CarbonFootprint Calculations

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CarbonFootprint Calculations

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You are on page 1of 42

First: Units/Conversion/Consumption

consumption on Eon Website

Appreciate typical values

Understand KWh with the following

slides:

What is a Watt?!?!?

Not the same as energy

Power is the capacity of an object to

do work.

The units for power are the Watt (W)

Power is the rate of change of energy

with respect to time so 1 W = 1 Js-1

Energy = Power x time

Power = Energy / time

The kilowatt-hour

A unit of energy (kWh)

1 kWh = 3.6 MJ

1 kWh = work done at a rate of 1000 W

for 1 hour

1 W 1 J s -1

1kW 1000J s -1

1 kW h 1000 60 60 J

1 kW h 3,600,000 3.6 MJ

The kilowatt-hour

Can be expressed as kWh/day or kWh/yr

Assume a generator has an average power

output of 1 MW (or 1,000KW)

In one hour

In one day

In one Year

E 1,000 1 kW h

E 1,000 kW h

E 1,000 24 kW h/day

E 24,000 kW h/day

E 1,000 24 365 kW h/yr

E 8,760,000 kW h/yr

The kilowatt-hour

A light bulb is rated at 100 W

If the light bulb is switched on for

one hour it uses 0.1 kWh of energy

If the light bulb is switched on for two

hours it uses 0.2 kWh of energy

If the light bulb is switched on for

three hours it uses 0.3 kWh of

energy.

Units/Conversion/Consumpti

on

Look at Energy bill

and Understand gas conversion to KWh

Note In the UK gas meters will record

consumption either in cubic feet (ft3) or

cubic meters (m3).

Example:

An efficient semi detached house!

above refer to 100 cubic feet.

KWh

Record the number of units used use 100 for sake of a simple example

Convert from imperial to metric (if need be)

multiply number of units used by 2.83 (Note: UK gas meters will record imperial

consumption in cubic feet (ft3) or commonly 100ft3 (hence why *2.83 not

*0.00283)

[1 cubit foot = 0.0283 cubic metre]

generally default value of 1.02264

used to take account of temperature and atmospheric conditions.

measurement of the amount of energy contained in the gas.

CV is usually quoted in Megajoules per cubic metre (MJ/m3), commonly between

37.5 MJ/m3 and 43.0 MJ/m3. (PTO for further typical values)

This is continually measured by Transco for each Local Distribution Zone and passed

to your gas supplier daily. FYI See further details here:

http://www.transco.co.uk/services/cvalue/cvinfo.htm

1W = 1J/s, 1Wh = 1J*60*60 =3600J, thus 1KWh=3600,000J=3.6MJ and therefore

1MJ= 1 / 3.6 KWh

So divide by 3.6 to convert MJ into KWh

Example continued:

The houses annual

consumption last year

was:

Elec: 1,795KWh

Gas: 14,813KWh

Do the reverse

calculation to find

what cubic metres

and cubic feet of

gas heating is

consumed in my house

last year.

Solution

Annual Gas Consumption:

14,813KWh

(14,813*3.6)/39(CV)/1.02264

= 1337.08 M3

= divide again by 2.83 to get 472.47

100ft3 (or simply 47,247ft3)

0.0283 M3

47,247*0.0283 = 1337.08

Annual consumption of a much bigger building:

cubic feet of gas heating is consumed.

105*3.6/39/1.02264*3289.5(floor space stated above)

= 31177 M3

= divide again by 2.83 to get 11016.61 100ft 3 (or 1,101,661ft3) which is

circa 20 times consumption of my house in terms of gas consumption

Further Units/Conversions

Gas consumption in KG to cubic metres(or

feet)

Natural gas is a mixture of different gases,

so density will depend on composition (as

well as temperature and pressure).

Lets use a typical average figure: 0.8

kg/m at 0 C (but can vary 0.7 - 0.9

kg/m)

circa 1.15 kg/m at 20 C typically

Further Units/Conversions

As youve already seen- Natural Gas is usually measured by volume e.g. cubic feet.

To measure larger amounts of natural gas, "CCF" (centum cubic-feet) is used to denote

100 cubic feet, and "MCF" (mil cubic-feet) is used to denote 1,000 cubic feet.

To provide greater accuracy in comparing fuels, energy content is measured

in terms of "British Thermal Units (BTU's)". Note MMBtu equals 1,000,000 Btu

A BTU is the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree

Fahrenheit at or close to its point of maximum density.

One British therm (thm) unit of heat energy equal 100,000 BTU. It is approximately

the energy equivalent of burning 100 cubic feet (often referred to as 1 CCF) of natural

gas.

i.e. 1 Therm = 100,000 BTU = 100 cubic feet or 1 CCF

Since natural gas meters measure volume and not energy content, a therm factor is

used by (Natural) gas companies to convert the volume of gas used to its heat

equivalent, and thus calculate the actual energy use.

The therm factor is usually in the units therms/CCF. It will vary with the mix of

hydrocarbons in the natural gas. Natural gas with a higher than average concentration

of ethane, propane or butane will have a higher therm factor. Impurities, such as

carbon dioxide or nitrogen, lower the therm factor.

Conversion factors from Carbon Trust

Equivalent

The use of fuels leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and small

quantities of other greenhouse gases including methane (CH4) and

nitrous oxide (N2O).

For a given quantity of a gas, the equivalent quantity of CO2 that

would be needed to give the same greenhouse effect can be

calculated using its global warming potential. This quantity is

quoted in units of kilograms carbon dioxide equivalent

(kgCO2e).

The greenhouse gas conversion factor comprises the effect of the

CO2, CH4 and N2O combined this is quoted as kgCO2e per unit of

fuel consumed.

The factors in the conversion factors guide on the previous slide do

not account for indirect emissions, for example emissions associated

with the extraction of natural gas, refining of oil etc. For conversion

factors that include indirect emissions see the Defra/DECC 2013

greenhouse gas conversion factors.

Electricity

Electricity used:

10,000 MWh

Defra carbon emission factors: 0.430 kgCO2e/kWh

CO2e from Electricity = 10,000,000 x 0.430

= 4,300,000 kgCO2e

Gas used:

2,000,000 m3

To convert m3 to kWh:

x 11

Defra carbon emission factors: 0.19 kgCO2/kWh

CO2 from Gas = 2,000,000 x 11 x 0.19 = 4,180,000 kgCO2e

(the 11 is rough rounding from such calculation we made at the

start of today)

Gas Oil used:

10,000 litres

Gas Oil @ 10.7 kWh/litre (I now see 11KWh/litre in the conversion

document)

Defra carbon emission factors: 0.25 kg CO2/kWh

CO2 from Gas Oil = 10,000 x 10.7 x 0.25 = 26,750 kgCO2e

.or we could have simply used the conversion 2.6008 kg/litres

Diesel used:

300,000 litres

use conversion from litres to CO2e : * 2.21

CO2 from Diesel = 663,000 kgCO2e

Business car travel:

Miles travelled:

140,000 miles

Convert miles into km:

x 1.609344 (could have worked with

miles)

Car engine emission factor:

0.15KgCO2/km

CO2 from vehicle = 140,000 x 1.609344 x 0.150

= 33,800 kgCO2e

Defra factor: 1,300kgCO2e/kg confirmed in the

document 2012 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG

Conversion Factors for Company Reporting seen here:

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/

attachment_data/file/69554/pb13773-ghg-conversion-fac

tors-2012.pdf

CO2e from refrigerants = 300kg x 1,300 = 390,000

kgCO2e

Carbon Source

(% contribution)

CO2 emissions

(tonnes)

Electricity

(45)

4,300

Energy

(43)

Gas

Light Oil

4,180

27

Transport

(7)

Diesel

Business Miles

663.5

34

Refrigerant

(5)

HFC 134a

390

The efficiency of a gas boilers used in previous example is circa 74%. Measures can be

introduced to increase this operating efficiency to 82%. This would cost the company

50,000. What would be the pay back if the cost of gas is 1/therm? (just FYI: 1 Therm =

100,000 BTU = 100 cubic feet or 1 CCF)

22 GWh x .74 = 16.28 GWh (so this must be the energy o/p required

in effect)

If efficiency enhanced to 82%, new gas consumption (purchased)

would be:

New consumption * 0.82 = 16.28 GWh, therefore

New consumption = 16.28GWh/0.82 = 19.85GWh

Note this represents a reduction of 2.15 GWh of Gas use or circa 10%

Note 1 Therm = 29.3KWh (from the same document) (which would

reduce CO2 emissions by 398 tonnes, (calculated from Carbon Trust

conversion: 2150000KWh * 0.185 conversion for gas = 398,850 Kg =

398 tonnes)

2.15GWh = 2150000KWh

Pay back is 50,000/73,358 = 0.68 years or about 8 months

organisation.

CHP

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.u

k/Generating-energy/Choosing-a-ren

ewable-technology/Micro-CHP-microcombined-heat-and-power

GSHP/ASHP

Heat Pumps: Heat from Outside

1: heat given off to home from high pressured gas (e.g.

CFC/HFC/Butane etc) from the compressor

2: gas compressed and expands quickly (Bernoulli's theorem) to

condense into liquid

3: cool liquid extracts heat from air or ground depending on the

source used.

4: warmer liquid compressed to high pressure to transform

liquid into gas.

http://www.waihekeheating.co.nz/HowHeatPumpsWork.php

Heat Sources

http://www.staffordarea.saveyourenergy.org.uk/what/heating/

ashp

http://www.creativeenergies.biz/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2009/07/dsc_0016.jpg

Ground Source

Heat is not

geothermal

energy

It is simply solar

energy stored

in the soil

http://www.filterclean.co.uk/informationpage1geothermal.htm

Here is an improvement

Investigate the feasibility of installing a CHP unit

into the previous example inc the original boiler.

Carbon Source

(% contribution)

CO2 emissions

(tonnes)

Electricity

(45)

4,300

Energy

(43)

Gas

Light Oil

4,180

27

Transport

(7)

Diesel

Business Miles

663.5

34

Refrigerant

(5)

HFC 134a

390

Generate 20 % of the companys electricity using a CHP unit (not to replace the gas

boiler).

The overall efficiency of the CHP is 85% with the Heat : Power ratio 3 : 1

Remember: Electricity used: 10,000 MWh = 4,300,000 kgCO2e

(10GWh)

20 % of production by CHP = 2 GWh Electricity,

& 6 GWh heat (given by heat:power ratio)

Thus a reduction of 6GWh heat needed from old

boiler.

6GW/0.74 = 8.11GWh of energy needed for the

old boiler to give 6GW output.

So 8,110,000KWh * circa 0.19 (conversion

factor)= 1540,000 KgCO2 = 1540 tonnes CO2

reduction when using CHP unit.

(Note 0.74 was efficiency of the original gas

boiler noted in the original question.)

9.41 GWh ( gas supply probably) which

would give 9,410,000KWh x 0.19 = 1788

tonnes CO2

Existing Gas use 22 GWh and light oil 0.107

GWh

Then Carbon emissions are tabulated a 7 %

reduction

Gas

Diesel (heating)

Electricity

CHP

TOTAL

(Tonnes)

CO2 emissions

(tonnes)

Existing Heat

& Power

provision

CO2 emissions

(tonnes)

With

CHP

4180

2640

(4180 1540)

27

27

4300

3440

(0.8 x 4300)

1788

8507

7895

Another Example

Electricity

Electricity used:

10,000 MWh

Defra carbon emission factors:0.537

kgCO2/kWh

CO2e from Electricity = 10,000,000 x

0.537

= 5,370 tonnes CO2e

Gas used: 2,000,000 m3

To convert m3 to kWh:

x 11

Defra carbon emission factors: 0.185 kgCO2/kWh

CO2 from Gas = 2,000,000 x 10.9 x 0.185 =

4,033 tonnes CO2e

Gas Oil used:

10,000 litres

2.674 kg CO2/litre

CO2 from Gas Oil = 26.74 tonnes CO2e

Diesel used: 300,000 litres

2.63 kg CO2/litre

CO2 from Diesel = 789 tonnes CO2

Miles travelled:

140,000 miles

Average petrol car 0.333 kg CO2/mile

CO2 from vehicle = 140,000 x 0.333

Defra factor: 1,300kgCO2e/kg

CO2e from refrigerants = 300kg x 1,300 = 390 tonnes

CO2e

Carbon Source

(% contribution)

CO2 emissions

(tonnes)

Electricity

(51)

5,370

Energy

(38)

Gas

Light Oil

4,033

27

Transport

(8)

Diesel

Business Miles

789

47

Refrigerant

(3)

HFC 134a

390

Improvements

Examples:

Efficient gas boiler

Ground source heat pump

introduced to increase this operating efficiency to 82%. This would cost the

company 50,000. What would be the pay back if the cost of gas is 1/therm?

22 GWh x .74 = 16.28 GWh (so this must be the energy required

in effect)

If efficiency enhanced to 82%, new gas consumption

(purchased) would be:

New consumption * 0.82 = 16.28 GWh, therefore

New consumption = 16.28GWh/0.82 = 19.85GWh

Note this represents a reduction of 2.15 GWh of Gas use or circa

10% which would reduce CO2 emissions by 398 tonnes,

(calculated from Carbon Trust conversion: 2150000KWh * 0.185

conversion for gas = 398,850)

Note 1 Therm = 29.3KWh

2.15GWh = 2150000KWh/29.31 = 73,358 therms,

Gas price @ 1/therm = 73,358

Install a Ground source Heat pump that will provide 25% of the heating

requirement.

The Heat Pump operates with an average coefficient of performance (COP) of 3.

16.28GWh

25% of heating is: 16.28/4 = 4.07

GWh

Electricity to provide this if COP =3 is

4.07/3 = 1.36 GWh

Increased CO2 from additional

electricity is 1,360,000 KWh x

0.537

= 729,000 kgCO2 = 729 tonnes

CO2

Existing Heat

& Power

provision

Gas

Diesel

(heating)

Electricity

TOTAL

(Tonnes)

can be calculated accordingly

which shows a 1% reduction in

Carbon as a result of the Heat

Pump installation

With

Heat Pump

4033

3225

(0.75 x 4033)

27

27

5370

6093

(729 + 5370)

9430

9351

Establish the Carbon footprint of the organisation that has the following annual consumption profile.

Calculate the carbon dioxide emissions in tonnes for electricity, energy, transport and refrigerant.

Electricity: Electricity usage is 10,000 MWh.

Energy: Fuel for energy gas 2,000,000 cubic metre; and light oil 10,000 litres.

Transport: Transport diesel 300,000 litres, and business mileage 140,000 miles.

Refrigerant: Refrigerant (HFC 134a) usage is 300 kg.

Please note: When calculating the carbon dioxide emissions in tonnes for HFC 134a, please use the Department for

Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) conversion factor of 1,300,000 kilogram carbon dioxide emission per

tonne.

Also note the conversion factor for m3 of natural gas to kwh is 11.13

Grid electricity kwh 0.430

Natural gas kwh 0.183

Gas oil litres 3.059

Diesellitres 2.667

Business miles miles 0.336

Solution

(note values a little off as conversions were updated but not the solution)

Electricity used: 10,000 MWh

Defra carbon emission factors:0.430 kgCO2e/kWh

CO2e from Electricity = 10,000,000 x 0.430 = 4,300,000 kgCO2e

Fuel for energy Gas used: 2,000,000 m3

Defra carbon emission factors:0.19 kgCO2/kWh

To convert m3 to kWh: x 11

CO2 from Gas = 2,000,000 x 11 x 0.19 = 4,180,000 kgCO2

CO2 from Gas Oil = 26,750 kgCO2

CO2 from Diesel = 802,500 kgCO2

Miles travelled: 140,000 miles

CO2 from vehicle = 140,000 x 0.150 x 1.609344

= 33,800 kgCO2

Example

HFC 134a used: 300kg

Defra factor: 1,300,000kgCO2e/tonne

CO2e from refrigerants

= 0.3 x 1,300,000 = 390,000 kgCO2e

Solution

Carbon Footprint Summary

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