvinfo.htm

Divide by kWh conversion factor


1W = 1J/s, 1Wh = 1J*60*60 =3600J, thus 1KWh=3600,000J=3.6MJ and therefore
1MJ= 1 / 3.6 KWh
So divide by 3.6 to convert MJ into KWh

Example continued:
The houses annual
consumption last year
was:
Elec: 1,795KWh
Gas: 14,813KWh

Do the reverse
calculation to find
what cubic metres
and cubic feet of
gas heating is
consumed in my house
last year.

Solution
Annual Gas Consumption:
14,813KWh
(14,813*3.6)/39(CV)/1.02264
= 1337.08 M3
= divide again by 2.83 to get 472.47
100ft3 (or simply 47,247ft3)

Note 100ft3 =2.83M3 , so 1ft3 =


0.0283 M3
47,247*0.0283 = 1337.08

Example: Our Sports Centre


Annual consumption of a much bigger building:

Do the reverse calculation to find out what cubic metres and


cubic feet of gas heating is consumed.
105*3.6/39/1.02264*3289.5(floor space stated above)
= 31177 M3
= divide again by 2.83 to get 11016.61 100ft 3 (or 1,101,661ft3) which is
circa 20 times consumption of my house in terms of gas consumption

Further Units/Conversions
Gas consumption in KG to cubic metres(or
feet)
Natural gas is a mixture of different gases,
so density will depend on composition (as
well as temperature and pressure).
Lets use a typical average figure: 0.8
kg/m at 0 C (but can vary 0.7 - 0.9
kg/m)
circa 1.15 kg/m at 20 C typically

Further Units/Conversions
As youve already seen- Natural Gas is usually measured by volume e.g. cubic feet.
To measure larger amounts of natural gas, "CCF" (centum cubic-feet) is used to denote
100 cubic feet, and "MCF" (mil cubic-feet) is used to denote 1,000 cubic feet.
To provide greater accuracy in comparing fuels, energy content is measured
in terms of "British Thermal Units (BTU's)". Note MMBtu equals 1,000,000 Btu
A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit at or close to its point of maximum density.

One British therm (thm) unit of heat energy equal 100,000 BTU. It is approximately
the energy equivalent of burning 100 cubic feet (often referred to as 1 CCF) of natural
gas.
i.e. 1 Therm = 100,000 BTU = 100 cubic feet or 1 CCF

Since natural gas meters measure volume and not energy content, a therm factor is
used by (Natural) gas companies to convert the volume of gas used to its heat
equivalent, and thus calculate the actual energy use.
The therm factor is usually in the units therms/CCF. It will vary with the mix of
hydrocarbons in the natural gas. Natural gas with a higher than average concentration
of ethane, propane or butane will have a higher therm factor. Impurities, such as
carbon dioxide or nitrogen, lower the therm factor.

Click below to download the latest


Conversion factors from Carbon Trust

Kilograms Carbon Dioxide


Equivalent
The use of fuels leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and small
quantities of other greenhouse gases including methane (CH4) and
nitrous oxide (N2O).
For a given quantity of a gas, the equivalent quantity of CO2 that
would be needed to give the same greenhouse effect can be
calculated using its global warming potential. This quantity is
quoted in units of kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent
(kgCO2e).
The greenhouse gas conversion factor comprises the effect of the
CO2, CH4 and N2O combined this is quoted as kgCO2e per unit of
fuel consumed.
The factors in the conversion factors guide on the previous slide do
not account for indirect emissions, for example emissions associated
with the extraction of natural gas, refining of oil etc. For conversion
factors that include indirect emissions see the Defra/DECC 2013
greenhouse gas conversion factors.

Lets start with an example


Electricity
Electricity used:
10,000 MWh
Defra carbon emission factors: 0.430 kgCO2e/kWh
CO2e from Electricity = 10,000,000 x 0.430
= 4,300,000 kgCO2e

Fuel for energy


Gas used:
2,000,000 m3
To convert m3 to kWh:
x 11
Defra carbon emission factors: 0.19 kgCO2/kWh
CO2 from Gas = 2,000,000 x 11 x 0.19 = 4,180,000 kgCO2e
(the 11 is rough rounding from such calculation we made at the
start of today)
Gas Oil used:
10,000 litres
Gas Oil @ 10.7 kWh/litre (I now see 11KWh/litre in the conversion
document)
Defra carbon emission factors: 0.25 kg CO2/kWh
CO2 from Gas Oil = 10,000 x 10.7 x 0.25 = 26,750 kgCO2e
.or we could have simply used the conversion 2.6008 kg/litres

Fuel for transport


Diesel used:
300,000 litres
use conversion from litres to CO2e : * 2.21
CO2 from Diesel = 663,000 kgCO2e
Business car travel:
Miles travelled:
140,000 miles
Convert miles into km:
x 1.609344 (could have worked with
miles)
Car engine emission factor:
0.15KgCO2/km
CO2 from vehicle = 140,000 x 1.609344 x 0.150
= 33,800 kgCO2e

HFCs Refrigerants Leakage

HFC 134a used: 300kg


Defra factor: 1,300kgCO2e/kg confirmed in the
document 2012 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG
Conversion Factors for Company Reporting seen here:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/
attachment_data/file/69554/pb13773-ghg-conversion-fac
tors-2012.pdf
CO2e from refrigerants = 300kg x 1,300 = 390,000
kgCO2e

Carbon Footprint Summary


Carbon Source
(% contribution)

CO2 emissions
(tonnes)

Electricity
(45)

4,300

Energy
(43)

Gas
Light Oil

4,180
27

Transport
(7)

Diesel
Business Miles

663.5
34

Refrigerant
(5)

HFC 134a

390

The efficiency of a gas boilers used in previous example is circa 74%. Measures can be
introduced to increase this operating efficiency to 82%. This would cost the company
50,000. What would be the pay back if the cost of gas is 1/therm? (just FYI: 1 Therm =
100,000 BTU = 100 cubic feet or 1 CCF)

Gas consumed (@74%) = 2,000,000m3 = 22,000,000 kWh


22 GWh x .74 = 16.28 GWh (so this must be the energy o/p required
in effect)
If efficiency enhanced to 82%, new gas consumption (purchased)
would be:
New consumption * 0.82 = 16.28 GWh, therefore
New consumption = 16.28GWh/0.82 = 19.85GWh
Note this represents a reduction of 2.15 GWh of Gas use or circa 10%
Note 1 Therm = 29.3KWh (from the same document) (which would
reduce CO2 emissions by 398 tonnes, (calculated from Carbon Trust
conversion: 2150000KWh * 0.185 conversion for gas = 398,850 Kg =
398 tonnes)
2.15GWh = 2150000KWh

/29.31 = 73,358 therms,

Gas price @ 1/therm = 73,358 saved per year


Pay back is 50,000/73,358 = 0.68 years or about 8 months

Think of suggestions to reduce the carbon footprint of the


organisation.

CHP
http://www.energysavingtrust.org.u
k/Generating-energy/Choosing-a-ren
ewable-technology/Micro-CHP-microcombined-heat-and-power

GSHP/ASHP
Heat Pumps: Heat from Outside
1: heat given off to home from high pressured gas (e.g.
CFC/HFC/Butane etc) from the compressor
2: gas compressed and expands quickly (Bernoulli's theorem) to
condense into liquid
3: cool liquid extracts heat from air or ground depending on the
source used.
4: warmer liquid compressed to high pressure to transform
liquid into gas.

http://www.waihekeheating.co.nz/HowHeatPumpsWork.php

Heat Sources

http://www.staffordarea.saveyourenergy.org.uk/what/heating/
ashp

http://www.creativeenergies.biz/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2009/07/dsc_0016.jpg

Ground as a Heat Source


Ground Source
Heat is not
geothermal
energy
It is simply solar
energy stored
in the soil

http://www.filterclean.co.uk/informationpage1geothermal.htm

Here is an improvement
Investigate the feasibility of installing a CHP unit
into the previous example inc the original boiler.
Carbon Source
(% contribution)

CO2 emissions
(tonnes)

Electricity
(45)

4,300

Energy
(43)

Gas
Light Oil

4,180
27

Transport
(7)

Diesel
Business Miles

663.5
34

Refrigerant
(5)

HFC 134a

390

Generate 20 % of the companys electricity using a CHP unit (not to replace the gas
boiler).
The overall efficiency of the CHP is 85% with the Heat : Power ratio 3 : 1
Remember: Electricity used: 10,000 MWh = 4,300,000 kgCO2e

Electricity consumed = 10,000,000 kWh


(10GWh)
20 % of production by CHP = 2 GWh Electricity,
& 6 GWh heat (given by heat:power ratio)
Thus a reduction of 6GWh heat needed from old
boiler.
6GW/0.74 = 8.11GWh of energy needed for the
old boiler to give 6GW output.
So 8,110,000KWh * circa 0.19 (conversion
factor)= 1540,000 KgCO2 = 1540 tonnes CO2
reduction when using CHP unit.
(Note 0.74 was efficiency of the original gas
boiler noted in the original question.)

Supply to CHP = 2+6 GWh/ 0.85(efficiency) =


9.41 GWh ( gas supply probably) which
would give 9,410,000KWh x 0.19 = 1788
tonnes CO2
Existing Gas use 22 GWh and light oil 0.107
GWh
Then Carbon emissions are tabulated a 7 %
reduction

Gas

Diesel (heating)

Electricity

CHP

TOTAL
(Tonnes)

CO2 emissions
(tonnes)
Existing Heat
& Power
provision

CO2 emissions
(tonnes)
With
CHP

4180

2640
(4180 1540)

27

27

4300

3440
(0.8 x 4300)

1788

8507

7895

Another Example

Energy & Carbon Conversions Solutions


Electricity
Electricity used:
10,000 MWh
Defra carbon emission factors:0.537
kgCO2/kWh
CO2e from Electricity = 10,000,000 x
0.537
= 5,370 tonnes CO2e

Fuel for energy


Gas used: 2,000,000 m3
To convert m3 to kWh:
x 11
Defra carbon emission factors: 0.185 kgCO2/kWh
CO2 from Gas = 2,000,000 x 10.9 x 0.185 =
4,033 tonnes CO2e
Gas Oil used:
10,000 litres
2.674 kg CO2/litre
CO2 from Gas Oil = 26.74 tonnes CO2e

Fuel for transport


Diesel used: 300,000 litres
2.63 kg CO2/litre
CO2 from Diesel = 789 tonnes CO2

Business car travel:


Miles travelled:
140,000 miles
Average petrol car 0.333 kg CO2/mile
CO2 from vehicle = 140,000 x 0.333

= 46.62 tonnes CO2

HFCs Refrigerants Leakage

HFC 134a used: 300kg


Defra factor: 1,300kgCO2e/kg
CO2e from refrigerants = 300kg x 1,300 = 390 tonnes
CO2e

Carbon Footprint Summary


Carbon Source
(% contribution)

CO2 emissions
(tonnes)

Electricity
(51)

5,370

Energy
(38)

Gas
Light Oil

4,033
27

Transport
(8)

Diesel
Business Miles

789
47

Refrigerant
(3)

HFC 134a

390

Improvements
Examples:
Efficient gas boiler
Ground source heat pump

The efficiency of the gas boilers is on average 74%. Measures can be


introduced to increase this operating efficiency to 82%. This would cost the
company 50,000. What would be the pay back if the cost of gas is 1/therm?

Gas consumed = 22,000,000 kWh when efficiency is 74%


22 GWh x .74 = 16.28 GWh (so this must be the energy required
in effect)
If efficiency enhanced to 82%, new gas consumption
(purchased) would be:
New consumption * 0.82 = 16.28 GWh, therefore
New consumption = 16.28GWh/0.82 = 19.85GWh
Note this represents a reduction of 2.15 GWh of Gas use or circa
10% which would reduce CO2 emissions by 398 tonnes,
(calculated from Carbon Trust conversion: 2150000KWh * 0.185
conversion for gas = 398,850)
Note 1 Therm = 29.3KWh
2.15GWh = 2150000KWh/29.31 = 73,358 therms,
Gas price @ 1/therm = 73,358

Install a Ground source Heat pump that will provide 25% of the heating
requirement.
The Heat Pump operates with an average coefficient of performance (COP) of 3.

Energy required 22GWh x 0.74 =


16.28GWh
25% of heating is: 16.28/4 = 4.07
GWh
Electricity to provide this if COP =3 is
4.07/3 = 1.36 GWh
Increased CO2 from additional
electricity is 1,360,000 KWh x
0.537
= 729,000 kgCO2 = 729 tonnes
CO2

Existing Heat
& Power
provision
Gas

Diesel
(heating)
Electricity

TOTAL
(Tonnes)

The corresponding CO2 emissions


can be calculated accordingly
which shows a 1% reduction in
Carbon as a result of the Heat
Pump installation

With
Heat Pump

4033

3225
(0.75 x 4033)

27

27

5370

6093
(729 + 5370)

9430

9351

Example: Past paper


Establish the Carbon footprint of the organisation that has the following annual consumption profile.
Calculate the carbon dioxide emissions in tonnes for electricity, energy, transport and refrigerant.

This organisation has the following annual consumption profile:


Electricity: Electricity usage is 10,000 MWh.
Energy: Fuel for energy gas 2,000,000 cubic metre; and light oil 10,000 litres.
Transport: Transport diesel 300,000 litres, and business mileage 140,000 miles.
Refrigerant: Refrigerant (HFC 134a) usage is 300 kg.

Please note: When calculating the carbon dioxide emissions in tonnes for HFC 134a, please use the Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) conversion factor of 1,300,000 kilogram carbon dioxide emission per
tonne.

Also note the conversion factor for m3 of natural gas to kwh is 11.13

Other conversion factors that are required are listed below:

Fuel Units kgCO2e per unit


Grid electricity kwh 0.430
Natural gas kwh 0.183
Gas oil litres 3.059
Diesellitres 2.667
Business miles miles 0.336

Solution

(note values a little off as conversions were updated but not the solution)
Electricity used: 10,000 MWh
Defra carbon emission factors:0.430 kgCO2e/kWh
CO2e from Electricity = 10,000,000 x 0.430 = 4,300,000 kgCO2e
Fuel for energy Gas used: 2,000,000 m3
Defra carbon emission factors:0.19 kgCO2/kWh
To convert m3 to kWh: x 11
CO2 from Gas = 2,000,000 x 11 x 0.19 = 4,180,000 kgCO2

Gas Oil used: 10,000 litres


CO2 from Gas Oil = 26,750 kgCO2

Fuel for transport Diesel used: 300,000 litres


CO2 from Diesel = 802,500 kgCO2

Business car travel:


Miles travelled: 140,000 miles
CO2 from vehicle = 140,000 x 0.150 x 1.609344
= 33,800 kgCO2

HFCs Refrigerants Leakage


Example
HFC 134a used: 300kg
Defra factor: 1,300,000kgCO2e/tonne
CO2e from refrigerants
= 0.3 x 1,300,000 = 390,000 kgCO2e

Solution
Carbon Footprint Summary