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EDU 3083 Leadership and

teacher professional
development
Leadership Theories
George Ting
Ting Fang Kai

Trait Theory
developed in the 1920s and 1930s
to identify what traits of effective leaders is.
Stogdill (1974) identified traits of successful leader as:
- Adapt to various situations

Sensitive to the social environment


Ambitious and achievement-oriented
Cooperative
Decision maker
Energetic
Not easily giving up
Self-confidence
Highly resistance to stress
Willing to accept the responsibility

Yukl (1989),three categories of general skills that are relevant to


all managers : interpersonal skills, cognitive skills and
technical skills.
Leadership perspective is changing and growing has led to
greater understanding of the aspects of leadership.

Behavior Theory
focuses on how leaders behave in the process of leadership
(especially against their followers)
can be trained or learned formally and informally.
Theory X and Theory Y by Douglas McGregor (1960)
represent the difference in the way a leader thinks of his staff in
an organization
Theory X: staff motivated by money, lazy and will avoid work unless
forced

Theory Y: staff is hard working, look at the work as a matter of natural


as play or rest, ambitious and have a positive attitude towards work

Grid Management (Managerial Grid) by Blake and Mouton


(1964.1978)
two different dimensions related to leadership concerns
Concern for production - leaders show concern for the task and
employee productivity in order to achieve organizational goals.
Concern for the human - leaders are paying attention and emphasis on
good relations with the workers in the organization.

Impoverished Management Low Results/Low People


results are inevitably disorganization, dissatisfaction and
disharmony.
Produce-or-Perish Management High Results/Low People
manager is autocratic
strict work rules
view punishment as an effective way of motivating team
members
Middle-of-the-Road Management Medium Results/Medium
People
not as effective as it may sound
deliver only mediocre performance

Country Club Management High People/Low Results


"accommodating" style of manager
concerned about her team members' needs and feelings
work environment that is very relaxed and fun, but where
productivity suffers because there is a lack of direction and
control
Team Management High Production/High People
most effective leadership style
leader who is passionate about his work and who does the best
he can for the people he works with.
creates an environment based on trust and respect, which leads
to high satisfaction, motivation and excellent results

Situation theory
Fiedler contingency theory (1967)
- Leaders effectiveness depends on how well the leaders style
fits the context
Assessment based on:
Leadership Styles
Situational Variables
Leadership styles:
1. Task-motivated (Low LPCs)
Leaders are concerned primarily with reaching a goal
2. Relationship-motivated (High LPCs)
Leaders are concerned with developing close interpersonal relationships

Situational variables:
1. Leader-Member Relations
Group atmosphere
Good high degree of subordinate trust, liking, positive relationship
Poor little or no subordinate trust, friction exists, unfriendly

2. Task Structure
3. Position power
the amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers

Strong Power
authority to hire or fire, give raises in rank or pay
Weak Power
no authority to hire or fire, give raises in rank or pay

Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale

Pleasant
Friendly

Unpleasant
Unfriendly

Rejecting

Accepting

Helpful

Unhelpful

Unenthusiastic 1

Enthusiastic

Tense

Relaxed

Distant
Cold
Cooperative
Supportive

1
1
8

2
2
7

3
3
6

4
4
5

5
5
4

6
6
3

7
7
2

8
8
1

Close
Warm
Uncooperative
Unsupportive

Boring

Interesting

Quarrelsome

Harmonious

Self-assured

Hesitant

Efficient

Inefficient

Gloomy

Cheerful

Open

Guarded

If your LPC score Your leadership


is
style probably is
Lower than 58

Task-oriented

58 to 63

Mixed orientation

Higher than 64

People-oriented

Thank You