Presented By Ankita Thapliyal For Professor Nabil Razzouk (Marketing 610: Organizational and Consumer Behavior


What is Inoculation Theory?
‡ It is an explanation for resistance to attitude change ‡ It¶s the process of supplying information to receivers before the communication process takes place in hope that the information would make the receiver more resistant ‡ It is a prevention strategy

Inoculation Theory
‡ Developed by William McGuire ‡ Receive exposure to a brief communication that they can refute, immunize against a full-blown presentation of the argument
± Same exact logic as the immunization programs

‡ The person who is easiest to brainwash is the one who¶s beliefs have never been challenged

How did the theory come into existence?
‡During the Korean war(1950-1952) the American public was introduced with a new concept of ³brainwashing´ ‡Inoculating peoples mind then became the biggest tool to get people to hold a belief more strongly

Three Steps to Effective Inoculation
1. Warn the receiver of the impending attack - the warning plays the key role in the inoculation
process - it activates the existing defenses in the receiver

2. Make a weak attack - it is important that the attack be weak and ineffective 3. Get the receiver to actively defend the attitude

Why Does this Theory work?
‡ Because it causes the brain receivers to engage in central route processing about the attitude job ‡ The more the brain thinks the stronger the attitude becomes ‡ It¶s the weak attack that gets the whole thing started

Inoculation Theory and Marketing
‡ When consumers are inoculated by counter attitudinal arguments realized by ulterior motives of persuasion, their attitudes are strengthened and prepared to counter argue them immediately ‡ When the customers are forced to believe what the company does not want them to, they start believing the opposite and thus, it works for the brand and the company ‡ In a research conducted by Mazis(1977) he concluded that: - a two sided comparative appeal to a brand immunizes the audience against any future attacks from the original compared-to-brand(s)

Framework of successful two-sided Advertisements
1. 2. They generate high levels of attention and motivation With moderate amount of negative info. generated credibility gains are at the optimal level They result in increased positive and cognitive responses and decreased counterarguments thereby, enhancing customers attitudes towards the ad and the brand, and purchase intentions

This is a rental car company advertisement. Just by reading the headline you would want to read more and see what they are talking about? And as we progress and analyze, we realize that how intelligently the advertisement has been put in front of its customers. Here the company has used its drawback as its strength, and it does work for them too.


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inoculation theory was found for the first time
in the article below.

Winnipeg Free Press Saturday, March 09, 1961

‡ Inoculation theory has explanatory and credible power ‡ It provides with credible explanations for the concepts ‡ This theory generates new hypotheses and organizes existing knowledge

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